Add It Up (1981–1993)
Add It Up is a compilation album released by Violent Femmes in 1993. All tracks written except where noted. Gordon Gano – Vocals, Guitar Brian Ritchie – Bass, Vocals Victor DeLorenzo – Drums, Vocals Ashwin Batish – Sitar on "Lies" Album – Billboard
Reduction in rank
Reduction in rank may refer to three separate concepts: In military law, a reduction in rank or degradation is a demotion in military rank as punishment for a crime or wrongdoing, imposed by a court-martial or other authority. It may be imposed in conjunction with other punishments, such as a bad conduct or dishonorable discharge, loss of wages, confinement to barracks, or imprisonment in a military prison. Reduction in rank may refer to the voluntary, non-punitive practice of taking a lower rank as part of joining another military unit or military service. For example, those who join the Special Air Service or Australian Special Air Service Regiment take the rank of trooper a lower rank than their previous rank but with greater pay and responsibilities. There is a reversion in rank after an officer has been temporarily promoted to a higher rank while occupying a position requiring that rank. In the US military, this occurs most to three- or four-star general or flag officers, who can be reduced in rank to no lower than their permanent rank of two stars.
This occurs because three- and four-star ranks are always temporary ranks and are linked to their position's office. A three- or four-star officer could revert non-punitively to a lower rank because they no longer hold a position bearing the higher rank. Reversion of this type is less usual for lower US ranks. Reduction in rank was a Roman military punishment. In the United States, courts-martial may adjudge reduction to any enlisted member to the lowest or any intermediate pay grade. However, a summary court-martial may not sentence a person to reduction by more than one grade. Article 15 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice authorizes commanding officers to "in addition to or in lieu of admonition or reprimand" impose "reduction to the next inferior pay grade, if the grade from which demoted is within the promotion authority of the officer imposing the reduction or any officer subordinate to the one who imposes the reduction." Additionally, an officer of the grade of major, lieutenant commander, or above is authorized to impose "reduction to the lowest or any intermediate pay grade, if the grade from which demoted is within the promotion authority of the officer imposing the reduction or any officer subordinate to the one who imposes the reduction, but an enlisted member in a pay grade above E-4 may not be reduced more than two pay grades."Additionally, article 58a of the UCMJ provides that, unless otherwise provided in regulation, an enlisted member above the pay grade of E-1 sentenced by a court-martial to confinement, a dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge, or hard labor without confinement, shall be automatically reduced to the pay grade of E-1.
In other countries, there is such a punishment, sometimes much more severe than that in the US. It is assigned for serious crimes in peacetime and wartime. In the Russian Empire and in the USSR, most it was a demotion in rank to private. In the Russian Empire to this punishment was added other penalties such as beatings with whips, which were all the staff. Personnel lined up in formation each dealt one blow sentenced. Most this has led to the death of the convict from his injuries. Lieutenant-General Marquis Philip Osipovich Paulucci, being quartermaster General of the Caucasus army, on 3 November 1810, wrote in his diary: "the Tiflis infantry regiment non-commissioned officer Ermolaev, the former in the recruit depot when you split the party on the shelves, took the recruit 5 rubles brazenly. For any impermissible and intolerable service act, reducted thereof in the ordinary non-commissioned officer, require him to drive the rods through 500 people one time, taken money from him to take away and give to a recruit.
Flogging this same to do tomorrow in 8 hours. This case put the body on view at the end of the Lord to the heads of regiments are watched so that the lower ranks no one had injustices..." Demoted in rank, with the exception only of occasions a great military feat, can get officer rank except by Highest permission about not reading an incurred penalty obstacle to the awards. On the basis of article 60, 556, 634, 727 kN. SV VII. military. Post. Demoted cannot be produced in the non-commissioned officers, not assigned to any trip, you don't leave and transferred to the reserve only with a special permission. In the USSR, demotion in rank to private begin to see use as a punishment after the creation of the red army; as a rule, it punished those who made unforgivable mistakes during combat those who led to serious losses or tactical defeat. It punished those who committed serious crimes while serving. In the second case, a demotion in rank was not the only punishment administered, accompanied an imprisonment or execution.
During the second world war, those demoted in rank were not imprisoned away from the front lines but instead made to serve in the penal divisions. After the second world war, the punishment no longer meant execution or service in a penal unit, but did mean dismissal from service and forfeiture of all military awards. Most it was imposed for serious crimes which entail criminal liability. In modern Russia this post-WW2 version of the punishment is still used. For example, during the Third Reich, the SS officer Helmut Knochen was demoted in rank because, during the coup attempt of 20 July 1944, he did not adequately resist the conspirators, got himself arrested. Cashiering
Biodegradation is the breakdown of organic matter by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi. The process of biodegradation can be divided into three stages: biodeterioration and assimilation. Biodeterioration is a surface-level degradation that modifies the mechanical and chemical properties of the material; this stage occurs when the material is exposed to abiotic factors in the outdoor environment and allows for further degradation by weakening the material's structure. Some abiotic factors that influence these initial changes are compression, light and chemicals in the environment. While biodeterioration occurs as the first stage of biodegradation, it can in some cases be parallel to biofragmentation. Biofragmentation of a polymer is the lytic process in which bonds within a polymer are cleaved, generating oligomers and monomers in its place; the steps taken to fragment these materials differ based on the presence of oxygen in the system. The breakdown of materials by microorganisms when oxygen is present is aerobic digestion, the breakdown of materials when is oxygen is not present is anaerobic digestion.
The main difference between these processes is that anaerobic reactions produce methane, while aerobic reactions do not. In addition, aerobic digestion occurs more than anaerobic digestion, while anaerobic digestion does a better job reducing the volume and mass of the material. Due to anaerobic digestion's ability to reduce the volume and mass of waste materials and produce a natural gas, anaerobic digestion technology is used for waste management systems and as a source of local, renewable energy; the resulting products from biofragmentation are integrated into microbial cells, this is the assimilation stage. Some of the products from fragmentation are transported within the cell by membrane carriers. However, others still have to undergo biotransformation reactions to yield products that can be transported inside the cell. Once inside the cell, the products enter catabolic pathways that either lead to the production of adenosine triphosphate or elements of the cells structure. In practice all chemical compounds and materials are subject to biodegradation processes.
The significance, however, is in the relative rates of such processes, such as days, years or centuries. A number of factors determine the rate. Factors include light, water and temperature; the degradation rate of many organic compounds is limited by their bioavailability, the rate at which a substance is absorbed into a system or made available at the site of physiological activity, as compounds must be released into solution before organisms can degrade them. The rate of biodegradation can be measured in a number of ways. Respirometry tests can be used for aerobic microbes. First one places a solid waste sample in a container with microorganisms and soil, aerates the mixture. Over the course of several days, microorganisms digest the sample bit by bit and produce carbon dioxide – the resulting amount of CO2 serves as an indicator of degradation. Biodegradability can be measured by anaerobic microbes and the amount of methane or alloy that they are able to produce. It’s important to note factors that effect biodegradation rates during product testing to ensure that the results produced are accurate and reliable.
Several materials will test as being biodegradable under optimal conditions in a lab for approval but these results may not reflect real world outcomes where factors are more variable. For example, a material may have tested as biodegrading at a high rate in the lab may not degrade at a high rate in a landfill because landfills lack light and microbial activity that are necessary for degradation to occur. Thus, it is important that there are standards for plastic biodegradable products, which have a large impact on the environment; the development and use of accurate standard test methods can help ensure that all plastics that are being produced and commercialized will biodegrade in natural environments. One test, developed for this purpose is DINV 54900; the term Biodegradable Plastics refers to a material that maintains its mechanical strength during practical use but break down into low-weight compounds and non-toxic byproducts after their use. This breakdown is made possible through an attack of microorganisms on the material, a non-water soluble polymer.
Such materials can be obtained through chemical synthesis, fermentation by microorganisms, from chemically modified natural products. Plastics biodegrade at variable rates. PVC-based plumbing is selected for handling sewage; some packaging materials on the other hand are being developed that would degrade upon exposure to the environment. Examples of synthetic polymers that biodegrade include polycaprolactone, other polyesters and aromatic-aliphatic esters, due to their ester bonds being susceptible to attack by water. A prominent example is poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, the renewably derived polylactic acid, the synthetic polycaprolactone. Others are the cellulose-based cellulose celluloid. Under low oxygen conditions plastics break down more slowly; the breakdown process can be accelerated in specially designed compost heap. Starch-based plastics will degrade within two to four months in a home compost bin, while polylactic acid is undecomposed, requiring higher temperatures. Polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone-starch composites decompose slower, but the starch content accelerate
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids and some salts. These changes are undesirable, such as cracking and chemical disintegration of products or, more desirable, as in biodegradation, or deliberately lowering the molecular weight of a polymer for recycling; the changes in properties are termed "aging". In a finished product such a change is to be delayed. Degradation can be useful for recycling/reusing the polymer waste to prevent or reduce environmental pollution. Degradation can be induced deliberately to assist structure determination. Polymeric molecules are large, their unique and useful properties are a result of their size. Any loss in chain length is a primary cause of premature cracking. Today there are seven commodity polymers in use: polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and poly.
These make up nearly 98 % of all plastics encountered in daily life. Each of these polymers has its own characteristic modes of degradation and resistances to heat and chemicals. Polyethylene and poly are sensitive to oxidation and UV radiation, while PVC may discolor at high temperatures due to loss of hydrogen chloride gas, become brittle. PET is sensitive to hydrolysis and attack by strong acids, while polycarbonate depolymerizes when exposed to strong alkalis. For example, polyethylene degrades by random scission—that is by a random breakage of the linkages that hold the atoms of the polymer together; when this polymer is heated above 450 Celsius it becomes a complex mixture of molecules of various sizes that resemble gasoline. Other polymers—like polyalphamethylstyrene—undergo'specific' chain scission with breakage occurring only at the ends. Most polymers can be degraded by photolysis to give lower molecular weight molecules. Electromagnetic waves with the energy of visible light or higher, such as ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays are involved in such reactions.
Chain-growth polymers like poly can be degraded by thermolysis at high temperatures to give monomers, oils and water. The degradation takes place by: Step-growth polymers like polyesters and polycarbonates can be degraded by solvolysis and hydrolysis to give lower molecular weight molecules; the hydrolysis takes place in the presence of water containing a base as catalyst. Polyamide is sensitive to degradation by acids and polyamide mouldings will crack when attacked by strong acids. For example, the fracture surface of a fuel connector showed the progressive growth of the crack from acid attack to the final cusp of polymer; the problem is known as stress corrosion cracking, in this case was caused by hydrolysis of the polymer. It was the reverse reaction of the synthesis of the polymer: Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack. Tiny traces of the gas in the air will attack double bonds in rubber chains, with Natural rubber, Styrene-butadiene rubber and NBR being most sensitive to degradation.
Ozone cracks form in products under tension, but the critical strain is small. The cracks are always oriented at right angles to the strain axis, so will form around the circumference in a rubber tube bent over; such cracks are dangerous when they occur in fuel pipes because the cracks will grow from the outside exposed surfaces into the bore of the pipe, fuel leakage and fire may follow. The problem of ozone cracking can be prevented by adding anti-ozonants to the rubber before vulcanization. Ozone cracks were seen in automobile tire sidewalls, but are now seen thanks to these additives. On the other hand, the problem seals; the polymers are susceptible to attack by atmospheric oxygen at elevated temperatures encountered during processing to shape. Many process methods such as extrusion and injection moulding involve pumping molten polymer into tools, the high temperatures needed for melting may result in oxidation unless precautions are taken. For example, a forearm crutch snapped and the user was injured in the resulting fall.
The crutch had fractured across a polypropylene insert within the aluminium tube of the device, infra-red spectroscopy of the material showed that it had oxidized, possible as a result of poor moulding. Oxidation is relatively easy to detect owing to the strong absorption by the carbonyl group in the spectrum of polyolefins. Polypropylene has a simple spectrum with few peaks at the carbonyl position. Oxidation tends to start at tertiary carbon atoms because the free radicals formed here are more stable and longer lasting, making them more susceptible to attack by oxygen; the carbonyl group can be further oxidised to break the chain, this weakens the material by lowering its molecular weight, cracks start to grow in the regions affected. Polymer degradation by galvanic action was first described in the technical literature in 1990; this was the discovery that "plastics can corrode", i.e. polymer degradation may occur through galvanic action similar to that of metals under certain conditions and has been referred to as the "Faudree Effect".
In the aerospace field, this finding has contributed to aircraft safety those aircraft that use C
Canon law is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law, or operational policy, governing the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion; the way that such church law is legislated, interpreted and at times adjudicated varies among these three bodies of churches. In all three traditions, a canon was a rule adopted by a church council. Greek kanon / Ancient Greek: κανών, Arabic Qaanoon / قانون, Hebrew kaneh / קנה, "straight"; the Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Early Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions which are part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. In the Fourth century the First Council of Nicaea calls canons the disciplinary measures of the Church: the term canon, κανὠν, means in Greek, a rule.
There is a early distinction between the rules enacted by the Church and the legislative measures taken by the State called leges, Latin for laws. In the Catholic Church, canon law is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the Church's hierarchical authorities to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church. However, despite the power of the church and its insistence on creating a specific format for the way its members would live their lives, it was not followed. Powerful and wealthy individuals simply did not abide by the rules and were allowed to approach family life and marriage how they saw fit. A prime instance of this was shown through annulments granted by the church; the church disregarded and disallowed divorce. However, powerful men could annul their marriages; this was noteworthy due to the fact that an annulment was distorting to marriage law and contradicting to the disallowance of divorce.
An annulment would not only cease a marriage but rather end the marriage and rule that the marriage was never valid, nor did it formally exist. Another potent example of Canon Law not being enforced is in regards to polygyny. Men having multiple wives was outright banned by the Catholic church. However, as seen in the example of wealthy and powerful individuals it was allowed. Men who were powerful enough were allowed to have multiple wives, concubines and could have sex prior to marriage. Despite the aforementioned blatant nonobservance to Canon Law, the codes set in place did shape and provide a code that the majority of the members of the catholic church directly abode and lived their lives according to. In the Latin Church, positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or natural law, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from the supreme legislator, who possesses the totality of legislative and judicial power in his person, while particular laws derive formal authority from a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator.
The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. The Catholic Church includes the main five rites of churches which are in full union with the Holy See and the Latin Church: Alexandrian Rite Churches which include the Coptic Catholic Church and Ethiopian Catholic Church. West Syriac Rite which includes the Maronite Church, Syriac Catholic Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. Armenian Rite Church which includes the Armenian Catholic Church. Byzantine Rite Churches which include the Albanian Greek Catholic Church, Belarusian Greek Catholic Church, Bulgarian Church, Byzantine Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia, Greek Church, Hungarian Greek Catholic Church, Italo-Albanian Church, Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, Melkite Church, Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic, Russian Church, Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church, Slovak Greek Catholic Church and Ukrainian Catholic Church. East Syriac Rite Churches which includes the Chaldean Syro-Malabar Church.
All of these church groups are in full communion with the Supreme Pontiff and are subject to the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. The Catholic Church has what is claimed to be the oldest continuously functioning internal legal system in Western Europe, much than Roman law but predating the evolution of modern European civil law traditions. What began with rules adopted by the Apostles at the Council of Jerusalem in the first century has developed into a complex legal system encapsulating not just norms of the New Testament, but some elements of the Hebrew, Visigothic and Celtic legal traditions; the history of Latin canon law can be divided into four periods: the jus antiquum, the jus novum, the jus novissimum and the Code of Canon Law. In relation to the Code, history can be divided into the jus novum; the canon law of the Eastern Catholic Churches, which had developed some different disciplines and practices, underwent its own process of codification, resulting in the Code of Canons of the Eastern C
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air and soil. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable; as indicated by the I=PAT equation, environmental impact or degradation is caused by the combination of an very large and increasing human population, continually increasing economic growth or per capita affluence, the application of resource-depleting and polluting technology. Environmental degradation is one of the ten threats cautioned by the High-level Panel on Threats and Change of the United Nations; the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "the reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological objectives, needs". Environmental degradation comes in many types; when natural habitats are destroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteract this problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management.
One major component of environmental degradation is the depletion of the resource of fresh water on Earth. Only 2.5g% of all of the water on Earth is fresh water, with the rest being salt water. 69% of fresh water is frozen in ice caps located on Antarctica and Greenland, so only 30% of the 2.5% of fresh water is available for consumption. Fresh water is an exceptionally important resource, since life on Earth is dependent on it. Water transports nutrients and chemicals within the biosphere to all forms of life, sustains both plants and animals, moulds the surface of the Earth with transportation and deposition of materials; the current top three uses of fresh water account for 95% of its consumption. It is estimated that one in three people over the entire globe are facing water shortages one-fifth of the world population live in areas of physical water scarcity, one quarter of the world's population live in a developing country that lacks the necessary infrastructure to use water from available rivers and aquifers.
Water scarcity is an increasing problem due to many foreseen issues in the future including population growth, increased urbanization, higher standards of living, climate change. Climate change affects the Earth's water supply in a large number of ways, it is predicted that the mean global temperature will rise in the coming years due to a number of forces affecting the climate. The amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide will rise, both of these will influence water resources. Transpiration from plants can be affected by a rise in atmospheric CO2, which can decrease their use of water, but can raise their use of water from possible increases of leaf area. Temperature rise can reduce the snow season in the winter and increase the intensity of the melting snow leading to peak runoff of this, affecting soil moisture and drought risks, storage capacities depending on the area. Warmer winter temperatures cause a decrease in snowpack, which can result in diminished water resources during summer; this is important at mid-latitudes and in mountain regions that depend on glacial runoff to replenish their river systems and groundwater supplies, making these areas vulnerable to water shortages over time.
Thermal expansion of water and increased melting of oceanic glaciers from an increase in temperature gives way to a rise in sea level. This can affect the fresh water supply to coastal areas as well; as river mouths and deltas with higher salinity get pushed further inland, an intrusion of saltwater results in an increase of salinity in reservoirs and aquifers. Sea-level rise may consequently be caused by a depletion of groundwater, as climate change can affect the hydrologic cycle in a number of ways. Uneven distributions of increased temperatures and increased precipitation around the globe results in water surpluses and deficits, but a global decrease in groundwater suggests a rise in sea level after meltwater and thermal expansion were accounted for, which can provide a positive feedback to the problems sea-level rise causes to fresh-water supply. A rise in air temperature results in a rise in water temperature, very significant in water degradation as the water would become more susceptible to bacterial growth.
An increase in water temperature can affect ecosystems because of a species' sensitivity to temperature, by inducing changes in a body of water's self-purification system from decreased amounts of dissolved oxygen in the water due to rises in temperature. A rise in global temperatures is predicted to correlate with an increase in global precipitation but because of increased runoff, increased rates of soil erosion, mass movement of land, a decline in water quality is probable, because while water will carry more nutrients it will carry more contaminants. While
Cashiering within military forces, is a ritual dismissal of an individual from some position of responsibility for a breach of discipline. From the Flemish'Kasseren' the phrase entered the English language in the late 16th century, during the wars in the Low Countries. Although the O. E. D. states that the first printed use in this sense appears in Shakespeare's Othello, it appeared in the 1595 tract The Estate of English Fugitives by Lewes Lewkenor,'imploring his help and assistance in so hard an extremity, who for recompence charitably cashiered them all without the receipt of one penny'. It is associated with the public degradation of disgraced military officers. Prior to World War I this aspect of cashiering sometimes involved a parade-ground ceremony in front of assembled troops with the destruction of symbols of status: epaulettes ripped off shoulders and insignia stripped, swords broken, caps knocked away, medals torn off and dashed upon the ground; the term originated in the era when British Army officers bought their commissions.
The commission purchase price was a cash bond for good behaviour, forfeited to the Army's cashiers in the event of cowardice, desertion or gross misbehaviour. Famous victims of cashiering include Francis Mitchell, Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Alfred Dreyfus, Philippe Pétain. While most associated with Captain Dreyfus, the ceremony of formal degradation occurred several times in the French military under the Third Republic. At least one other army officer and a naval officer were subjected to the ritual of having their swords broken and the insignia and buttons publicly torn from their uniforms, after being found guilty of charges of treason. More a number of NCOs and private soldiers underwent similar punishments for committing various serious offenses, before execution or imprisonment. Demotion Drumming out Dishonorable discharge Military discipline Political rehabilitation Reduction in rank