Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg was an Austrian, American, music theorist, teacher and painter. He was associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, leader of the Second Viennese School. With the rise of the Nazi Party, Schoenberg's works were labeled degenerate music, because they were modernist and atonal, he immigrated to the United States in 1934. Schoenberg's approach, both in terms of harmony and development, has been one of the most influential of 20th-century musical thought. Many European and American composers from at least three generations have consciously extended his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted against it. Schoenberg was known early in his career for extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner, his name would come to personify innovations in atonality that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music. In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale.
He coined the term developing variation and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea. Schoenberg was an influential teacher of composition. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method and his habit of inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century, his polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many significant 20th-century musicologists and critics, including Theodor W. Adorno, Charles Rosen, Carl Dahlhaus, as well as the pianists Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Serkin, Eduard Steuermann, Glenn Gould. Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna. Arnold Schoenberg was born into a lower middle-class Jewish family in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, at "Obere Donaustraße 5", his father Samuel, a native of Pressburg, was a shoe-shopkeeper, his mother Pauline Schoenberg, a native of Prague, was a piano teacher.
Arnold was self-taught. He took only counterpoint lessons with the composer Alexander Zemlinsky, to become his first brother-in-law. In his twenties, Schoenberg earned a living by orchestrating operettas, while composing his own works, such as the string sextet Verklärte Nacht, he made an orchestral version of this, which became one of his most popular pieces. Both Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler recognized Schoenberg's significance as a composer. Strauss turned to a more conservative idiom in his own work after 1909, at that point dismissed Schoenberg. Mahler adopted him as a protégé and continued to support him after Schoenberg's style reached a point Mahler could no longer understand. Mahler worried about. Schoenberg, who had despised and mocked Mahler's music, was converted by the "thunderbolt" of Mahler's Third Symphony, which he considered a work of genius. Afterward he "spoke of Mahler as a saint". In 1898 Schoenberg converted to Christianity in the Lutheran church. According to MacDonald this was to strengthen his attachment to Western European cultural traditions, as a means of self-defence "in a time of resurgent anti-Semitism".
In 1933, after long meditation, he returned to Judaism, because he realised that "his racial and religious heritage was inescapable", to take up an unmistakable position on the side opposing Nazism. He would self-identify as a member of the Jewish religion in life. In October 1901, he married Mathilde Zemlinsky, the sister of the conductor and composer Alexander von Zemlinsky, with whom Schoenberg had been studying since about 1894, he and Mathilde had two children and Georg. Gertrud would marry Schoenberg's pupil Felix Greissle in 1921. During the summer of 1908, his wife Mathilde left him for several months for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl; this period marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work. It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow", the thirteenth song in the cycle Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten, Op. 15, based on the collection of the same name by the German mystical poet Stefan George. This was the first composition without any reference at all to a key.
In this year, he completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No. 2, whose first two movements, though chromatic in color, use traditional key signatures, yet whose final two movements settings of George, daringly weaken the links with traditional tonality. Both movements end on tonic chords, the work is not non-tonal. Breaking with previous string-quartet practice, it incorporates a soprano vocal line. During the summer of 1910, Schoenberg wrote his Harmonielehre, which remains one of the most influential music-theory
Düsseldorf is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, as well as the seventh-largest city in Germany. With a population of 617,280. At the confluence of the Rhine and its tributary Düssel, the city lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Regions with the Cologne Bonn region to its south and the Ruhr to its north. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine; the city is the largest in the German Low Franconian dialect area. "Dorf" meaning "village" in German, the "-dorf" suffix is unusual in the German-speaking area for a settlement of Düsseldorf's size. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world. Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third-busiest airport after those of Frankfurt and Munich, serving as the most important international airport for the inhabitants of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs, is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies.
Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows. As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz. There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences, the academy of arts, the university of music; the city is known for its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music and its Japanese community. When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine, it was from such settlements. The first written mention of Düsseldorf dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine.
Kaiserswerth became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929. In 1186, Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf. On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges. Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen; the Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest. After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals.
Today, it finds its expression in a humorous form and in sports. A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine. Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II, a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, were housed in the Stadtschloss. After his death, the city fell on hard times again after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich.
With him he took the art collection. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815; the Rhine Province's parliament was established in Düsseldorf. By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882.
A Midsummer Night's Dream (Mendelssohn)
At two separate times, Felix Mendelssohn composed music for William Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream. First in 1826, near the start of his career, he wrote a concert overture. In 1842, only a few years before his death, he wrote incidental music for a production of the play, into which he incorporated the existing Overture; the incidental music includes the world-famous Wedding March. The German title reads Ein Sommernachtstraum; the Overture in E major, Op. 21, was written by Mendelssohn at 17 years and 6 months old. Contemporary music scholar George Grove called it "the greatest marvel of early maturity that the world has seen in music", it was written as a concert overture, not associated with any performance of the play. The Overture was written after Mendelssohn had read a German translation of the play in 1826; the translation was with help from Ludwig Tieck. There was a family connection as well: Schlegel's brother Friedrich married Felix Mendelssohn's Aunt Dorothea. While a romantic piece in atmosphere, the Overture incorporates many classical elements, being cast in sonata form and shaped by regular phrasings and harmonic transitions.
The piece is noted for its striking instrumental effects, such as the emulation of scampering'fairy feet' at the beginning and the braying of Bottom as an ass. Heinrich Eduard Jacob, in his biography of the composer, said that Mendelssohn had scribbled the chords after hearing an evening breeze rustle the leaves in the garden of the family's home; the overture begins with four chords in the winds. Following the first theme in the parallel minor representing the dancing fairies, a transition leads to a second theme, that of the lovers; this is followed by the braying of Bottom with the "hee-hawing" being evoked by the strings. A final group of themes, reminiscent of craftsmen and hunting calls, brings the exposition to a close; the fairies dominate most of the development section, while the Lover's theme is played in a minor key. The recapitulation begins with the same opening four chords in the winds, followed by the Fairies theme and the other section in the second theme, including Bottom's braying.
The fairies return, have the final word in the coda, just as in Shakespeare's play. The overture ends once again with the same opening four chords by the winds; the Overture was premiered in Stettin on 20 February 1827, at a concert conducted by Carl Loewe. Mendelssohn had turned 18 just over two weeks earlier, he had to travel 80 miles through a raging snowstorm to get to the concert, his first public appearance. Loewe and Mendelssohn appeared as soloists in Mendelssohn's Concerto in A-flat major for two pianos and orchestra, Mendelssohn alone was the soloist for Carl Maria von Weber's Konzertstück in F minor. After the intermission, he joined the first violins for a performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony; the first British performance of the Overture was conducted by Mendelssohn himself, on 24 June 1829, at the Argyll Rooms in London, at a concert in benefit of the victims of the floods in Silesia, played by an orchestra, assembled by Mendelssohn's friend Sir George Smart. Mendelssohn wrote the incidental music, Op. 61, for A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1842, 16 years after he wrote the Overture.
It was written to a commission from King Frederick William IV of Prussia. Mendelssohn was by the music director of the King's Academy of the Arts and of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. A successful presentation of Sophocles' Antigone on 28 October 1841 at the New Palace in Potsdam, with music by Mendelssohn led to the King asking him for more such music, to plays he enjoyed. A Midsummer Night's Dream was produced on 14 October 1843 at Potsdam; the producer was Ludwig Tieck. This was followed by incidental music for Sophocles' Oedipus at Jean Racine's Athalie; the A Midsummer Night's Dream Overture, Op. 21 written as an independent piece 16 years earlier, was incorporated into the Op. 61 incidental music as its overture, the first of its 14 numbers. There are vocal sections and other purely instrumental movements, including the Scherzo and Wedding March; the vocal numbers include the song "Ye spotted snakes" and the melodramas "Over hill, over dale", "The Spells", "What hempen homespuns", "The Removal of the Spells".
The melodramas served to enhance Shakespeare's text. Act I was played without music; the Scherzo, with its sprightly scoring, dominated by chattering winds and dancing strings, acts as an intermezzo between Acts I and II. The Scherzo leads directly into a passage of text spoken over music. Oberon's arrival is scored with triangle and cymbals; the vocal piece "Ye spotted snakes" opens Act II's second scene. The second Intermezzo comes at the end of the second act. Act III includes a quaint march for the entrance of the Mechanicals. We soon hear music quoted from the Overture to accompany the action; the Nocturne includes a solo horn doubled by bassoons, accompanies the sleeping lovers between Acts III and IV. There is only one melodrama in Act IV; this closes with a reprise of the Nocturne to accompany the mortal lovers' sleep. The intermezzo between Acts IV and V is the famous Wedding March the most popular single piece of music composed by Mendelssohn, one of the most ubiquitous pie
To be in exile means to be away from one's home, while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return. In Roman law, exsilium denoted both voluntary exile and banishment as a capital punishment alternative to death. Deportation was forced exile, entailed the lifelong loss of citizenship and property. Relegation was a milder form of deportation, which preserved the subject's property; the terms diaspora and refugee describe group exile, both voluntary and forced, "government in exile" describes a government of a country that has relocated and argues its legitimacy from outside that country. Voluntary exile is depicted as a form of protest by the person who claims it, to avoid persecution and prosecution, an act of shame or repentance, or isolating oneself to be able to devote time to a particular pursuit. Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In some cases the deposed head of state is allowed to go into exile following a coup or other change of government, allowing a more peaceful transition to take place or to escape justice. A wealthy citizen who moves to a jurisdiction with lower taxes is termed a tax exile. Creative people such as authors and musicians who achieve sudden wealth sometimes choose this solution. Examples include the British-Canadian writer Arthur Hailey, who moved to the Bahamas to avoid taxes following the runaway success of his novels Hotel and Airport, the English rock band the Rolling Stones who, in the spring of 1971, owed more in taxes than they could pay and left Britain before the government could seize their assets. Members of the band all moved to France for a period of time where they recorded music for the album that came to be called Exile on Main Street, the Main Street of the title referring to the French Riviera. In 2012, Eduardo Saverin, one of the founders of Facebook, made headlines by renouncing his U.
S. citizenship before his company's IPO. The dual Brazilian/U. S. Citizen's decision to move to Singapore and renounce his citizenship spurred a bill in the U. S. Senate, the Ex-PATRIOT Act, which would have forced such wealthy tax exiles to pay a special tax in order to re-enter the United States. In some cases a person voluntarily lives in exile to avoid legal issues, such as litigation or criminal prosecution. An example of this is Asil Nadir, who fled to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for 17 years rather than face prosecution in connection with the failed £1.7 bn company Polly Peck in the United Kingdom. Examples include: Iraqi academics asked to return home "from exile" to help rebuild Iraq in 2009 Jews who fled persecution from Nazi Germany People undertaking a religious or civil liberties role in society may be forced into exile due to threat of persecution. For example, nuns were exiled following the Communist coup d'état of 1948 in Czechoslovakia, it is an alternative theory developed by a young anthropologist, Balan in 2018.
According to him, comfortable exile is a “social exile of people who have been excluded from the mainstream society. Such people are considered “aliens” or internal “others” on the grounds of their religious, ethnic, linguistic or caste-based identity and therefore they migrate to a comfortable space elsewhere after having risked their lives to restore representation and civil rights in their own country and capture a comfortable identity to being part of a dominant religion, society or culture.” When a large group, or a whole people or nation is exiled, it can be said that this nation is in exile, or "diaspora". Nations that have been in exile for substantial periods include the Jews, who were deported by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC and again following the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70. Many Jewish prayers include a yearning to return to the Jewish homeland. After the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, following the uprisings against the partitioning powers, many Poles have chosen – or been forced – to go into exile, forming large diasporas in France and the United States.
The entire population of Crimean Tatars that remained in their homeland Crimea was exiled on 18 May 1944 to Central Asia as a form of ethnic cleansing and collective punishment on false accusations. At Diego Garcia, between 1967 and 1973 the British Government forcibly removed some 2,000 Chagossian resident islanders to make way for a military base today jointly operated by the US and UK. Since the Cuban Revolution over one million Cubans have left Cuba. Most of these self-identify as exiles as their motivation for leaving the island is political in nature, it is to be noted that at the time of the Cuban Revolution, Cuba only had a population of 6.5 million, was not a country that had a history of significant emigration, it being the sixth largest recipient of immigrants in the world as of 1958. Most of the exiles' children consider themselves to be Cuban exiles, it is to be noted that under Cuban law, children of Cubans born abroad are considered Cuban citizens. During a foreign occupation or after a coup d'état, a government in exile of a such afflicted country may be established abroad.
One of the most well-known instances of this is the Polish government-in-exile, a government in exile that commanded Polish armed forces operating outside Poland after German occupation during World War II. Other examples include the Free French Forces government of Charles De Gaulle of the same time, the Central Tibetan A
Ernst Toch was an Austrian composer of classical music and film scores. He sought throughout his life to introduce new approaches to music. Toch was born in Leopoldstadt, into the family of a humble Jewish leather dealer when the city was at its 19th-century cultural zenith, he studied philosophy at the University of Vienna, medicine at Heidelberg and music at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt. His main instrument was the piano, he was a pianist of real stature, performing to acclaim throughout much of western Europe. Much of his writing was intended for the piano. Toch continued to grow as an artist and composer throughout his adult life, in America came to influence whole new generations of composers, his first compositions were pastiches in the style of Mozart. His first quartet was performed in Leipzig in 1908, his sixth in the year 1909. In 1909, his Chamber Symphony in F major won the Frankfurt/Main Mozart prize. From this time onwards, Toch dedicated himself to being a full-time composer.
He won the Mendelssohn prize for composition in 1910. In 1913, he was appointed lecturer of both piano and composition at the College of Music in Mannheim. After winning a further five major prizes for his works, he served four years in the army on the Italian Front during World War I. In 1916, he married the daughter of a banker. After World War I, he returned to Mannheim to compose, he received his Ph. D. degree from Heidelberg University in 1921. He taught on the faculty of the Mannheim Conservatory where one of his pupils was Hugo Chaim Adler. Following Hitler's seizure of power in 1933, Toch went into exile, first to Paris and London, where he wrote film scores. In 1935, he accepted an invitation from the New School for Social Research to go to New York City, he could, only secure his living in California by composing film music for Hollywood. Unlike his colleague Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Toch never got much attention in the industry and was top-billed, his score for the chase scene in Shirley Temple's 1937 Heidi remains his best-known piece of film music.
During his residence in California, he was a professor at the University of Southern California, where he taught both music and philosophy. He was a guest lecturer at Harvard University, he wrote a book on The Shaping Forces in Music. From 1950 on, he composed seven symphonies, the third of which received the Pulitzer Prize three years later. In these works, he returned to the late Romantic style of his early years. In 1958, he received the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, he died in Santa Monica and was interred in the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. He is the grandfather of authors Lawrence Toni Weschler, his works exhibit a humorous aspect. In 1930 he invented "Gesprochene Musik," the idiom of the "spoken chorus", his most performed work is the Geographical Fugue or Fuge aus der Geographie, which he himself regarded as an unimportant diversion. He wrote music for films, chamber music, chamber operas, he wrote books dealing with musical theory: Melodielehre and The Shaping Forces in Music.
Toch was considered one of the great avant-garde composers in the pre-Nazi era. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Music in 1956 for his Third Symphony. For his notable students, See: List of music students by teacher: T to Z#Ernst Toch. Symphony No. 1, Op. 72 Symphony No. 2, Op. 73 Symphony No. 3, Op. 75 Symphony No. 4, for speaker, Op. 80 Symphony No. 5 ` Jephtha, Rhapsodic Poem', Op. 89 Symphony No. 6, Op. 93 Symphony No. 7, Op. 95 Concerto for Cello and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 35 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 38 Symphony for Piano and Orchestra, Op. 61 Scherzo in B minor, orchestral version, Op. 11 Phantastishche Nachtmusik, for orchestra, Op. 27 Five Pieces for Chamber Orchestra, Op. 33 Komödie für Orchester in Einem Satz, Op. 42 Vorspiel zu einem Märchen, for orchestra, Op. 43a Fanal for Organ and Orchestra, Op. 45 Bunte Suite, for orchestra, Op. 48 Kleine Ouvertüre zu der Fächer, for orchestra, Op. 51 Kleine Theater-Suite, for orchestra, Op. 54 Big Ben: Variation-Fantasy on the Westminster Chimes, for orchestra, Op. 62 Pinocchio: A Merry Overture for Orchestra The Idle Stroller Suite, for orchestra The Covenant, for orchestra and narrator Hyperion: A Dramatic Prelude for Orchestra, Op. 71 Circus: An Overture, for orchestra Notturno, for orchestra, Op. 77 Peter Pan, for orchestra, Op. 76 Intermezzo for orchestra Epilogue for orchestra Short Story for orchestra The Enamour
Boris Blacher was a German composer and librettist. Blacher was born when his parents were living within a Russian-speaking community in the Manchurian town of Niuzhuang, he spent his first years in China and in the Asian parts of Russia, in 1919, he came to live in Harbin. In 1922, after finishing school, he went to Berlin where he began to study architecture and mathematics. Two years he turned to music and studied composition with Friedrich Koch, his career was interrupted by National Socialism. He lost his teaching post at the Dresden Conservatory, his career resumed after 1945, he became president of the Academy of Arts, is today regarded as one of the most influential music figures of his time. His students include Aribert Reimann, Isang Yun, Maki Ishii, Fritz Geißler, Giselher Klebe, Heimo Erbse, Richard Aaker Trythall, Klaus Huber, Francis Burt, Gottfried von Einem, Kalevi Aho and Richard Wernick. See: List of music students by teacher: A to B#Boris Blacher. Blacher was married to the pianist Gerty Blacher-Herzog.
They had four children including the German actress Tatjana Blacher and the international violinist Kolja Blacher. He died in Berlin in 1975, aged 72, he was buried in an Ehrengrab in the Waldfriedhof Berlin. Works include: 1929: Habemeajaja, chamber opera, premiered 1987 1931: Streichtrio - Drei Studien über jüdische Volkslieder 1932: Kleine Marschmusik 1934: Alla Marcia 1937: Concertante Music for Orchestra 1938: Symphony 1938: Dance Scenes La Vie, ballet in one act 1940: Fürstin Tarakanowa, opera 1940: String Quartet No. 2 1943: Romeo und Julia, chamber opera, premiered Salzburg Festival 1950 1943: Drei Psalmen for baritone & piano 1945: Partita for strings & 6 percussion 1946: Chiarina, ballet in one act 1946: Die Flut, radio opera 1947: Orchestral Variations on a Theme by Paganini Op.26 1948: Die Nachtschwalbe, Zeitoper in one act 1948: Violin Concerto 1949: Hamlet, ballet in a prologue and three scenes after Shakespeare by Tatjana Gsovsky 1949/52: Preußisches Märchen, ballet-opera in six scenes 1950: Lysistrata, ballet in three scenes after Aristophanes 1952: Piano Concerto No. 2 1953: Abstrakte Oper Nr.
1, experimental opera in one act 1954: Viola Concerto, Op. 48 1955: Der Mohr von Venedig, ballet in 6 scenes and an epilogue after Shakespeare by Erika Hanka 1956: Orchester-Fantasie Op. 51 1960: Rosamunde Floris, opera 1963: Konzertstück for Wind Quintet and Strings 1964: Cello Concerto, premiered by Siegfried Palm 1964: Zwischenfälle bei einer Notlandung, electronic opera 1965: Tristan, ballet in seven scenes by Tatjana Gsovsky Ariadne, short opera 1969: Anacaona, six poems by Alfred Tennyson about the Indian Queen Anacaona 1969: 200 000 Taler, opera after Sholem Aleichem's story "Dos groijse Gewins". Boris Blacher page on Boosey & Hawkes website Boris Blacher A Centenary Sketch by Dr David C F Wright
The Reichsmusikkammer was a Nazi institution. It promoted "good German music", composed by Aryans and seen as consistent with Nazi ideals, while suppressing other, "degenerate" music, which included atonal music and music by Jewish composers; the Institute was founded in 1933 by Joseph Goebbels and the Reichskulturkammer, it operated until the fall of the Third Reich in 1945. One of the Institute's primary goals — that of extolling and promoting "good German music" that of Beethoven, Bach, Haydn, Brahms and the like — was to legitimize the claimed world supremacy of Germany culturally; these composers and their music were re-interpreted ideologically to extol German virtues and cultural identity. Music and composers who did not fall into the RMK's definition of "good German music" were deprecated and banned; the Institute proscribed various great composers of the past, including the Jewish-by-birth composers Mahler and Schoenberg, Debussy, who had married a Jew. The music of politically dissident composers such as Alban Berg was banned.
And composers whose music had been considered sexually suggestive or savage, such as Hindemith and the like, were denounced as "degenerate" and banned. Jazz and swing music were proscribed. Jazz was labelled Negermusik, swing music was associated with various Jewish bandleaders and composers such as Artie Shaw and Benny Goodman. Proscribed were Jewish Tin Pan Alley composers like Irving Berlin and George Gershwin; the Reichsmusikkammer functioned as a musicians' guild, with composers, conductors and instrument manufacturers being obliged to join in order to pursue or continue a career in music. Membership could be denied on grounds of race or politics. Dozens of composers, songwriters and musicians were ruined or forced into exile because for one reason or another they did not adhere to or comply with the RMK's standards; the career, for instance, of popular operetta composer Leon Jessel was destroyed by the Institute when it promoted boycotts of his music and banned it. Although Joseph Goebbels and other high-level Nazis in the Reichskulturkammer controlled the RMK, titular presidents and vice-presidents were appointed.
PresidentBecause of his international fame, Richard Strauss, although a critic of the Nazi Reich, was installed as president of the Reichsmusikkammer in November 1933. Strauss's motivations in accepting the post were to protect his Jewish daughter-in-law and Jewish grandchildren, to preserve and conduct the music of banned composers like Mahler and Mendelssohn, he was dismissed from the post in June 1935, when a letter to his Jewish librettist Stefan Zweig, critical of Nazi racial profiling, was intercepted by the Gestapo. Peter Raabe was appointed president after Strauss's dismissal. For much of his tenure as president, Raabe was not the sole leader regarding musical culture in the Reich: In 1936 Goebbels appointed Heinz Drewes general music director of Altenburg, to head a department of music in the Propaganda Ministry, resulting in confused and tangled roles. Raabe tried to resign in 1938, but his resignation was not accepted, he served until the end of the Reich in 1945. Vice-presidentRenowned conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler was appointed vice-president of the Institute in 1933.
However, he refused to adhere to the ban on Hindemith's Mathis der Maler, resigned in 1934 condemning anti-Semitism. Paul Graener was appointed vice-president upon Furtwängler's resignation, he resigned in 1941. Reich Music Examination Office Swing Kids Degenerate art Cultural Bolshevism Art of the Third Reich "Reichskulturkammer and Reichsmusikkammer". Music and the Holocaust. "Degenerate" Music in Nazi Germany "Degenerate" Music at Guide to the Holocaust