The Pentagon, in Arlington County, across the Potomac River from Washington, D. C. is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense. As a symbol of the U. S. military, the phrase The Pentagon is used as a metonym for the Department of Defense and its leadership. The building was designed by American architect George Bergstrom and built by contractor John McShain. Ground was broken on September 11, 1941, the building was dedicated on January 15, 1943. General Brehon Somervell provided the major motivating power behind the project. S. Army; the Pentagon is the world's largest office building, with about 6,500,000 sq ft of space, of which 3,700,000 sq ft are used as offices. Some 23,000 military and civilian employees, another 3,000 non-defense support personnel, work in the Pentagon, it has five sides, five floors above ground, two basement levels, five ring corridors per floor with a total of 17.5 mi of corridors. The central five-acre pentagonal plaza is nicknamed "ground zero" on the presumption that it would be a prime target in a nuclear war.
On September 11, 2001 60 years after the building's construction began, American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked and flown into the western side of the building, killing 189 people, according to the 9/11 Commission Report. It was the first significant foreign attack on Washington's governmental facilities since the city was burned by the British during the War of 1812; the Pentagon is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a National Historic Landmark. The Pentagon building spans 28.7 acres, includes an additional 5.1 acres as a central courtyard. Starting with the north side and moving clockwise, its five façades are the Mall Terrace Entrance façade, the River Terrace Entrance façade, the Concourse Entrance façade, the South Parking Entrance façade, the Heliport façade. On the north side of the building, the Mall Entrance, which features a portico, leads out to a 600 ft long terrace, used for ceremonies; the River Entrance, which features a portico projecting out 20 ft, is on the northeast side, overlooking the lagoon and facing Washington.
A stepped terrace on the River Entrance leads down to the lagoon. The main entrance for visitors is on the southeast side, as are the Pentagon Metro station and the bus station. There is a concourse on the southeast side of the second floor of the building, which contains a mini-shopping mall; the south parking lot adjoins the southwest facade, the west side of the Pentagon faces Washington Boulevard. The concentric rings are designated from the center out as "A" through "E". "E" Ring offices are the only ones with outside views and are occupied by senior officials. Office numbers go clockwise around each of the rings, have two parts: a nearest-corridor number followed by a bay number, so office numbers range from 100 to 1099; these corridors radiate out from the central courtyard, with corridor 1 beginning with the Concourse's south end. Each numbered radial corridor intersects with the corresponding numbered group of offices. There are a number of historical displays in the building in the "A" and "E" rings.
Floors in the Pentagon are lettered "B" for Basement and "M" for Mezzanine, both of which are below ground level. The concourse is on the second floor at the Metro entrance. Above ground floors are numbered 1 to 5. Room numbers are given as the floor, concentric ring, office number. Thus, office 2B315 is on the second floor, B ring, nearest to corridor 3. One way to get to this office would be to go to the second floor, get to the A ring, go to and take corridor 3, turn left on ring B to get to bay 15, it is possible for a person to walk between any two points in the Pentagon in less than seven minutes. The complex includes eating and exercise facilities, meditation and prayer rooms. Tours for the public were suspended after the 2001 attack. Just south of the Pentagon are Pentagon City and Crystal City, extensive shopping and high-density residential districts in Arlington. Arlington National Cemetery is to the north; the Pentagon is surrounded by the complex Pentagon road network. The Pentagon has six Washington, DC ZIP Codes.
The Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the four service branches each have their own ZIP Code. Before the Pentagon was built, the United States Department of War was headquartered in the Munitions Building, a temporary structure erected during World War I along Constitution Avenue on the National Mall; the War Department, a civilian agency created to administer the U. S. Army, was spread out in additional temporary buildings on the National Mall, as well as dozens of other buildings in Washington, D. C. Maryland and Virginia. In the late 1930s, a new War Department Building was constructed at 21st and C Streets in Foggy Bottom but, upon completion, the new building did not solve the department's space problem and ended up being used by the Department of State; when World War II broke out in Europe, the War Department expanded in anticipation that the United States would be drawn into the conflict. Secretary of War H
Patrick M. Shanahan
Patrick Michael Shanahan is an American government official serving as acting United States Secretary of Defense since 2019. President Donald Trump appointed Shanahan to the role after the resignation of Retired General James N. Mattis. Shanahan served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 2017 to 2019, he spent 30 years at Boeing in a variety of roles. Shanahan was born in Palo Alto, California on June 27, 1962 and grew up in Seattle, where he graduated from Bishop Blanchet High School in 1980, he attended the University of Washington where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering. He earned a Master of Science degree in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a Master of Business Administration from the MIT Sloan School of Management. Shanahan joined Boeing in 1986, becoming involved in the Boeing 777 program. Over the course of his career, he held management roles with respect to the Boeing Missile Defense Systems, as well as 737, 747, 767, 777, 787 commercial airline programs.
He played a role spearheading the recovery of Boeing's 787 program, was known there as "Mr. Fix-it" from as early as 2008. Shanahan served Boeing Commercial Airplanes as vice president and general manager of the Boeing 757 program, with responsibility for the design and profitability of the 757 family of planes, he held leadership positions on the Boeing 767 program and in the fabrication division. Shanahan served as vice president and general manager for Boeing Rotorcraft Systems in Philadelphia, he was responsible for all U. S. Army Aviation programs and site activities in Philadelphia and Mesa, Arizona. Programs at these facilities included the V-22 Osprey, CH-47 Chinook, the AH-64D Apache. Shanahan served as vice president and general manager of Boeing Missile Defense Systems, starting in December 2004 overseeing the Ground-based Midcourse Defense system, Airborne Laser and Advanced Tactical Laser programs, he served as vice president and general manager of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner program, where he led the program during a period of the aircraft's development from 2007 to 2008.
He next served as senior vice president of Airplane Programs at Boeing Commercial Airplanes, beginning in December 2008. In April 2016, he became Supply Chain & Operations, for Boeing, his responsibilities in that position included manufacturing operations and supplier management functions, carrying out advanced manufacturing technologies, global supply chain strategies. Shanahan was a member of the Boeing Executive Council. On March 16, 2017, President Trump announced his intent to nominate Shanahan as the 33rd Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Pentagon's second-highest civilian position. Trump nominated Shanahan to lead plans to increase the size of the military. Shanahan's Senate confirmation hearing took place on June 20, 2017. During the hearing, Senator John McCain, a proponent of providing arms to Ukraine, threatened to block Shanahan's nomination over his response in a written statement about whether or not the U. S. should provide such weapons to Ukraine. Shanahan said he did not have access to classified military information in order to make a decision on the matter.
Robert O. Work, the Deputy Secretary of Defense at the end of the Obama administration, remained in the position until Shanahan's confirmation. Shanahan was confirmed by the United States Senate with a vote of 92–7 on July 18, 2017, became the 33rd Deputy Secretary of Defense on July 19, 2017. President Trump announced that Shanahan would be elevated on February 28 to Acting Defense Secretary, when the Mattis resignation was to become effective, but a follow-up Trump Twitter announcement on December 23 stated that Shanahan would be elevated two months prior to the resignation date announced by Mattis. Trump accelerated Mattis’s departure date after becoming angered by the media coverage of his resignation letter, due to language in Mattis’ resignation letter which criticized Trump's worldview. Shanahan assumed the office on January 1, 2019. Shanahan made an unannounced trip to Afghanistan on February 11, meeting with President Ashraf Ghani, the country's chief executive Abdullah Abdullah, defense minister Asadullah Khalid during the first few hours of his trip.
Shanahan visited the US-Mexico Border Saturday, February 23, 2019 with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff USMC General Joseph Dunford and Commander of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Lt. Gen. Todd T. Semonite for joint assessments with Border Patrol, DHS, others. In late March 2019, news sources reported that Shanahan was under investigation by the Pentagon's Office of Inspector General because of allegations he improperly advocated on behalf of his former employer, Boeing Co. Current positions Fellow, Royal Aeronautical Society Fellow, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2004 Associate Fellow, American Institute of Aeronautics and AstronauticsFormer positions Secretary and Treasurer, American Helicopter Society International Board of Directors Chair of Board of Regents at University of Washington Regent, University of Washington 2012–2017 Board of directors, American Parkinson Disease Association Member, Washington Roundtable David L. Norquist John Rood Joseph Kernan Owen West Randall Schriver Kenneth Rapuano Kathryn L. Wheelbarger Michael Patrick Mulroy Robert Karem Thomas Goffus Appearances on C-SPAN
Director of the National Security Agency
The Director of the National Security Agency is the highest-ranking official of the National Security Agency, a Defense Agency within the U. S. Department of Defense; the Director of the NSA concurrently serves as Chief of the Central Security Service and as Commander of U. S. Cyber Command; as DIRNSA/CHCSS the officeholder reports through the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, as CDRUSCYBERCOM, to the Secretary of Defense. According to 10 U. S. C. § 201 of the United States Code, the Director of the NSA is recommended by the Secretary of Defense and nominated for appointment by the President. The nominee must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. In accordance with Department of Defense Directive 5100.20, dated 23 December 1971, the Director of the NSA must always be a commissioned officer of the military services. Because the assignment is part of a tri-hatted position, the Director of the NSA is appointed to the grade of a four-star general or admiral during the period of his incumbency.
The Deputy Director is always a technically experienced civilian. The Armed Forces Security Agency was the predecessor to the National Security Agency and existed from 1949 to 1952. List of former NSA directors
Defense Security Cooperation Agency
The Defense Security Cooperation Agency, as part of the United States Department of Defense, provides financial and technical assistance, transfer of defense matériel and services to allies, promotes military-to-military contacts. Security Cooperation is founded on a tradition of cooperation between the United States and other sovereign nations with similar values and interests in order to meet common defense goals, it consists of a group of programs authorized by the U. S. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, related statutes by which the DoD or commercial contractor provide defense articles and services in furtherance of national policies and objectives. Founded in 1971, the Defense Security Assistance Agency was renamed the Defense Security Cooperation Agency effective October 1, 1998. Foreign military sales and International Military Education and Training are two key programs included within Security Cooperation. IMET is conducted on a grant basis.
FMS can be conducted through direct payments of foreign states or United States Foreign Military Financing. Foreign Military Sales division is the core activity of DSCA, yearly sales are between US$30 and US$40 billion. FMS is a U. S. government to foreign government agreement, DSCA acts as agent for procurement for American defense company and aerospace companies or for DoD stocks. FMS is operated by DoD on a no-profit and no-loss basis. Countries participating in the program pay for defense articles and services at prices which recoup costs incurred by the United States; this includes a fee to cover the cost of administering the program. DSCA has five regional centers, they are: Africa Center for Strategic Studies Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies. Http://www.dsca.mil/
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency, the agency was created in February 1958 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in response to the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1 in 1957. By collaborating with academic and government partners, DARPA formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science beyond immediate U. S. military requirements. DARPA-funded projects have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as computer networking and the basis for the modern Internet, graphical user interfaces in information technology. DARPA is independent of other military research and development and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA has about 220 employees, of whom 100 are in management; the name of the organization first changed from its founding name ARPA to DARPA in March 1972 changing back to ARPA in February 1993, only to revert to DARPA in March 1996.
Their mission statement is "to make pivotal investments in breakthrough technologies for national security". The creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency was authorized by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958 for the purpose of forming and executing research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, able to reach far beyond immediate military requirements, the two relevant acts being the Supplemental Military Construction Authorization and Department of Defense Directive 5105.15, in February 1958. Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of Sputnik and to U. S. realization that the Soviet Union had developed the capacity to exploit military technology. Initial funding of ARPA was $520 million. ARPA's first director, Roy Johnson, left a $160,000 management job at General Electric for an $18,000 job at ARPA. Herbert York from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was hired as his scientific assistant. Johnson and York were both keen on space projects, but when NASA was established in 1958 all space projects and most of ARPA's funding were transferred to it.
Johnson resigned and ARPA was repurposed to do "high-risk", "high-gain", "far out" basic research, a posture, enthusiastically embraced by the nation's scientists and research universities. ARPA's second director was Brigadier General Austin W. Betts, who resigned in early 1961, he was succeeded by Jack Ruina who served until 1963. Ruina, the first scientist to administer ARPA, managed to raise its budget to $250 million, it was Ruina who hired J. C. R. Licklider as the first administrator of the Information Processing Techniques Office, which played a vital role in creation of ARPANET, the basis for the future Internet. Additionally, the political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their laboratories. In pursuit of this mission, DARPA has developed and transferred technology programs encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines that address the full spectrum of national security needs.
From 1958 to 1965, ARPA's emphasis centered on major national issues, including space, ballistic missile defense, nuclear test detection. During 1960, all of its civilian space programs were transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the military space programs to the individual services; this allowed ARPA to concentrate its efforts on the Project Defender, Project Vela, Project AGILE programs, to begin work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, materials sciences. The DEFENDER and AGILE programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor and directed energy R&D in the study of radar, infrared sensing, x-ray/gamma ray detection. ARPA at this point played an early role in Transit a predecessor to the Global Positioning System. "Fast-forward to 1959 when a joint effort between DARPA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory began to fine-tune the early explorers’ discoveries. TRANSIT, sponsored by the Navy and developed under the leadership of Dr. Richard Kirschner at Johns Hopkins, was the first satellite positioning system."During the late 1960s, with the transfer of these mature programs to the Services, ARPA redefined its role and concentrated on a diverse set of small exploratory research programs.
The agency was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1972, during the early 1970s, it emphasized direct energy programs, information processing, tactical technologies. Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress through its support of the development of time-sharing. DARPA supported the evolution of the ARPANET, Packet Radio Network, Packet Satellite Network and the Internet and research in the artificial intelligence fields of speech recognition and signal processing, including parts of Shakey the robot. DARPA funded the development of the Douglas Engelbart's NLS computer system and The Mother of
United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
The Deputy Secretary of Defense is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate; the deputy secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD Chief Management Officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment. The Deputy Secretary of Defense position is held by Patrick M. Shanahan. Effective January 1, 2019, Shanahan became the Acting Secretary of Defense upon Jim Mattis's resignation from that office. While Shanahan serves in that role, he has selected David Norquist to perform the duties of Deputy Secretary of Defense, effective January 1, 2019. Public Law 81-36, April 2, 1949 established this position as the Under Secretary of Defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, August 10, 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense.
Former assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Stephen Early, became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on May 2, 1949. Public Law 92-596, October 27, 1972, established a Second Deputy Secretary of Defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense; the second deputy position was not filled until December 1975. Robert F. Ellsworth, serving from December 23, 1975, until January 10, 1977, was the only one to hold that office. Public Law 95-140, October 21, 1977, established two Under Secretaries of Defense and abolished the second deputy position. By delegation, the Deputy Secretary of Defense has full power and authority to act for the Secretary of Defense and to exercise the powers of the Secretary of Defense on any and all matters for which the Secretary is authorized to act pursuant to statute or executive order; the deputy secretary is first in the line of succession to the office of Secretary of Defense. The typical role of the Deputy Secretary of Defense is to oversee the day-to-day business and lead the internal management processes of the $500-billion-plus Department of Defense budget, as its chief operating officer.
Prior to February 1, 2018, the Deputy Secretary of Defense served as the department's chief management officer, to whom the deputy chief management officer reported, but those responsibilities were split into a new Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense position. The deputy secretary, among the office's many responsibilities, chairs the Senior Level Review Group, before 2005 known as Defense Resources Board, which provides department-wide budgetary allocation recommendations to the Secretary and the President. Traditionally, the deputy secretary has been the civilian official guiding the process of the Quadrennial Defense Review; the Deputy Secretary of Defense chairs the Special Access Program Oversight Committee, which has oversight responsibilities and provides recommendations with respect to changes in status of the Department's Special Access Programs, for either the Deputy Secretary Defense or the Secretary of Defense to make. Defense Acquisition Board Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee Deputy's Advisory Working Group, a panel chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense Packard Commission Department of Defense Directive 5100.1: Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components.
Department of Defense Directive. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Defense. December 21, 2010. Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office. 2015. Deputy Secretary of Defense position profile at Prunes Online defense.gov
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U. S; the Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U. S. military is second only to that of the Congress, respectively. This position corresponds to what is known as a Defense Minister in many other countries; the Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council. Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, the general provision in 10 U. S. C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority and control over the Department of Defense", is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular component of an armed force.
Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force — as well as the U. S. Coast Guard when its control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments and the 10 Combatant Commands; because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Treasury are regarded as heading the four most important departments. Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity.
His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U. S. troops from Syria. A few days Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December. An Army and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution; the War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more manage the large combined military establishment; the Army favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was a compromise between these divergent viewpoints; the Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment, presided over by the Secretary of Defense.
The Act separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status; the first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department; the position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was created at this time. The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them.
The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", has "authority and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military a