Defense Intelligence Agency
The Defense Intelligence Agency, an external intelligence service of the United States federal government, specializes in defense and military intelligence. A component of the Department of Defense and the United States Intelligence Community, DIA informs national civilian and defense policymakers about the military intentions and capabilities of foreign governments and non-state actors, it provides intelligence assistance and coordination across uniformed military service intelligence components, which remain structurally separate from DIA. The agency's role encompasses the collection and analysis of military-related foreign political, industrial and medical and health intelligence. DIA produces one-fourth of all intelligence content that goes into the President's Daily Brief. DIA's intelligence operations extend beyond the zones of combat, half of its employees serve overseas at hundreds of locations and in U. S. Embassies in 140 countries; the agency specializes in the collection and analysis of human-source intelligence, both overt and clandestine, while handling U.
S. military-diplomatic relations abroad. DIA concurrently serves as the national manager for the technical measurement and signature intelligence and as the Defense Department manager for counterintelligence programs; the agency has no law-enforcement authority, contrary to occasional portrayals in American popular culture. DIA is a national-level intelligence organization that does not belong to a single military element or within the traditional chain of command, instead answering to the Secretary of Defense directly through the USDI. Three-quarters of the agency's 17,000 employees are career civilians who are experts in various fields of defense and military interest or application. DIA has a tradition of marking unclassified deaths of its employees on the organization's Memorial Wall. Established in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, DIA was involved in U. S. intelligence efforts throughout the Cold War and expanded, both in size and scope, after the September 11 attacks.
Because of the sensitive nature of its work, the spy organization has been embroiled in numerous controversies, including those related to its intelligence-gathering activities, to its role in torture, as well as to attempts to expand its activities on U. S. soil. The Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency is an intelligence officer who, upon nomination by the President and confirmation by the Senate, serves as the nation's highest-ranking military intelligence officer, he or she is the primary intelligence adviser to the Secretary of Defense and answers to the Director of National Intelligence. The Director is the Commander of the Joint Functional Component Command for Intelligence and Reconnaissance, a subordinate command of United States Strategic Command, headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska. Additionally, he or she chairs the Military Intelligence Board, which coordinates activities of the entire defense intelligence community. DIA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. on Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling with major operational activities at the Pentagon at each Unified Combatant Command as well as in more than a hundred U.
S. Embassies around the world where it deploys alongside other government partners and operates the U. S. Defense Attache Offices. Additionally, the agency has staff deployed at the Col. James N. Rowe Building at Rivanna Station in Charlottesville, National Center for Medical Intelligence in Fort Detrick, Maryland and Space Intelligence Center in Huntsville, Russell-Knox Building on Marine Corps Base Quantico, National Center for Credibility Assessment at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, Defense Intelligence Support Center in Reston, Virginia. DIA recently completed the renovation of an Intelligence Community Campus in Bethesda, which will serve as the new location of the National Intelligence University as well as a facility for DIA and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. DIA and the Central Intelligence Agency are distinct organizations with different functions. DIA focuses on national level defense-military topics, while CIA is concentrated on broader, more general intelligence needs of the President and Cabinet.
Additionally, due to DIA's designation as a combat support agency, it has special responsibilities in meeting intelligence requirements for the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Combatant Commanders, both in peace and at war. Although there are misconceptions in the media and public about the DIA–CIA rivalry, the two agencies have a mutually beneficial relationship and division of labor. According to a former senior U. S official who worked with both agencies, "the CIA doesn't want to be looking for surface-to-air missiles in Libya" while it is tasked with evaluating the Syrian opposition. CIA and DIA Operations Officers all go through the same type of clandestine training at an interagency Defense installation under CIA administration, best known in popular culture by its CIA nickname "The Farm". DIA is not a collective of all U. S. military intelligence units and the work it performs is not in lieu of that falling under intelligence components of individual services. Unlike the Russian GRU, which encompasses equivalents of nearly all joint U.
S. military intelligence operations, DIA assists and coordinates the activities of individual service-level intelligence units, but they remain separate entities. As a general rule, DIA handles national-
National Reconnaissance Office
The National Reconnaissance Office is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense. NRO is considered, along with the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, to be one of the "big five" U. S. intelligence agencies. The NRO is headquartered in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, 2 miles south of Washington Dulles International Airport, it designs and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the U. S. federal government, provides satellite intelligence to several government agencies signals intelligence to the NSA, imagery intelligence to the NGA, measurement and signature intelligence to the DIA. The Director of the NRO reports to both the Director of National Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense and serves in an additional capacity as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force; the NRO's federal workforce consists of Air Force, CIA, NGA, NSA, Navy personnel.
A 1996 bipartisan commission report described the NRO as having by far the largest budget of any intelligence agency, "virtually no federal workforce", accomplishing most of its work through "tens of thousands" of defense contractor personnel. The National Reconnaissance Office develops and operates space reconnaissance systems and conducts intelligence-related activities for U. S. national security. It coordinates collection and analysis of information from airplane and satellite reconnaissance by the military services and the Central Intelligence Agency, it is funded through the National Reconnaissance Program, part of the National Intelligence Program. The agency is part of the Department of Defense; the NRO works with its intelligence and space partners, which include the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the United States Strategic Command, Naval Research Laboratory and other agencies and organizations.
It has been proposed that the NRO share imagery of the United States itself with the National Applications Office for domestic law enforcement. The NRO operates ground stations around the world that collect and distribute intelligence gathered from reconnaissance satellites. According to Asia Times Online, one important mission of NRO satellites is the tracking of non-US submarines on patrol or on training missions in the world's oceans and seas; the NRO was established on August 25, 1960, after management problems and insufficient progress with the USAF satellite reconnaissance program. The formation was based on a 25 August 1960 recommendation to President Dwight D. Eisenhower during a special National Security Council meeting, the agency was to coordinate the USAF and CIA's reconnaissance activities; the NRO's first photo reconnaissance satellite program was the Corona program, the existence of, declassified February 24, 1995, which existed from August 1960 to May 1972. The Corona system used film capsules dropped by satellites, which were recovered mid-air by military craft.
The first successful recovery from space occurred on August 12, 1960, the first image from space was seen six days later. The first imaging resolution was 8 meters, improved to 2 meters. Individual images covered, on an area of about 10 by 120 miles; the last Corona mission, was launched May 25, 1972, this mission's last images were taken May 31, 1972. From May 1962 to August 1964, the NRO conducted 12 mapping missions as part of the "Argon" system. Only seven were successful. In 1963, the NRO conducted a mapping mission using higher resolution imagery, as part of the "Lanyard" program; the Lanyard program flew one successful mission. NRO missions since 1972 are classified, portions of many earlier programs remain unavailable to the public; the first press reports on NRO started in 1971. The first official acknowledgement of NRO was a Senate committee report in October 1973, which inadvertently exposed the existence of the NRO. In 1985, a New York Times article revealed details on the operations of the NRO.
The existence of the NRO was declassified on September 18, 1992, by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, as recommended by the Director of Central Intelligence. A Washington Post article in September 1995 reported that the NRO had hoarded between $1 billion and $1.7 billion in unspent funds without informing the Central Intelligence Agency, the Pentagon, or Congress. The CIA was in the midst of an inquiry into the NRO's funding because of complaints that the agency had spent $300 million of hoarded funds from its classified budget to build a new headquarters building in Chantilly, Virginia, a year earlier. In total, NRO had accumulated US$3.8 billion in forward funding. As a consequence, NRO's three distinct accounting systems were merged; the presence of the classified new headquarters was revealed by the Federation of American Scientists who obtained unclassified copies of the blueprints filed with the building permit application. After 9/11 those blueprints were classified; the reports of an NRO slush fund were true.
According to former CIA general counsel Jeffrey Smith, who led the investigation: "Our inquiry revealed that the NRO had for years accumulated substantial amounts as a'rainy day fund.'" In 1999 the NRO embarked on a $25 billion project with
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
The Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U. S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal civilian advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to military intelligence; the Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President and confirmed by the Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. On 16 November 2017, retired Vice Admiral Joseph D. Kernan, a former Navy SEAL, was confirmed as the fifth Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence is principal staff element of the Department of Defense regarding intelligence, counterintelligence, sensitive activities, other intelligence-related matters; as the Secretary of Defense's representative, the USD exercises oversight over, among others, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office and the National Security Agency.
In addition, the Under Secretary is dual-hatted, serving as the Director of Defense Intelligence under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. With the rank of Under Secretary, the USD is a Level III position within the Executive Schedule. Since January 2010, the annual rate of pay for Level III is $165,300; the position of Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence was created by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 in the aftermath of the September 11 terror attacks to better coordinate Department-wide intelligence activities. It became second in the line of succession for the Secretary of Defense, after the Deputy Secretary of Defense, after an executive order was made by President George W. Bush on 22 December 2005; when it was created, the legislation described it as taking precedence in the Department behind the Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness. On 23 November 2005, a Department of Defense Directive was made by Secretary Rumsfeld that stated that the Under Secretary shall serve as the Secretary's primary representative to the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
It stated the Under Secretary shall provide policy and oversight on the training and career development of personnel in Department of Defense's counterterrorism and security components. The Under Secretary has the duty of finding candidates to be nominated to serve as Directors of the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office, the National Security Agency, overseeing their performance; the USD became a dual-hatted position as Director of Defense Intelligence, acting as the primary military intelligence advisor to the DNI. This additional position follows a May 2007 memorandum of agreement between Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Director of National Intelligence John Michael McConnell to create the position. Officials reporting to the USD include: Director for Defense Intelligence Director for Defense Intelligence Director for Defense Intelligence Director for Defense Intelligence Director, Defense Security Service Director, Defense Intelligence Agency Director, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Director, National Security Agency/Central Security Service Director, National Reconnaissance Office The Under Secretary leads the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence.
A unit of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, OUSD exercises planning and strategic oversight over all Department of Defense intelligence, counterintelligence, security matters. OUSD serves as the primary representative of the Defense Department to the Director of National Intelligence and other members of the United States Intelligence Community; the work of OUSD is conducted through its several staff directorates, including: Under the direction of the Deputy Under Secretary for Joint Coalition Warfighter Support Information Operations and Strategic Studies Directorate – Advisor for DoD Cyber, IO integration and IO-enabling strategic activities Warfighter Requirements and Evaluation Directorate – Provides guidance and oversight to sustain the Intelligence Planning process to synchronize and integrate national and Defense Intelligence Enterprise efforts in support of selected combatant command top priority contingency and campaign plans Policy and Doctrine Directorate – Provides oversight and management of Defense Intelligence, Counterintelligence and intelligence-related policy and doctrine, establishes priorities to ensure conformance with Secretary of Defense and Director of National Intelligence guidance Information Sharing and Partner Engagement Directorate – Coordinates all intelligence information sharing and related Warfighter intelligence support issues for the Under Secretary Intelligence and Reconnaissance Directorate – Responsible for operationalizing approved ISR initiatives.
Provides ISR capability with supporting infrastructure for collection and processing, exploitation and dissemination in support of commands engaged in combat operations Under the direction of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Technical Collection and Analysis Analytic Concepts and Strategies Directorate – Stimulates and implements advanced concepts, responsive strategies, cutting-edge analytic tradecraft methodologies and procedures that focus on improving the full spectrum of analysis and maximizing the integration and collaboration between technical analysis and all-source analysis
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and a member of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency until 2003. NGA headquarters known as NGA Campus East, is located at Fort Belvoir North Area in Virginia; the agency operates major facilities in the St. Louis, Missouri area, as well as support and liaison offices worldwide; the NGA headquarters, at 2.3 million square feet, is the third-largest government building in the Washington metropolitan area after The Pentagon and the Ronald Reagan Building. In addition to using GEOINT for U. S. military and intelligence efforts, the NGA provides assistance during natural and man-made disasters, security planning for major events such as the Olympic Games. In September 2018, researchers at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency released a high resolution terrain map of Antarctica, named the "Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica".
U. S. mapping and charting efforts remained unchanged until World War I, when aerial photography became a major contributor to battlefield intelligence. Using stereo viewers, photo-interpreters reviewed thousands of images. Many of these were of the same target at different angles and times, giving rise to what became modern imagery analysis and mapmaking; the Engineer Reproduction Plant was the Army Corps of Engineers's first attempt to centralize mapping production and distribution. It was located on the grounds of the Army War College in Washington, D. C. Topographic mapping had been a function of individual field engineer units using field surveying techniques or copying existing or captured products. In addition, ERP assumed the "supervision and maintenance" of the War Department Map Collection, effective April 1, 1939. With the advent of the Second World War aviation, field surveys began giving way to photogrammetry, photo interpretation, geodesy. During wartime, it became possible to compile maps with minimal field work.
Out of this emerged AMS, which absorbed the existing ERP in May 1942. It was located at the Dalecarlia Site on MacArthur Blvd. just outside Washington, D. C. in Montgomery County and adjacent to the Dalecarlia Reservoir. AMS was designated as an Engineer field activity, effective July 1, 1942, by General Order 22, OCE, June 19, 1942; the Army Map Service combined many of the Army's remaining geographic intelligence organizations and the Engineer Technical Intelligence Division. AMS was redesignated the U. S. Army Topographic Command on September 1, 1968, continued as an independent organization until 1972, when it was merged into the new Defense Mapping Agency and redesignated as the DMA Topographic Center; the agency's credit union, Constellation Federal Credit Union, was chartered during the Army Map Service era, in 1944. It has continued to serve all successive legacy their families. After the war, as airplane capacity and range improved, the need for charts grew; the Army Air Corps established its map unit, renamed ACP in 1943 and was located in St. Louis, Missouri.
ACP was known as the U. S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center from 1952 to 1972. A credit union was chartered for the ACP in 1948, called Aero Chart Credit Union, it was renamed Arsenal Credit Union in 1952, a nod to the St. Louis site's Civil War-era use as an arsenal. Shortly before leaving office in January 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Photographic Interpretation Center, a joint project of the CIA and US DoD. NPIC was a component of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology and its primary function was imagery analysis. NPIC became part of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in 1996. NPIC first identified the Soviet Union's basing of missiles in Cuba in 1962. By exploiting images from U-2 overflights and film from canisters ejected by orbiting Corona s, NPIC analysts developed the information necessary to inform U. S. influence operations during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their analysis garnered worldwide attention when the Kennedy Administration declassified and made public a portion of the images depicting the Soviet missiles on Cuban soil.
The Defense Mapping Agency was created on January 1, 1972, to consolidate all U. S. military mapping activities. DMA's "birth certificate", DoD Directive 5105.40, resulted from a classified Presidential directive, "Organization and Management of the U. S. Foreign Intelligence Community", which directed the consolidation of mapping functions dispersed among the military services. DMA became operational on July 1, 1972, pursuant to General Order 3, DMA. On Oct. 1, 1996, DMA was folded into the National Imagery and Mapping Agency – which became NGA. DMA was first headquartered at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C at Falls Church, Virginia, its civilian workforce was concentrated at production sites in Bethesda, Northern Virginia, St. Louis, Missouri. DMA was formed from the Mapping and Geodesy Division, Defense Intelligence Agency, from various mapping-related organizations of the military services. DMA Hydrographic Center DMAHC was formed in
Defense Security Cooperation Agency
The Defense Security Cooperation Agency, as part of the United States Department of Defense, provides financial and technical assistance, transfer of defense matériel and services to allies, promotes military-to-military contacts. Security Cooperation is founded on a tradition of cooperation between the United States and other sovereign nations with similar values and interests in order to meet common defense goals, it consists of a group of programs authorized by the U. S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, related statutes by which the DoD or commercial contractor provide defense articles and services in furtherance of national policies and objectives. Founded in 1971, the Defense Security Assistance Agency was renamed the Defense Security Cooperation Agency effective October 1, 1998. Foreign military sales and International Military Education and Training are two key programs included within Security Cooperation. IMET is conducted on a grant basis.
FMS can be conducted through direct payments of foreign states or United States Foreign Military Financing. Foreign Military Sales division is the core activity of DSCA, yearly sales are between US$30 and US$40 billion. FMS is a U. S. government to foreign government agreement, DSCA acts as agent for procurement for American defense company and aerospace companies or for DoD stocks. FMS is operated by DoD on a no-profit and no-loss basis. Countries participating in the program pay for defense articles and services at prices which recoup costs incurred by the United States; this includes a fee to cover the cost of administering the program. DSCA has five regional centers, they are: Africa Center for Strategic Studies Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies. Http://www.dsca.mil/
Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering is a senior official of the United States Department of Defense. The USD and the office s/he heads are charged with the development and oversight of DoD technology strategy for the DoD; the post has at various times had the titles Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, or Director of Defense Research and Engineering. The latter title has itself varied between the rank of under secretary and that of assistant secretary. USD is the principal staff advisor for research and engineering matters to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense. In this capacity, USD serves as the Chief Technology Officer for the Department of Defense charged with the development and oversight of DoD technology strategy in concert with the department’s current and future requirements; the goal of USD is to extend the capabilities of current war fighting systems, develop breakthrough capabilities, hedge against an uncertain future through a set of scientific and engineering options and counter strategic surprise.
USD provides advice and assistance in developing policies for rapid technology transition. From 1987 until 1 February 2018, ASD was subordinate to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics. On 1 February 2018, the research and engineering were split into an independent office, with the head position being elevated from an assistant secretary to an under secretary level; the remaining acquisition office became the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment. The current under secretary is Michael D. Griffin, who took office on 15 February 2018, following nomination by President Donald Trump. Organizations included under the USD include the following; as of February 2018, organizational relationships remained to be finalized as the organization was being formed. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Technology Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Technology Investment Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Laboratories and Personnel Assistant Secretary of Defense for Advanced Capabilities Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Mission Engineering and Integration Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Prototyping and Experimentation Defense Technical Information Center Director, Test Resource Management Center Defense Science Board Strategic Intelligence Analysis Cell Missile Defense Agency DARPA Strategic Capabilities Office Defense Innovation Unit-ExperimentalUpon the February 2018 reorganization, the USD assumed responsibility for administering the Small Business Innovation Research and Rapid Innovation Fund programs.
The National Security Act of 1947 and its 1949 amendments established the Department of Defense, including the establishment of two statutory boards: a Munitions Board, a Research and Development Board. In June 1953, President Eisenhower’s Reorganization Plan No. 6 abolished the boards as such, created six new Assistant Secretaries of Defense. Two of these assistant secretary positions—Applications Engineering, Research and Development—were combined in March 1957 to become the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering. Under the DoD Reorganization Act of 1958, the position of ASD was abolished and replaced by a Director of Defense Research and Engineering. From 19 May 1961, until 15 July 1965, a Deputy Director of Defense Research and Engineering held the additional title of ASD, on the theory that this position reported to, in rank, an under secretary—the DDR&E. On 21 October 1977, PL 95-140 made the rank of the DDR&E unambiguous by renaming it to the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
The history of Department of Defense management of science and technology up to the 1980s is described at greater length in a report available from the Defense Technical Information Center. The Military Retirement Reform Act of 1986 expanded the scope of USD position to encompass acquisition and logistics, as well as technology, it was renamed USD. A subordinate position at the assistant secretary level was reestablished with the previous title DDR&E. However, budget control of the technology portfolio was kept by USD, diminishing the importance of the DDR&E position subsequently. On 7 January 2011, President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act with several redesignated titles within the Department of Defense; these changes included renaming the DDR&E as, once again, ASD. On 1 February 2018, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics was split into two new offices: the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, as a result of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.
The table below includes both the various names which this position has been named over time, as well as all the holders of those various offices. Official website