United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
Frank Gorenc is a United States Air Force four-star general who served as the Commander, U. S. Air Forces Europe. S. Air Forces Africa, he served as the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff and Director, Air Staff, United States Air Force at the Pentagon. The general is a command pilot with more than 4,100 flight hours in the T-38A, F-15C, MQ-1B, UH-1N and C-21A, he assumed his final assignment on August 2, 2013. Gorenc was born in Ljubljana, present day Slovenia. Frank and his older brother, Stanley immigrated with their parents to the United States from the former Yugoslavia in 1962 when they were 8 and 4. After arriving in America, their father worked as a tailor, their mother served as a factory machine operator. Gorenc said that he was required to go to summer school each year because the opportunity for education existed and was available. "We didn’t know the language," Frank said. "We didn’t know the culture, we came to learn the United States is a land of opportunity." Frank went to visit his older brother a freshman cadet, during Parents’ Weekend at the U.
S. Air Force Academy, there he developed his first interest in the Air Force. "As a freshman in high school walking on the academy campus, you couldn’t help but be inspired," the younger brother said. Coming from a lower-middle-class background, the opportunities seemed boundless. Gorenc earned his commission in 1979 as a distinguished graduate from the United States Air Force Academy, he has commanded a fighter squadron, an operations group, two wings and the Air Force District of Washington. Gorenc has served in numerous positions at Air Combat Command, in the Pentagon on the Air Staff and The Joint Staff, at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe as the special assistant to the Commander USEUCOM/SACEUR. Prior to assuming his current position, he was the Director of Air and Space Operations, Air Combat Command, Langley Air Force Base, VA; as a Brigadier General, Gorenc was the Director of Operational Plans and Joint Matters, Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and Information Operations and Requirements at the Headquarters U.
S. Air Force, Washington, DC, he was responsible for developing and integrating operational strategies, organization concepts and plans supporting aerospace power employment. The General's six divisions orchestrated Air Force participation in joint and regional war and mobilization planning communities, as well as operator and warfighter talks with allies and sister services, he oversaw the Air Force's concept of operations development as well as its interface with Joint Staff and National Security Council issues. Prior to assuming this position, he was Commander, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing, Balad Air Base, Iraq. Gorenc served as the Commander, Ramstein Air Base, Germany; as the U. S. Air Forces in Europe component numbered air force for U. S. European Command, 3rd Air Force supports the USAFE and EUCOM commanders both at the operational and tactical level directing all USAFE forces engaged in contingency and wartime operations in the EUCOM area of responsibility. Third Air Force includes the headquarters Air Force forces staff, a multidisciplinary, professional cadre responsible for planning, employing and redeploying Air Force forces as the supported and supporting air component of USAFE to EUCOM.
Other 3rd Air Force units include the 603rd Air and Space Operations Center, 10 USAFE wings and two stand-alone groups. Gorenc relinquished command of 3rd Air Force to Lt. Gen. Craig A. Franklin, 30 March 2012. Since April 2012, Gorenc has served as the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff and Director, Air Staff, Headquarters United States Air Force at the Pentagon. 1979 Distinguished graduate, Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado 1983 Squadron Officer School, by correspondence 1986 Air Command and Staff College, by correspondence 1986 NATO Tactical Leadership Program, Jever Air Base, West Germany 1988 Distinguished graduate, United States Air Force Fighter Weapons School, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada 1989 Master of Aeronautical Science degree, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida 1994 Air War College, by seminar 1995 Master of Science degree in national security strategy, National War College, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.
C. 2006 Joint Force Air Component Commander Course, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 2007 Capstone Flag Officer Course, National Defense University, Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D. C. 2008 Joint Flag Officer Warfighter Course, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 2008 Defense Policy Seminar, Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, D. C. August 1979 - December 1980, undergraduate pilot training, Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma December 1980 - April 1984, T-38A instructor pilot and flight examiner, 25th Flying Training Squadron, Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma April 1984 - August 1984, student, F-15 Replacement Training Unit, Luke Air Force Base, Arizona August 1984 - April 1988, F-15C aircraft commander, flight examiner and flight commander, 525th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Bitburg Air Force Base, West Germany April 1988 - October 1991, F-15C aircraft commander and Chief and Tactics, 94th Fighter Squadron, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia October 1991 - March 1992, Chief and Tactics, 1st Fighter Wing, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia March 1992 - June 1992, aide to the Commander, Tactical Air Command, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia June 1992 - September 1993, aide to the Commander, Air Combat Command, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia September 1993 - August 1994, Operational O
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
The Defense Distinguished Service Medal is a United States military award, presented for exceptionally distinguished performance of duty contributing to the national security or defense of the United States. The medal was created on July 9, 1970, by President Richard Nixon in Executive Order 11545; the Defense Distinguished Service Medal is the United States's highest non-combat related military award and it is the highest joint service decoration. The Defense Distinguished Service Medal is awarded; such responsibilities deserving of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal are held by the most senior officers such as the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Chiefs and Vice Chiefs of the Services, Commanders and Deputy Commanders of the Combatant Commands, the Director of the Joint Staff etc. whose duties bring them into direct contact with the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, other senior government officials. In addition, the medal may be awarded to other service members whose direct and individual contributions to national security or national defense are recognized as being so exceptional in scope and value as to be equivalent to contributions associated with positions encompassing broader responsibilities.
This decoration takes precedence over the Distinguished Service Medals of the separate services and is not to be awarded to any individual for a period of service for which an Army, Air Force or Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal is awarded. The medal is gold in color and on the obverse it features a medium blue enameled pentagon. Superimposed on this is an American bald eagle with wings outspread facing left grasping three crossed arrows in its talons and on its breast is a shield of the United States; the pentagon and eagle are enclosed within a gold pieced circle consisting, in the upper half of 13 five-pointed stars and in the lower half, a wreath of laurel on the left and olive on the right. At the top is a suspender of five graduated gold rays; the reverse of the medal has the inscription "For Distinguished Service" at the top in raised letters, within the pentagon the inscription "From The Secretary of Defense To," all in raised letters. Additional awards of the Defense Distinguished Service Medal are denoted by oak leaf clusters
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
The Silver Star Medal, unofficially the Silver Star, is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star Medal is awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States; the Silver Star Medal is the successor award to the "Citation Star", established by an Act of Congress on July 9, 1918, during World War I. On July 19, 1932, the Secretary of War approved the conversion of the "Citation Star" to the SSM with the original "Citation Star" incorporated into the center of the medal. Authorization for the Silver Star Medal was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the U. S. Navy on August 7, 1942, an Act of Congress for the U. S. Army on December 15, 1942; the current statutory authorization for the medal is Title 10 of the United States Code, 10 U. S. C. § 3746 for the U. S. Army, 10 U. S. C. § 8746 for the U. S. Air Force, 10 U. S. C. § 6244 for the U. S. Navy; the U. S. Army and Air Force award the medal as the "Silver Star".
The U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard continue to award the medal as the "Silver Star Medal". Since 21 December 2016, the Department of Defense refers to the decoration as the Silver Star Medal; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for gallantry, so long as the action does not justify the award of one of the next higher valor awards: the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, or the Air Force Cross. The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for singular acts of valor or heroism over a brief period, such as one or two days of a battle. Air Force pilots and combat systems officers and Navy/Marine Corps naval aviators and flight officers flying fighter aircraft, are considered eligible to receive the Silver Star upon becoming an ace, which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer and risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.
However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U. S. fighter aces: an Air Force pilot and two navigators/weapon systems officers, a naval aviator and a naval flight officer/radar intercept officer who had achieved this distinction, were awarded the Air Force Cross and Navy Cross in addition to SSMs awarded for earlier aerial kills. Unit award equivalentAir Force – Gallant Unit Citation Army – Valorous Unit Award Coast Guard – Coast Guard Unit Commendation Navy-Marine Corps – Navy Unit Commendation The Silver Star Medal is a gold five-pointed star, 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter with a laurel wreath encircling rays from the center and a 3⁄16 inch diameter silver star superimposed in the center; the pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION; the ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 7⁄32 inch Old Glory red. Ribbon devicesSecond and subsequent awards of the Silver Star Medal are denoted by bronze or silver oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force and by gold or silver 5⁄16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard.
The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records for the Silver Star Medal. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 SSMs have been awarded since the decoration was established. Colonel David Hackworth, awarded ten SSMs while serving in the Army during the Korean War and Vietnam War, is to be the person awarded the most SSMs. Three Army nurses that served in World War I were cited in 1919 and 1920 with Citation Stars for gallantry in attending to the wounded while under artillery fire in July 1918. In 2007, it was discovered; the three nurses were awarded the Silver Star Medal posthumously: Jane Rignel – Mobile Hospital No. 2, 42nd Division, for gallantry in "giving aid to the wounded under heavy fire" in France on July 15, 1918 Linnie Leckrone – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artilley bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918 Irene Robar – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artillery bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918An unknown number of servicewomen received the award in World War II.
Four Army nurses serving in Italy during the war—First Lieutenant Mary Roberts, Second Lieutenant Elaine Roe, Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth —became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at Anzio on February 10, 1944. That same year, Corporal Magdalena Leones, a Filipino American, received the medal for clandestine activities on Luzon; the next known servicewomen to receive the Silver Star is Army National Guard Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester in 2005, for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq and Army
Rebecca S. Halstead
Rebecca Stevens "Becky" Halstead is a retired U. S. Army Brigadier General, she was the first female graduate of West Point to become a general officer. She culminated her career as the 34th Chief of Ordnance and Commandant of the U. S. Army Ordnance Schools at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Halstead was born in Willseyville, New York in 1959, is a 1977 graduate of Candor, New York's Candor High School, she graduated from the United States Military Academy with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1981 and was a member of the second academy class that included women. When she was assigned to the Ordnance Corps, her early positions included: platoon leader, operations officer and executive officer with the 69th Ordnance Company, 559th Artillery Group in Vicenza, Italy, her assignments included: assignment officer, Ordnance Branch, Total Army Personnel Command, Virginia. S. Army's Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics. In September 2003 Halstead was assigned as Deputy Commander of the 21st Theater Support Command in Germany.
In September 2004 she was assigned as commander, 3rd Corps Support Command, including deployment to Iraq for Operation Iraqi Freedom. In January 2005, she was promoted to Brigadier General, the first female graduate of West Point to attain general officer rank. In 2006 Halstead was assigned as the Army's Chief of Ordnance and commander, U. S. Army Ordnance Schools at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. During her tenure, she took part in the planning for the Army's effort to streamline its Ordnance and Supply career fields by creating a single Combined Logistics branch; as part of the Base Realignment and Closure initiative, this streamlining included the closing of the ordinance center in Abderdeen Proving Ground and its relocation to Fort Lee, Virginia. She retired from the military in June 2008. Halstead is a graduate of the Army's Ordnance Officer Basic Course and Ordnance Officer Advanced Course, she obtained a Master of Military Art and Science degree from the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1993, in 2000 she received a Master of Science degree in national resource strategy from the National War College, Fort McNair, Washington, D.
C. Halstead's military decorations include: the Distinguished Service Medal, she earned the Air Assault Badge and the Army Staff Identification Badge. After her retirement Halstead was elected President of the U. S. Army Ordnance Corps Association, joined the Praevius Group, a Virginia-based consulting firm, as Executive Director for Leader Development, she founded her own consulting firm, Steadfast Leadership. In addition, she is a spokesperson for the Foundation for Chiropractic Progress. In 2007 Halstead received the National Women’s History Project award for "Generations of Women Moving History Forward." In 2011 she became the first woman to have a room named after her at West Point’s Thayer Hotel. In 2013 she was inducted into the New Jersey Women's Hall of Fame. List of female United States military generals and flag officers
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit