Battle of Cerro Gordo
The Battle of Cerro Gordo, or Battle of Sierra Gordo, was an engagement that took place during the Mexican-American War on April 18,1847. The battle saw Winfield Scotts United States troops out-flank and drive Antonio López de Santa Annas larger Mexican army from a defensive position. After United States forces captured the port of Veracruz on 29 March 1847 and these included several batteries under the command of brigadier generals Luis Pinzon, Jose Maria Jararo, and Romulo Diaz de la Vega. Scotts leading division, commanded by David E. Twiggs, reached the Cerro Gordo Pass on 12 April. On 12 April, Lieutenant Pierre G. T. Beauregard, of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. These reconnaissances were made under the supervision of Captain Robert E. Lee and other officers, all of whom attained rank and these had been opened under cover of night, without attracting the notice of the enemy. The engineers, who had directed the opening, led the way, in like manner the guns were drawn by hand up the opposite slope.
Twiggs division took the hill on 17 April, advancing up the slopes to El Telegrafo, Santa Anna reinforced El Telegrafo with Brigadier General Ciriaco Vasquezs 2d Light, 4th, and 11th Infantry. Captain Edward J. Steptoe set up his battery on Atalaya Hill, at 7,00 am on 18 April, Twiggs directed William S. Harneys brigade to move against the front of El Telegrafo while Bennett C. The combination easily took the hill, killing General Vasquez, magruder turned the Mexican guns on the retreating Mexicans. Simultaneously, James Shields brigade attacked the Mexican camp and took possession of the Jalapa road, once they realized they were surrounded, the Mexican commanders on the three hills surrendered and by 10,00 am, the remaining Mexican forces fled. Scott moved on to Jalapa, and William J. Worths division took San Carlos Fortress on 22 April, Scott occupied Puebla on 15 May, before departing for Mexico City on 7 August. Cerro Gordo County, Cerro Gordo, North Carolina and Cerro Gordo, Illinois take their names from the battle, much as Resaca, the 1, 000-strong Artega Brigade, consisting of the Pueblo Activos and National Guard battalions, arrived at the end of the battle.
Saint Patricks Battalion The Encyclopedia of Military History and Dupuy, apuntes para la historia de la guerra entre México y los Estados Unidos. The Other Side, Or, Notes for the History of the War between Mexico and the United States and edited in the United States by Albert C, New York, John Wiley,1850. Annual Reports,1894 War Department lists trophy guns as, 1–8 pounder bronze, 2–6 pounders, celebrations for Battle of Cerro Gordo, Washington D. C. 1847, Shapell Manuscript Foundation A Continent Divided, The U. S, – Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas at Arlington
In the geography of rivers and glaciers, a debouch, or debouche, is a place where runoff from a small, confined space emerges into a larger, broader space. The term is of French origin and means to cause to emerge, the term has a military usage. In fluvial geomorphology a debouch is a place where runoff from a small, common examples are when a stream runs into a river or when a river runs into an ocean. Debouching can generate massive amounts of sediment transport, when a narrow stream travels down a mountain pass into a basin, for example, an alluvial fan will form from the mass deposit of the sediment. The four largest rivers are responsible for 20% of the discharge of sediment in to the oceans via debouches. In fluvial geography, a debouch is a place where a body of water pours forth from a narrow opening. Some examples are, where a river or stream emerges from a narrow constraining landform, such as a defile, into open country or a wider space, fluvial landforms of streams Region of freshwater influence Ma, Yanxia.
Continental Shelf Sediment Transport and Depositional Processes on an Energetic, Active Margin, pp 2,19 Mitchell, Martha S. River Rules, The Nature of Streams, pp 5 The dictionary definition of debouch at Wiktionary Merriam-Webster
Battle of Thermopylae
It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae. The Persian invasion was a response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece. Xerxes had amassed an army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece. A Greek force of approximately 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the middle of 480 BC. The Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered one million. The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of historys most famous last stands, during two full days of battle, the small force led by Leonidas blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass. After the second day, a resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing that a small path led behind the Greek lines. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard their retreat with 300 Spartans,700 Thespians,400 Thebans, fighting to the death.
At Artemisium, the Greek navy, under the command of the Athenian politician Themistocles, since the Greek strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, and given their losses, it was decided to withdraw to Salamis. The Persians overran Boeotia and captured the evacuated Athens, the Greek fleet—seeking a decisive victory over the Persian armada—attacked and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Fearful of being trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, the following year saw a Greek army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion. Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of an army defending its native soil. The primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus and this account is fairly consistent with Herodotus. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column, some of Herodotus specific claims. For example, the military strategist Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart defers to Grundy, Grundy explored Plataea and wrote a treatise on that battle.
On the Battle of Thermopylae itself, two sources and Simonides accounts, survive. In fact, Herodotus account of the battle, in Book VII of his Histories, is such an important source that Paul Cartledge wrote, we write a history of Thermopylae with. The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had encouraged the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499–494 BC, the Persian Empire was still relatively young and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples
A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. A canyon may refer to a rift between two peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps. Usually a river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains, examples of mountain-type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite National Park in Californias Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains, or gorges that have an opening on one side are called box canyons. Slot canyons are very narrow canyons, often with smooth walls, steep-sided valleys in the seabed of the continental slope underwater are referred to as submarine canyons. Unlike canyons on land, submarine canyons are thought to be formed by turbidity currents, the word canyon is Spanish in origin, with the same meaning. The word canyon is used in North America while the words gorge and ravine are used in Europe and Oceania, though gorge. In the United States, place names generally use canyon in the southwest and gorge in the northeast, in Canada, a gorge is usually narrow while a ravine is more open and often wooded.
The military-derived word defile is occasionally used in the United Kingdom, most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from a plateau or table-land level. The cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion, Canyons are much more common in arid than in wet areas because physical weathering has a more localized effect in arid zones. The wind and water from the combine to erode and cut away less resistant materials such as shales. The freezing and expansion of water serves to help form canyons, water seeps into cracks between the rocks and freezes, pushing the rocks apart and eventually causing large chunks to break off the canyon walls, in a process known as frost wedging. Canyon walls are formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of geological uplift. These are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to alter their course. In the United States, the Colorado River in the Southwest, Canyons often form in areas of limestone rock.
As limestone is soluble to an extent, cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse, a canyon is left, as in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside. Gullies resemble large ditches or small valleys, but are metres to tens of metres in depth and width, when the gully formation is in process, the water flow rate can be substantial, causing a significant deep cutting action into soil. The earliest known usage of the term is from 1657 and it originates from the French word goulet, a diminutive form of goule which means throat. It is possible that the term was derived from a type of knife at the time, gullying or gully erosion is the process by which gullies are formed. Hillsides are more prone to gullying when they are cleared of vegetation, through deforestation, the eroded soil is easily carried by the flowing water after being dislodged from the ground, normally when rainfall falls during short, intense storms such as during thunderstorms. A gully may grow in length by means of erosion at a knick point. This erosion can result from interflow as well as surface runoff, gullies reduce the productivity of farmland where they incise into the land, and produce sediment that may clog downstream waterbodies.
Because of this, much effort is invested into the study of gullies within the scope of geomorphology, in the prevention of gully erosion, the total soil loss from gully formation and subsequent downstream river sedimentation can be sizeable. Gullies can be formed or enlarged by a number of human activities, artificial gullies are formed during hydraulic mining when jets or streams of water are projected onto soft alluvial deposits to extract gold or tin ore. The remains of mining methods are very visible landform features in old goldfields such as in California. The badlands at Las Medulas for example, were created during the Roman period by hushing or hydraulic mining of the gold-rich alluvium with water supplied by numerous aqueducts tapping nearby rivers, each aqueduct produced large gullies below by erosion of the soft deposits. The effluvium was carefully washed with smaller streams of water to extract the nuggets, gullies are widespread at mid- to high latitudes on the surface of Mars, and are some of the youngest features observed on that planet, probably forming within the last few 100,000 years.
Flow as springs from deeper seated liquid water aquifers in the subsurface is a possible explanation for the formation of some Martian gullies. Arroyo Coulee Couloir Canyon Gulch Ravine Wadi Lavaka Badlands Rill Oxford English Dictionary
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
Brumath, Brumpt, is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Brumath occupies the site of the Roman Brocomagus, maria Christina of Saxony, aunt of Louis XVI, died in the château in the city. The building was destroyed in the Revolution, Brumath is located on the Zorn river, and is 17 km north of Strasbourg and 13 km south of Haguenau. Brumath has a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, the vaulted basement of the former castle of the Hanau-Lichtenberg family now houses the Musée archéologique, displaying findings made in and around the ancient Roman town of Brocomagus. Brumath is served by the Route nationale 63, linking Strasbourg to Haguenau and it has a railway station on the line linking Strasbourg and Metz. Maria Christina of Saxony died in Brumath, the great-great-grandmother of J. K. Rowling, Salomé Schuch, lived in Brumath. Battle of Brumath Bernard Schreiner, French politician born in Brumath Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Brumath transmitter INSEE commune file