The Innoko River is a 500-mile tributary of the Yukon River in the U. S. state of Alaska. It flows north from its origin south of Cloudy Mountain in the Kuskokwim Mountains and southwest to meet the larger river across from Holy Cross. Most of its upper portion flows through the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge; the entire river is within the Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area. Innoko is a Deg Hit’an name for the river; the Russian colonial administrators called the river Shiltonotno, Legon or Tlegon, Chagelyuk or Shageluk and Ittege at various times in the 19th century. List of rivers of Alaska Media related to Innoko River at Wikimedia Commons
Anvik is a city, home to the Deg Hit'an people, in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, United States. The name Anvik, meaning "exit" in the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, became the common usage despite multiple names at the time, may have come from early Russian explorers; the native name in the Deg Xinag language is Deloy Ges. The population was 85 at the 2010 census, down from 104 in 2000. Anvik is located at west of the Yukon River at the mouth of the Anvik River, it is 34 miles to the north of Holy Cross. There is a public Anvik Airport with a 2,960-foot gravel runway located one mile southeast of downtown Anvik; the students of Blackwell School have created a clickable interactive map of Anvik. The Anvik Connector is a trail, designated a national side trail, which links the community to the Iditarod Trail 86 miles to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.9 square miles, of which 9.5 square miles is land and 2.4 square miles is water. It is an incorporated place.
Anvik first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as Anvik Station and Village with 95 residents: 94 were members of the Tinneh tribe and 1 was White, it has returned as Anvik since 1890. At the 2000 census, there were 39 households and 23 families residing in the city; the population density was 10.9 per square mile. There were 49 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94 Native American, nine White, one from other races. One reported Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. There were 39 households of which 41.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% were married couples living together, 25.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.43. Age distribution was 34 under the age of 15, 6 from 16 to 18, 9 from 18 to 24, 28 from 25 to 44, 19 from 45 to 64, 8 who were 65 years of age or older.
The average age was 30.14 and the median age was 28.5 years, compared to 32.4 for the entire state. There were 57 males and 47 females; the annual median household income was $21,250, the median family income was $18,125. Males had a median income of $0 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,081. Median rent was $263 and monthly housing and mortgage costs were $833. There were 40.0% of families and 44.2% of the population living below the poverty line, including 45.5% of under eighteens and 50.0% of those over 64. The Iditarod Area School District operates the Blackwell School in Anvik. Ekada, Patricia J. "Athabascan Culture-From the Lower Yukon Area". Anvik at the Community Database Online from the Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs Maps from the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development: 2000, 2010 Anvik Tribal Council Anvik Historical Society Blackwell School in Anvik Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development. "The History of Anvik".
ExploreNorth. Retrieved 2008-03-22. "Anvik, AK Community Profile". AK HomeTownLocator. HTL, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-22. "Anvik, Alaska Detailed Profile". On Board LLC. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-22. "Anvik, Alaska city profile". EPodunk Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-22
The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory; the lower half of the river lies in the U. S. state of Alaska. The river empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon -- Kuskokwim Delta; the average flow is 6,430 m3/s. The total drainage area is 832,700 km2; the total area is more than 25 % larger than Alberta. The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.
The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps and other sources. However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, water quality data from the U. S. Geological Survey shows good levels of turbidity and dissolved oxygen; the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers. The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data; the name Yukon, or ųųg han, is a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. The contraction is Ųųg Han, if the /ųų/ remains nasalized, or Yuk Han, if there is no vowel nasalization. In 1843, the Holikachuks had told the Russian-American Company that their name for the river was Yukkhana and that this name meant big river.
However, Yukkhana does not correspond to a Holikachuk phrase that means big river. Two years the Gwich'ins told the Hudson's Bay Company that their name for the river was Yukon and that the name meant white water river. White water river in fact corresponds to Gwich ` in words; because the Holikachuks had been trading with both the Gwich'ins and the Yup'iks, the Holikachuks had been in a position to borrow the Gwich'in contraction and to conflate its meaning with the meaning of Kuigpak, the Yup'ik name for the same river. For that reason, the documentary evidence reflects that the Holikachuks had borrowed the contraction Ųųg Han from Gwich'in, erroneously assumed that this contraction had the same literal meaning as the corresponding Yup'ik name Kuigpak; the Lewes River is the former name of the upper course of the Yukon, from Marsh Lake to the confluence of the Pelly River at Fort Selkirk. The accepted source of the Yukon River is the Llewellyn Glacier at the southern end of Atlin Lake in British Columbia.
Others suggest. Either way, Atlin Lake flows into Tagish Lake, as does Lake Lindeman after flowing into Bennett Lake. Tagish Lake flows into Marsh Lake; the Yukon River proper starts at the northern end of Marsh Lake, just south of Whitehorse. Some argue that the source of the Yukon River should be Teslin Lake and the Teslin River, which has a larger flow when it reaches the Yukon at Hootalinqua; the upper end of the Yukon River was known as the Lewes River until it was established that it was the Yukon. North of Whitehorse, the Yukon River widens into Lake Laberge, made famous by Robert W. Service's "The Cremation of Sam McGee". Other large lakes that are part of the Yukon River system include Kluane Lake; the river passes through the communities of Whitehorse and Dawson City in Yukon, crossing Alaska into Eagle, Fort Yukon, Stevens Village, Tanana, Galena, Grayling, Holy Cross, Russian Mission, Pilot Station, St. Marys, Mountain Village. After Mountain Village, the main Yukon channel frays into many channels.
There are a number of communities after the "head of passes," as the channel division is called locally: Nunum Iqua, Alakanuk and Kotlik. Of those delta communities, Emmonak is the largest with 760 people in the 2000 census. Emmonak's gravel airstrip is the regional hub for flights. Navigational obstacles on the Yukon River are the Five Finger Rapids and Rink Rapids downstream from Carmacks. Despite its length, there are only four vehicle-carrying bridges across the river: The Lewes Bridge, north of Marsh Lake on the Alaska Highway. A car ferry crosses the river at Dawson City in the summer. Plans to build a permanent bridge were announced in March 2004, alth
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
Holy Cross, Alaska
Holy Cross is a city in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 178, down from 227 in 2000. Holy Cross is located at 62°11′53″N 159°46′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.4 square miles, of which, 31.3 square miles of it is land and 6.2 square miles of it is water. Holy Cross first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Askhomute." In 1890, it was reported as "Kozerevsky." In 1900 and 1910, it was called "Koserefsky." It did not report on the 1920 U. S. Census. In 1930, it was returned as Holy Cross for the first time, it was formally incorporated in 1968. As of the census of 2000, there were 227 people, 64 households, 49 families residing in the city; the population density was 7.3 people per square mile. There were 81 housing units at an average density of 2.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.52% White and 96.48% Native American. There were 64 households out of which 43.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.4% were non-families.
17.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.55 and the average family size was 4.00. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 38.8% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 136.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 127.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,875, the median income for a family was $26,250. Males had a median income of $37,813 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,542. About 33.3% of families and 45.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.2% of those under the age of eighteen and 47.1% of those sixty five or over. The Iditarod Area School District operates the Holy Cross School in Grayling
Indian ice cream (Alaska)
Alaskan Indian ice cream is a dessert made of dried fish or dried moose or caribou meat and fat and berries or mild sweeteners such as roots of Indian potato or wild carrot mixed and whipped with a whisk or hand made by Alaskan Athabaskans. Most common recipe for Indian ice cream consisted of dried and pulverized tenderloin of moose or caribou, blended with moose fat in a birch bark container until the mixture was light and fluffy. Both akutaq and Indian ice cream are known as native ice cream or Alaskan ice cream in Alaska. Not to be confused with Canadian Indian ice cream of First Nations in British Columbia and kulfi from Indian Subcontinent of Asia; the "ice cream songs" used to be sung during the preparation of Alaskan Athabascan Indian ice cream. List of desserts Akutaq Pemmican Tolkusha
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte