Curtis Michael "Mike" Scaparrotti is a four-star general in the United States Army, the current Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO Allied Command Operations. Scaparrotti is the commander of the United States European Command, he succeeded General Philip M. Breedlove on May 3, 2016 at EUCOM and on May 4 as SACEUR. Scaparrotti served as the Director of the Joint Staff. Prior to his tour with the Joint Staff, General Scaparrotti served as Commander, International Security Assistance Force Joint Command and Deputy Commander, U. S. Forces – Syria war the Commanding General of I Corps and Joint Base Lewis-McChord, the Commanding General of the 82nd Airborne Division. In addition, Scaparrotti has served in key leadership positions at the tactical and strategic level of the United States military to include Director of Operations, United States Central Command and as the 69th Commandant of Cadets at the United States Military Academy, he has commanded forces during Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, Support Hope, Joint Endeavour, Assured Response.
In 1978, he graduated from the United States Military Academy at New York. His military education includes the Infantry Officer Basic and Advanced Courses and General Staff College, the United States Army War College, he holds a Master's Degree in Administrative Education from the University of South Carolina. His initial duty assignments were as a rifle and anti-tank platoon leader, operations officer and company commander in 3rd Battalion, 325th Infantry, 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. In 1984, Scaparrotti completed the infantry officer advanced course at Fort Benning, followed by studies in Administrative Education at the University of South Carolina, where he earned his Master of Education degree, he returned to West Point in 1985 where he was assigned as a tactical officer and the superintendent's aide-de-camp until 1988. After his assignment here, he continued his military studies at the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. By July 1989, Scaparrotti went on to serve with the 10th Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York, where he was the operations officer for 1st Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment and moved to division headquarters as the chief of the operations branch.
From 1992 to 1994, he worked in Washington, D. C. at the Army Total Personnel Command and the Army Chief of Staff's office. In May 1994, Scaparrotti took command of 3rd Battalion, 325th Airborne Combat Team, Southern European Task Force in Vicenza, in that time he commanded the battalion during Operations Support Hope in Zaire/Rwanda, Joint Endeavor in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Assured Response in Liberia. Scaparrotti returned to Fort Drum in 1996 as the 10th Mountain Division's operations officer and from there he continued his studies at the U. S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa, he served as the chief of Army Initiatives Group in the Deputy Chief of Staff's Office for Plans and Operations in Washington, D. C. in 1998. By 1999, Scaparrotti returned to Fort Bragg to command the 2nd Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division before he moved on to serve as the assistant deputy director for Joint Operations on the Joint Staff, Washington, D. C. from 2001 to 2003. From July 2003 to July 2004, Scaparrotti served as the Assistant Division Commander for the 1st Armored Division during the Iraq War.
From August 2004 to July 2006, Scaparrotti served as the 69th Commandant of Cadets, United States Military Academy, at West Point, New York. Thereafter, he was assigned as the Director of Operations for United States Central Command, providing oversight to all military operations throughout the CENTCOM Area of Responsibility, including Iraq and Afghanistan, including operations in Somalia, at a critical phase in those missions. Scaparrotti assumed command of the 82nd Airborne Division on October 1, 2008 and deployed the headquarters to Eastern Afghanistan where he served as the Commanding General Combined Joint Task Force 82 and Regional Command East. On October 15, 2010 Scaparrotti assumed command of I Corps and Joint Base Lewis McChord at Fort Lewis, Washington. While serving as I Corps commander, Scaparrotti served concurrently as Commander, International Security Assistance Force Joint Command and Deputy Commander, U. S. Forces – Afghanistan from July 11, 2011 to June 12, 2012. In July 2012, Scaparrotti took over as Director of the Joint Staff.
He was succeeded as I Corps commander by Lieutenant General Robert B. Brown on July 3, 2012. In August 2013, Scaparrotti took over command of U. S. forces in South Korea. In April 2016, he was succeeded as USFK Commander by GEN Vincent K. Brooks, his awards and decorations include: In May 2018, Scaparrotti was awarded the Distinguished Military Leadership Award of the Atlantic Council
Jonathan Trumbull Howe is a retired four-star United States Navy Admiral, was the Special Representative for Somalia to United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali from March 9, 1993, succeeding Ismat Kittani from Iraq, until his resignation in February 1994. During his time in Somalia he oversaw UNOSOM II operations including the'Bloody Monday' attack labelled a massacre of civilians by witnesses. Howe was the former Deputy National Security Advisor in the first Bush Administration, he is Executive Director of The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. Howe is a 1957 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, earned M. A. M. A. L. D. and Ph. D. degrees from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University from 1968–1969. He retired from the United States Navy in 1992. Howe's Naval commands include the USS Berkeley, Destroyer Squadron 31, Cruiser-Destroyer Group Three, his other assignments include Military Assistant to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs, Chief of Staff of the Seventh Fleet in Yokosuka, Senior Military Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1981 to 1982, Director of the State Department's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs from 1982 to 1984, Deputy Chairman, NATO Military Committee, Belgium, Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
From May 1989 he served as Commander in Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe and Commander, U. S. Naval Forces Europe. Following that assignment, he was named Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs by President George H. W. Bush in 1991, succeeding Robert M. Gates when he moved on to become CIA director. During his time as Deputy Assistant he was directly involved in the pursuit of President Manuel Noriega of Panama. In 1992, Howe was selected by the Clinton Administration to head UNOSOM II - the UN operation in Somalia which took over from the US in May in what was described by one American official as "the miscasting of the century." In this capacity he came under criticism for hiding away from the action in his fortified bunker, for his pursuit of Somali military leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid, called a "personal vendetta."On July 12, 1993, Howe oversaw the event Somalis call Bloody Monday. According to American war correspondent Scott Peterson a group of Somali elders had gathered at a house to discuss a way to make peace to end the violence between Somali militias and the UN forces.
The gathering had been publicized in Somali newspapers the day before the attack as a peace gathering. After being tipped off by an undercover operative, American Cobra attack helicopters launched TOW Missiles and 20 mm caliber cannon fire at the structure. According to a Somali survivor, American ground troops killed 15 survivors at close range with pistols, a charge American commanders deny. According to the International Committee of the Red Cross there were over 200 Somali casualties. Four Western journalists were killed at the scene by Somalis following the attacks. Admiral Howe claimed that the mission took out a "very key terrorist planning cell" and that no civilians were killed, he stated "we knew. It was well planned." The event is considered a turning point in the war as Somalis turned from wanting peace to wanting revenge leading to the Black Hawk Incident. Human Rights Watch declared that the attack "looked like mass murder." He is author of the 1971 book Multicrises: Global Politics in the Missile Age.
Admiral Howe is married to Dr. Harriet Mangrum Howe. Mangrum, was a U. S. Marine Corps general and served as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and his father, Hamilton W. Howe, was a Navy Admiral, she was an Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of North Florida. They have six grown children, reside in Florida. On January 13, 1993, after retirement, he received the National Security Medal. Navy Surface Warfare Officer insignia Silver SSBN Deterrent Patrol insignia with six gold stars Defense Distinguished Service Medal with one silver oak leaf cluster Navy Distinguished Service Medal with one gold award star Defense Superior Service Medal Legion of Merit with two award stars National Security Medal National Defense Service Medal with two bronze service stars Navy Sea Service Deployment Ribbon with service star Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon Interview with Admiral Howe about Somalia
Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr. is a retired United States Navy admiral who served as the seventh Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 2005 to 2007. He retired after 37 years of service. Giambastiani was born on May 1948 in Canastota, New York, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy with leadership distinction in 1970. Giambastiani's operational assignments included several in which he was responsible for both demanding at-sea operations and the development of new technologies and experimental processes. Early sea assignments included the USS Francis Scott Key's blue crew. While assigned to USS Puffer, he was a 1973 winner of the Fleet Commander's Junior Officer Submarine Shiphandling Competition, he commanded the NR-1 Deep Submergence Craft, the Navy's only nuclear powered deep diving ocean engineering and research submarine and USS Richard B. Russell, where the crew was awarded three consecutive Battle Efficiency "E"s, three Navy Unit Commendations, two Fleet Commander Silver Anchors for excellence in enlisted retention.
Giambastiani led Submarine Development Squadron Twelve, an operational submarine squadron that serves as the Navy's Warfare Center of Excellence for submarine doctrine and tactics. Established in 1949, Submarine Development Squadron Twelve is the oldest experimental unit of its kind in the U. S. military. He served as the first director of strategy and concepts at the Naval Doctrine Command, as well as Commander, Atlantic Fleet Submarine Force. Giambastiani's other shore and staff assignments include duties as an enlisted program manager at the Navy Recruiting Command Headquarters, Washington, D. C. in the early days of the all volunteer force. As a flag officer, he served as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Resources, Warfare Requirements and Assessments for the Commander, United States Pacific Fleet, his previous assignment was as NATO's first Supreme Allied Commander Transformation and as Combatant Commander of United States Joint Forces Command, where he led the transformation of NATO and U.
S. military forces and doctrines and the introduction of new technologies, from October 2, 2002 to August 1, 2005. In 2003, in his capacity as Commander, United States Joint Forces Command, Giambastiani published a "lessons learned" report. While praising U. S. performance it highlighted numerous incidents of friendly fire. On August 12, 2005, Giambastiani was sworn in as the seventh Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, becoming the third naval officer to hold that position; as Vice Chairman, Giambastiani chaired the Joint Requirements Oversight Council, co-chaired the Defense Acquisition Board, served as a member of the National Security Council Deputies Committee, the Nuclear Weapons Council and the Missile Defense Executive Board. In addition, he worked with the Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England as Co-Chair of the Deputies Advisory Working Group, which oversees implementation of the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and other high level Departmental business issues. On May 4–6, 2007, Giambastiani visited Tunisia, meeting with high-ranking military and civilian officials, including his Tunisian counterparts and Tunisian Foreign Minister Abdelwaheb Abdallah and Defense Minister Kamel Morjane.
He went to the North Africa American Cemetery and Memorial on the outskirts of Tunis to pay his respects to fallen U. S. soldiers who had died there during the Tunisia campaign of World War II. On June 1, 2007, Giambastiani announced his retirement from the military to spend more time with his family and pursue other ventures, he retired on July 27, 2007. Giambastiani's personal interests include amateur radio, for which he uses the call sign N4OC, he currently serves as a guiding coalition member of the Project on National Security Reform. He serves on the Advisory Board of Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory and the Board of Trustees of the Mitre Corporation. On October 8, 2009, airplane maker Boeing Co. announced that Giambastiani had been elected to its board of directors, effective immediately. The Seattle Times reported that "In a statement, Boeing chairman and chief executive Jim McNerney indicated that the addition of Giambastiani, the second-highest ranking officer in the U.
S. military, is intended to boost Boeing's influence with the Pentagon." Submarine Warfare insignia Deep Submergence insignia Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification BadgeHis decorations include numerous personal and unit decorations and ribbons including: "Official JCS biography". Archived from the original on 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2005-08-15. "Governor General announces awarding of Meritorious Service Decorations". Governor General of Canada. 2006-01-24. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2006-09-30. Appearances on C-SPAN
Timothy J. Keating
Timothy J. Keating is a retired United States Navy admiral. During his career, he served as commander of Carrier Group Five, the U. S. 5th Fleet, the U. S. Northern Command and NORAD, U. S. Pacific Command, he retired in 2009 after over 38 years of service. He was the first Navy officer to head Northern Command and NORAD. Keating was born on November 16, 1948 in Dayton, Ohio, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1971. Following duty aboard USS Leonard F. Mason in the western Pacific, he completed flight training in August 1973 and was designated as a Naval Aviator, he served in Attack Squadron 82, flying the A-7 Corsair II, deploying twice to the Mediterranean Sea aboard USS Nimitz. In September 1978, he joined Attack Squadron 122 at NAS Lemoore and served with Carrier Air Wing FIFTEEN as Staff Landing Signal Officer, embarking aboard USS Kitty Hawk and deploying to the Western Pacific/Indian Ocean. From May 1982 to July 1984, as Administrative Officer, Operations Officer and Maintenance Officer of Attack Squadron 94, he deployed twice to the Western Pacific aboard USS Enterprise.
His next assignment was Aide and Flag Lieutenant to the Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Command. In May 1987, after having transitioned to the F/A-18 Hornet and serving as squadron executive officer, Keating assumed command of Strike Fighter Squadron 87 and deployed with Carrier Air Wing EIGHT aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt to the North Atlantic and to the Mediterranean. After his tour with VFA-87, he served as Head of the Aviation Junior Officer Assignments Branch of the Naval Military Personnel Command in Washington, D. C.. He next served as Deputy Commander, Carrier Air Wing SEVENTEEN in January 1991, participating in combat operations in support of Operation Desert Storm from USS Saratoga. Keating became a Chief of Naval Operations Fellow with the Strategic Studies Group in Newport, Rhode Island. Following duty with the Joint Task Force Southwest Asia in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, he deployed as Deputy Commander, Carrier Air Wing NINE aboard USS Nimitz to the Persian Gulf, assuming command of CVW-9 in July 1993.
In November 1994, Admiral Keating became Commander of the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center at NAS Fallon, Nevada. Admiral Keating returned to the Naval Military Personnel Command in September 1995 as Director, Aviation Officer Distribution Division, he served as the Deputy Director for Operations, with the Operations Directorate of the Joint Staff in Washington, D. C. from August 1996 until June 1998. He assumed command of Carrier Group Five, home ported in Yokosuka, Japan, in June 1998, embarking aboard both USS Independence and USS Kitty Hawk. In September 2000, Admiral Keating reported to OPNAV in Washington as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Plans and Operations. In February 2002, he assumed command of U. S. Naval Forces Central Command and U. S. Fifth Fleet in Manama, Bahrain. From October 13, 2003 to October 21, 2004, Admiral Keating served as Joint Staff. Admiral Keating commanded of U. S. Northern Command and the North American Aerospace Defense Command from 5 November 2004 to 23 March 2007.
Keating became Commander, U. S. Pacific Command on 26 March 2007, he served as ComPac until 19 October 2009, just before his retirement. His awards include: He has over 5,000 flight hours and 1,200 arrested landings. United States Pacific Command
James L. Jones
James Logan Jones Jr. is a retired United States Marine Corps general and a former United States National Security Advisor. During his military career, he served as the 32nd Commandant of the Marine Corps from July 1999 to January 2003, Commander, United States European Command and Supreme Allied Commander Europe from 2003 to 2006. Jones retired from the Marine Corps on February 2007, after 40 years of service. After retiring from the Marine Corps, Jones remained involved in national security and foreign policy issues. In 2007, Jones served as chairman of the Congressional Independent Commission on the Security Forces of Iraq, which investigated the capabilities of the Iraqi police and armed forces. In November 2007, he was appointed by the U. S. Secretary of State as special envoy for Middle East security, he served as chairman of the Atlantic Council from June 2007 to January 2009, when he assumed the post of National Security Advisor which he held until November 2010. Jones was born in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 19, 1943.
He is the son of Charlotte Ann and James L. Jones Sr. a decorated Marine in World War II, an officer in the Observer Group and the commanding officer of its successor, the Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion. Having spent his formative years in France, where he attended the American School of Paris, he returned to the United States, graduating from Groveton High School in Fairfax County, Virginia attended Georgetown University Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, from which he received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1966. Jones, six feet four inches tall, played forward on the Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team. In January 1967, Jones was commissioned a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps. Upon completion of The Basic School at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, in October 1967, he was ordered to South Vietnam, where he served as a platoon and company commander with Golf Company, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marines. While overseas, he was promoted to first lieutenant in June 1968.
Returning to the United States in December 1968, Jones was assigned to Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, where he served as a company commander until May 1970. He received orders to Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. for duties as a company commander, serving in this assignment until July 1973. While at this post, he was promoted to captain in December 1970. From July 1973 until June 1974, he was a student at the Amphibious Warfare School, Marine Corps University, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. In November 1974, Jones received orders to report to the 3rd Marine Division at Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, Japan, where he served as the commander of Company H, 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines, until December 1975. From January 1976 to August 1979, Jones served in the Officer Assignments Section at Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington, D. C. During this assignment, he was promoted to major in July 1977. Remaining in Washington, his next assignment was as the Marine Corps liaison officer to the United States Senate, where he served until July 1984.
In this assignment, his first commander was John McCain a United States Navy captain. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in September 1982. Jones was selected to attend the National War College in Washington, D. C. Following graduation in June 1985, he was assigned to command the 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines, 1st Marine Division, at Camp Pendleton, from July 1985 to July 1987. In August 1987, Jones returned to Headquarters Marine Corps, where he served as senior aide to the Commandant of the Marine Corps, he was promoted to colonel in April 1988, became the Military Secretary to the Commandant of the Marine Corps in February 1989. During August 1990, Jones was assigned as the commanding officer of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. During his tour with the 24th MEU, Jones participated in Operation Provide Comfort in Northern Iraq and Turkey, he was advanced to brigadier general on April 23, 1992. Jones was assigned to duties as deputy director, J-3, United States European Command in Stuttgart, Germany, on July 15, 1992.
During this tour of duty, he was reassigned as chief of staff, Joint Task Force Provide Promise, for operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia. Returning to the United States, Jones was advanced to the rank of major general in July 1994 and was assigned as commanding general, 2nd Marine Division, Marine Forces Atlantic, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Jones next served as director, Expeditionary Warfare Division, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, during 1996 as the deputy chief of staff for plans and operations, Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington, D. C, he was advanced to lieutenant general on July 18, 1996. His next assignment was as the military assistant to the Secretary of Defense. On April 21, 1999, Jones was nominated for appointment to the grade of general and assignment as the 32nd Commandant of the Marine Corps, he was promoted to general on June 30, 1999, assumed the post on July 1, 1999. He served as commandant until January 2003. Among other innovations during his tenure as Marine Corps commandant, Jones oversaw the Marine Corps' development of MARPAT camouflage uniforms, the adoption of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program.
These replaced the LINE combat system, respectively. Jones assumed duties as the commander of United States European Command on January 16, 2003, Supreme Allied Commander Europe the following day, he was the first Marine Corps general to serve as SACEUR/EUCOM commander. The Marine Corps had only begun to take on a larger share of
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
John Malchase David Shalikashvili was a United States Army general who served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe from 1992 to 1993 and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1993 to 1997. He was born in Warsaw, Poland, in the family of émigré Georgian officer Dimitri Shalikashvili and his Polish wife Maria Rüdiger-Belyaeva. In 1996, he was the first recipient of the Naval War College Distinguished Graduate Leadership Award. Shalikashvili was the first foreign-born man to become Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he served in every level of unit command from platoon to division. Shalikashvili died of a stroke in 2011 at the age of 75. Shalikashvili was a scion of the medieval Georgian noble house of Shalikashvili, his father, Prince Dimitri Shalikashvili, born in Gurjaani, served in the army of Imperial Russia. Shalikashvili's mother was Countess Maria Rüdiger-Beliaev. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Dimitri became a lieutenant colonel in the army of the Democratic Republic of Georgia; when the Soviet Union invaded and occupied Georgia in 1921, Dimitri was on diplomatic service in Turkey.
Dimitri joined other Georgian exiles in Poland, where he met and married John's mother, Maria. They had three children: Othar and Gale. Dimitri served in the Polish Army as a contract officer. In 1939, Shalikashvili senior fought against the German invasion of Poland. After the Polish defeat, Dimitri was demobilized. In 1941, he enlisted in the Georgian Legion, a force of ethnic Georgians recruited by Germany to fight against the Soviet Union; the unit was incorporated into the SS-Waffengruppe Georgien and transferred to Normandy. Dimitri was a prisoner of war until after the war. A collection of Dimitri Shalikashvili's writings are on deposit at the Hoover Institution. Meanwhile, Maria and his two brothers lived through the destruction of Warsaw; as the Red Army approached Warsaw in 1944, the family fled to Pappenheim, being reunited with Dimitri along the way. It was in Pappenheim in the closing days of World War II that John first laid eyes on American soldiers, his family stayed with relatives there in Pappenheim for eight years.
In 1952, when Shalikashvili was 16, the family emigrated to Illinois. They were sponsored by Winifred Luthy, the wife of a local banker, married to Dimitri's cousin; the Luthys and the Episcopal Church helped the Shalikashvili family get started, finding jobs and a home for them. Dimitri worked for Ameren, Maria was a file clerk at Commercial National Bank; when Shalikashvili arrived in Peoria he spoke little English: I spoke a little bit. But not much beyond yes and no and what time is it, and the stories that subsequently have been told that I learned English by watching John Wayne movies is only a little bit of a stretch... As school was over, I would run to the local movie theater. There I would sit through movies. In those days movies didn't start at a specific time and end at a specific time, but they would roll continuously... The first time through it wouldn't make much sense to me, but the second time through, it would begin to make a little more sense. Now in my memory, very faulty, a lot of those movies were John Wayne movies or at least were Wild West movies.
Shalikashvili went to Peoria High School. He attended Bradley University in Peoria and received a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering in 1958, he was a member of Theta Chi Fraternity. In 1970, Shalikashvili received a master's degree in international affairs from the George Washington University's School of International Affairs. In May 1958, Shalikashvili and his family became American citizens, it was the first nationality he held. He had been classified as stateless because he had been born to parents, refugees. After graduation Shalikashvili had planned to work for Hyster Lift Truck, but received a draft notice in July 1958, he entered the United States Army as a private, enjoyed it, applied to Officer Candidate School. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1959. Shalikashvili served in various Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery positions as a platoon leader, forward observer and student, in various staff positions, as a battery commander, he served in the Vietnam War in Quang Tri Province with Advisory Team 4, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, as a senior district advisor from 1968 to 1969.
He was awarded a Bronze Star Medal with "V" for heroism during his Vietnam tour. After his Vietnam service, he attended the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. In 1970, Shalikashvili became executive officer of the 2nd Battalion, 18th Field Artillery at Fort Lewis, Washington. In 1975, he commanded the 1st Battalion, 84th Field Artillery, 9th Infantry Division at Fort Lewis. In 1977, he attended the U. S. Army War College and served as the Commander of Division Artillery for the 1st Armored Division in Germany, he became the assistant division commander. In 1987, Shalikashvili commanded the 9th Infantry Division at Fort Lewis. There he oversaw a "high technology test bed" tasked to integrate three brigades—one heavy armor, one light infantry, one "experimental mechanized"—into a new type of fighting force. Shalikashvili achieved real distinctio