Georg Kolbe was the leading German figure sculptor of his generation, in a vigorous, simplified classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France. Kolbe was born in Saxony. Trained as a painter in Dresden and Paris, he began sculpting during a stay in Rome at the turn of the century under the technical guidance of sculptor Louis Tuaillon. In 1905, Kolbe joined the'Berliner Sezession', which in 1913, he left to join the'Freie Sezession', his artistic breakthrough came in 1912 with his sculpture masterpiece "Die Tänzerin", his most famous work. As he was interested in Asian faces, D. N. Mazumdar, father of Indian novelist Anita Desai, sat for him, resulting in a bust and a torso. In 1929, he collaborated with Lilly Reich and Mies van der Rohe for his sculpture in the Barcelona Pavilion; as the last president of the Deutscher Künstlerbund, he devoted himself to the promotion of fellow artists who were classified "degenerate". Kolbe made ninety-nine prints, beginning with lithographs around 1900 literary illustrations.
In 1919-1920, Kolbe did not work as a sculptor. During this time small-size sculptures and drawings became central in his works. In the 1920s, encouraged by Cassirer, he made drypoints of dancers and nudes in motion, subjects he favored in his sculpture. Kolbe executed important commissions throughout his long career, including many for the National Socialists during the last 15 years of his life, although he refused invitation to sculpt a portrait of Adolf Hitler; the Nazis appropriated his late style of idealized athletic nudes. From 1937 to 1944, Kolbe participated at Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung, organized by the Haus der Kunst, Munich, his uncharacteristically bombastic Verkündigung was a focal point of the 1937 German Pavilion. Commissioned by the German-Spanish economic organization Hisma in 1939, Kolbe created a portrait bust of the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, given to Hitler as a birthday present the same year. In 1944, in the final stages of World War II, Hitler and Joseph Goebbels included Kolbe in the Gottbegnadeten list of the twelve most important visual artists.
Only after Kolbe's death, a Beethoven monument and the Ring der Statuen were installed in Frankfurt am Main. The realization of a Friedrich Nietzsche memorial in Weimar failed because of Hitler's appeal. Kolbe died of bladder cancer in St. Hedwig-Krankenhaus in Berlin on 20 November 1947. In 2009, an exhibition of Kolbe's Blue Ink Drawings was presented by the State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. 2017 an exhibition about his artistic and social network at Georg Kolbe Museum, Berlin. Many of Kolbe's 1000 sculptures were destroyed by confiscation and melting for war purposes, his sculptures are in many museum collections in Europe, USA and Russia, among them the Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Moderna Museet, Stockholm. 1912 Die Bachnymphe, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Redoutenpark 1913 Monument for Heinrich Heine, Frankfurt am Main 1917/1918 Monument in Tarabya, Turkey 1924 Verkündigung, Bürgergärten, Lübeck 1925 Der Morgen and Der Abend, Ceciliengärten, Berlin 1926 Kriegerdenkmal 1914–1918, Buchschlag near Frankfurt am Main 1926–1947 Beethoven-Denkmal, Frankfurt am Main 1927 Kriechende, Hamburg 1928 Fliegender Genius, Ludwigshafen 1930 Rathenau-Brunnen, Volkspark Rehberge, Berlin 1931-1933 Aufsteigender Jüngling, Düsseldorf 1933, 1935 Zehnkämpfer and Ruhender Athlet, Olympic Stadium, Berlin 1936 Großer Wächter, Lüdenscheid The studio where Kolbe lived and worked from 1929 to 1947 is located in Berlin-Westend, in Sensburger Allee.
It was built in 1928/29 based on Kolbe's designs by Architect Ernst Rentsch and borders on a sculpture garden. Today it serves as the Georg Kolbe Museum, a museum dedicated to sculpture of the 20th century and contemporary art. Among others, the museum has in the past mounted solo exhibitions of Aristide Maillol, Bernhard Hoetger, Henry Moore, Karl Hartung, August Gaul, A. R. Penck, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Gerson Fehrenbach, Bernhard Heiliger, Wilhelm Loth, Michael Croissant, David Nash, Wieland Förster, Hermann Blumenthal, Max Klinger, Antony Gormley, Johannes Grützke, Otto Herbert Hajek, Ah Xian, Anton Henning, Renée Sintenis, Ruprecht von Kaufmann, Vanitas 2014, Jean Arp - The Navel of the Avant-Garde, Auguste Rodin and Madame Hanako 1905 Villa Romana prize The Georg Kolbe Museum Masters of 20th Century Figure Sculpture "Georg Kolbe", Artnet Newspaper clippings about Georg Kolbe in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Degenerate art was a term adopted in the 1920s by the Nazi Party in Germany to describe modern art. During the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, German modernist art, including many works of internationally renowned artists, was removed from state owned museums and banned in Nazi Germany on the grounds that such art was an "insult to German feeling", un-German, Jewish, or Communist in nature; those identified as degenerate artists were subjected to sanctions that included being dismissed from teaching positions, being forbidden to exhibit or to sell their art, in some cases being forbidden to produce art. Degenerate Art was the title of an exhibition, held by the Nazis in Munich in 1937, consisting of 650 modernist artworks chaotically hung and accompanied by text labels deriding the art. Designed to inflame public opinion against modernism, the exhibition subsequently traveled to several other cities in Germany and Austria. While modern styles of art were prohibited, the Nazis promoted paintings and sculptures that were traditional in manner and that exalted the "blood and soil" values of racial purity and obedience.
Similar restrictions were placed upon music, expected to be tonal and free of any jazz influences. Films and plays were censored; the early 20th century was a period of wrenching changes in the arts. In the visual arts, such innovations as Fauvism, Cubism and Surrealism—following Symbolism and Post-Impressionism—were not universally appreciated; the majority of people in Germany, as elsewhere, did not care for the new art, which many resented as elitist, morally suspect, too incomprehensible. Wilhelm II, who took an active interest in regulating art in Germany, criticized Impressionism as "gutter painting" and forbade Käthe Kollwitz from being awarded a medal for her print series A Weavers' Revolt when it was displayed in the Berlin Grand Exhibition of the Arts in 1898. In 1913, the Prussian house of representatives passed a resolution "against degeneracy in art". Under the Weimar government of the 1920s, Germany emerged as a leading center of the avant-garde, it was the birthplace of Expressionism in painting and sculpture, of the atonal musical compositions of Arnold Schoenberg, the jazz-influenced work of Paul Hindemith and Kurt Weill.
Films such as Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu brought Expressionism to cinema; the Nazis viewed the culture of the Weimar period with disgust. Their response stemmed from a conservative aesthetic taste and from their determination to use culture as a propaganda tool. On both counts, a painting such as Otto Dix's War Cripples was anathema to them, it unsparingly depicts four badly disfigured veterans of the First World War a familiar sight on Berlin's streets, rendered in caricatured style. In 1930 Wilhelm Frick, a Nazi, became Minister for Culture and Education, announced a campaign "against Negro culture—for German national traditions". By his order, 70 Expressionist paintings were removed from the permanent exhibition of the Weimar Schlossmuseum in 1930, the director of the König Albert Museum in Zwickau, Hildebrand Gurlitt, was dismissed for displaying modern art; as dictator, Hitler gave his personal taste in art the force of law to a degree never before seen.
Only in Stalin's Soviet Union, where Socialist Realism was the mandatory style, had a modern state shown such concern with regulation of the arts. In the case of Germany, the model was to be classical Greek and Roman art, regarded by Hitler as an art whose exterior form embodied an inner racial ideal. Art historian Henry Grosshans says that Hitler "saw Greek and Roman art as uncontaminated by Jewish influences. Modern art was an act of aesthetic violence by the Jews against the German spirit; such was true to Hitler though only Liebermann, Meidner and Marc Chagall, among those who made significant contributions to the German modernist movement, were Jewish. But Hitler... took upon himself the responsibility of deciding who, in matters of culture and acted like a Jew."The "Jewish" nature of all art, indecipherable, distorted, or that represented "depraved" subject matter was explained through the concept of degeneracy, which held that distorted and corrupted art was a symptom of an inferior race.
By propagating the theory of degeneracy, the Nazis combined their anti-Semitism with their drive to control the culture, thus consolidating public support for both campaigns. The term Entartung had gained currency in Germany by the late 19th century when the critic and author Max Nordau devised the theory presented in his 1892 book Entartung. Nordau drew upon the writings of the criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whose The Criminal Man, published in 1876, attempted to prove that there were "born criminals" whose atavistic personality traits could be detected by scientifically measuring abnormal physical characteristics. Nordau developed from this premise a critique of modern art, explained as the work of those so corrupted and enfeebled by modern life that they have lost the self-control needed to produce coherent works, he attacked Aestheticism in English literature and described the mysticism of the Symbolist movement in French literature as a product of mental pathology. Explaining the painterliness of Impressionism as the sign of a diseased visual cortex, he decried modern degeneracy while praising traditional German culture.
Despite the fact that Nordau was Jewish and a key figure in the Zionist moveme
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
Marc Zakharovich Chagall was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin. An early modernist, he was associated with several major artistic styles and created works in every artistic format, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic and fine art prints. Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century". According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists". For decades, he "had been respected as the world's pre-eminent Jewish artist". Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN and the Art Institute of Chicago, the Jerusalem Windows in Israel, he did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra. Before World War I, he travelled between Saint Petersburg and Berlin. During this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture.
He spent the wartime years in Soviet Belarus, becoming one of the country's most distinguished artists and a member of the modernist avant-garde, founding the Vitebsk Arts College before leaving again for Paris in 1922. He writes Lewis: as a pioneer of modernism and as a major Jewish artist, he experienced modernism's "golden age" in Paris, where "he synthesized the art forms of Cubism and Fauvism, the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism". Yet throughout these phases of his style "he remained most emphatically a Jewish artist, whose work was one long dreamy reverie of life in his native village of Vitebsk." "When Matisse dies," Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, "Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour is". Marc Chagall was born Moishe Segal in a Lithuanian Jewish Hassidic family in Liozna, near the city of Vitebsk in 1887. At the time of his birth, Vitebsk's population was about 66,000, with half the population being Jewish. A picturesque city of churches and synagogues, it was called "Russian Toledo", after a cosmopolitan city of the former Spanish Empire.
As the city was built of wood, little of it survived years of occupation and destruction during World War II. Chagall was the eldest of nine children; the family name, Shagal, is a variant of the name Segal, which in a Jewish community was borne by a Levitic family. His father, Khatskl Shagal, was employed by a herring merchant, his mother, Feige-Ite, sold groceries from their home, his father worked hard, earning only 20 roubles each month. Chagall would include fish motifs "out of respect for his father", writes Chagall biographer, Jacob Baal-Teshuva. Chagall wrote of these early years: Day after day and summer, at six o'clock in the morning, my father got up and went off to the synagogue. There he said his usual prayer for other. On his return he drank some tea and went to work. Hellish work, the work of a galley-slave. Why try to hide it? How tell about it? No word will ease my father's lot... There was always plenty of cheese on our table. Buttered bread, like an eternal symbol, was never out of my childish hands.
One of the main sources of income of the Jewish population of the town was from the manufacture of clothing, sold throughout Russia. They made furniture and various agricultural tools. From the late 18th century to the First World War, the Russian government confined Jews to living within the Pale of Settlement, which included modern Ukraine, Poland and Latvia exactly corresponding to the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth taken over by Imperial Russia; this caused the creation of Jewish market-villages throughout today's Eastern Europe, with their own markets, schools and other community institutions. Chagall wrote as a boy. During a pogrom, Chagall wrote that: "The street lamps are out. I feel panicky in front of butchers' windows. There you can see calves that are still alive lying beside the butchers' hatchets and knives"; when asked by some pogromniks "Jew or not?", Chagall remembered thinking: "My pockets are empty, my fingers sensitive, my legs weak and they are out for blood.
My death would be futile. I so wanted to live". Chagall denied being a Jew, leading the pogromniks to shout "All right! Get along!"Most of what is known about Chagall's early life has come from his autobiography, My Life. In it, he described the major influence that the culture of Hasidic Judaism had on his life as an artist. Chagall related how he realised that the Jewish traditions in which he had grown up were fast disappearing and that he needed to document them. Vitebsk itself had been a centre of that culture dating from the 1730s with its teachings derived from the Kabbalah. Chagall scholar Susan Tumarkin Goodman describes the links and sources of his art to his early home: Chagall's art can be understood as the response to a situation that has long marked the history of Russian Jews. Though they were cultural innovators who made important contributions to the broader society, Jews were considered outsiders in a hostile society... Chagall himself was born of a family steeped in religious life.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany, active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away into völkisch nationalism. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes. Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race.
The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich.
Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war. Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat. Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria. Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.
Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and was brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, the term is not considered slang, has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In 1918, a league called the Freier Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden was created in Bremen, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith, a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler emphasised the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism, in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism and internationalist politics; these were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart, a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer, a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. In 1918, Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel; the members met perio
The Kronprinzenpalais is a landmark late Neoclassical-style building at one end of Unter den Linden in Berlin. It was a palace of the ruling Hohenzollern house of Prussia until the abolition of the monarchy at the end of World War I, it became an annexe of the Berlin National Gallery, housing a preeminent collection of modern art. It was closed by the Nazis and the building was destroyed in World War II, it was rebuilt in 1968 and used by East Germany as a guest house for official visitors to their capital of East Berlin. Since German reunification it has been used for cultural events. Johann Arnold Nering created the building in 1663–69 as the private residence of Cabinet Secretary Johann Martitz, converting an existing middle-class house. From 1706 to 1732, it was the official residence of the Governor of Berlin. In 1732, Philipp Gerlach remodelled the building in baroque style with a protruding central bay and a carriage drive rising to the front entrance, to serve as a residence for the Crown Prince, the future King Frederick II.
He and his wife Elisabeth Christine stayed there only intermittently before his accession to the throne in 1740, after which he took up residence in part of the royal palace. He gave the Kronprinzenpalais to his brother Augustus William; the building was renovated and refurnished in Neoclassical style and became the residence of Crown Prince Frederick William and his wife Louise, who lived there with their children and Countess Voss, who had an apartment near the entrance. They remained there after he became the Palace was now called Königliches Palais. Johann Gottfried Schadow created his double statue of Crown Princess Louise and her sister Frederica, the Prinzessinnengruppe, in the palace in 1795–97; the future Emperor William I was born there on 22 March 1797. In the early 19th century, Karl Friedrich Schinkel renovated several rooms in the palace. After Louise's early death, Frederick William maintained a family shrine to her in the palace; the main building was known as the Königliches Palais until 1840.
In 1856–57, Johann Heinrich Strack extensively rebuilt the palace for William I's son, Prince Frederick William, giving it its present appearance. Strack replaced the mansard roof with a third storey with Corinthian pillars, added neo-classical details to the façade, whose columns he changed from Tuscan to Corinthian; the four statues above the entrance remained, but he added a tall columned portico surmounted by a balcony. He built a setback addition on the east side of the building, with a colonnade on its Unter den Linden and Niederlagstraße sides. After 1861, when Frederick William's father acceded to the throne and he became Crown Prince, the building was once again known as the Kronprinzenpalais, their eldest son, who would be the last German Emperor as Wilhelm II, was born in the palace on 27 January 1859. Princess Victoria welcomed artists and scholars to the palace, including Heinrich von Angeli, Anton von Werner and Adolph von Menzel. However, after Frederick III's death in 1888 following a 99-day reign, she was at her new residence, Schloß Friedrichshof, the palace was used.
Beginning in 1905, it was used as a winter residence by Wilhelm II's heir, Crown Prince Wilhelm, his wife Crown Princess Cecilie. During the November revolution in Berlin in 1918, revolutionary leaders addressed the crowd from the entrance ramp of the palace. After the dissolution of the monarchy, the palace became a possession of the State of Prussia, which gave it to the National Gallery in 1919 to house its drawing collection; the director, Ludwig Justi, used this annexe to the existing building to house a new department devoted to living artists, the Galerie der Lebenden, something which he had proposed the previous year and which contemporary artists themselves had been demanding. This opened on 4 August 1919 with 150 paintings and sculptures including naturalistic and French Impressionist works, a sculpture by Rodin, works representing both the establishment Verein Berliner Künstler and the Berlin Secession, on the top floor in a temporary display, works by members of Die Brücke and other Expressionists.
This was the first state promotion in Germany of Expressionist works, which were unpopular with large numbers of the public. The gallery was a pioneer of the museum of contemporary art, it served as a model for institutions, notably the Museum of Modern Art in New York, which opened two years after its first director, Alfred H. Barr, Jr. visited the Kronprinzenpalais in 1927. On the other hand, the art critic Karl Scheffler, who favoured Impressionism and dis
In economics, hyperinflation is high and accelerating inflation. It erodes the real value of the local currency, as the prices of all goods increase; this causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they switch to more stable foreign currencies the US Dollar. Prices remain stable in terms of other stable currencies. Unlike low inflation, where the process of rising prices is protracted and not noticeable except by studying past market prices, hyperinflation sees a rapid and continuing increase in nominal prices, the nominal cost of goods, in the supply of money. However, the general price level rises more than the money supply as people try ridding themselves of the devaluing currency as as possible; as this happens, the real stock of money decreases considerably. Hyperinflation is associated with some stress to the government budget, such as wars or their aftermath, sociopolitical upheavals, a collapse in aggregate supply or one in export prices, or other crises that make it difficult for the government to collect tax revenue.
A sharp decrease in real tax revenue coupled with a strong need to maintain government spending, together with an inability or unwillingness to borrow, can lead a country into hyperinflation. In 1956, Phillip Cagan wrote The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation, the book regarded as the first serious study of hyperinflation and its effects. In his book, Cagan defined a hyperinflationary episode as starting in the month that the monthly inflation rate exceeds 50%, as ending when the monthly inflation rate drops below 50% and stays that way for at least a year. Economists follow Cagan’s description that hyperinflation occurs when the monthly inflation rate exceeds 50%; the International Accounting Standards Board has issued guidance on accounting rules in a hyperinflationary environment. It does not establish an absolute rule on. Instead, it lists factors that indicate the existence of hyperinflation: The general population prefers to keep its wealth in non-monetary assets or in a stable foreign currency.
Amounts of local currency held are invested to maintain purchasing power The general population regards monetary amounts not in terms of the local currency but in terms of a stable foreign currency. Prices may be quoted in that currency. While there can be a number of causes of high inflation, most hyperinflations have been caused by government budget deficits financed by money creation. Peter Bernholz analysed 29 hyperinflations and concludes that at least 25 of them have been caused in this way. A necessary condition for hyperinflation is the use instead of gold or silver coins. Most hyperinflations in history, with some exceptions, such as the French hyperinflation of 1789-1796, occurred after the use of fiat currency became widespread in the late 19th century; the French hyperinflation took place after the introduction of a non-convertible paper currency, the assignats. Hyperinflation occurs when there is a continuing rapid increase in the amount of money, not supported by a corresponding growth in the output of goods and services.
The increases in price that result from the rapid money creation creates a vicious circle, requiring growing amounts of new money creation to fund government deficits. Hence both monetary inflation and price inflation proceed at a rapid pace; such increasing prices cause widespread unwillingness of the local population to hold the local currency as it loses its buying power. Instead they spend any money they receive, which increases the velocity of money flow; this means. The real stock of money, M/P, decreases. Here M refers to P to the price level; this results in an imbalance between the demand for the money, causing rapid inflation. High inflation rates can result in a loss of confidence in the currency, similar to a bank run; the excessive money supply growth results from the government being either unable or unwilling to finance the government budget through taxation or borrowing, instead it finances the government budget deficit through the printing of money. Governments have sometimes resorted to excessively loose monetary policy, as it allows a government to devalue its debts and reduce a tax increase.
Inflation is a regressive tax on the users of money, but less overt than levied taxes and is therefore harder to understand by ordinary citizens. Inflation can obscure quantitative assessments of the true cost of living, as published price indices only look at data in retrospect, so may increase only months later. Monetary inflation can become hyperinflation if monetary authorities fail to fund increasing government expenses from taxes, government debt, cost cutting, or by other means, because either during the time between recording or levying taxable transactions and collecting the taxes due, the value of the taxes collected falls in real value to a small fraction of the original taxes rece