Eyvan is a city in and capital of Eyvan County, Ilam Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 27,752, in 6,010 families. Eyvan is the northernmost city of Ilam province; the city is predominantly inhabited by Kurdish people. The kurdish language spoken in the city is similar to the cities in neighboring Kermanshah province which are Gilan-e-gharb, Islamabad-e-gharb, Qasr-e Shirin, Sarpole Zahab which all together speak kalhori kurdish, its neighboring cities are ilam city both of them being less than 100 km away. Eyvan has a Mediterranean climate with cold and wet winters; the annual precipitation is near 700 mm. The average temperature in July is 38 degrees Celsius while in January the average temperature is -10 degrees Celsius. Kalhor tribe Kermanshahis اطلس گیتاشناسی استانهای ایران Map of Ilam showing the location of Eyvan
An Imāmzādeh is a word found in the Persian and Urdu languages, that refers to an immediate descendant of a Shi'i Imam. Imamzadeh means descendent of an imam. There are many other different ways of spelling this term; some of these are imamzada and emamzadah. These all have the same meanings. Imamzadeh are the Syed's or Syeda's as they have descended from the Imams. Imamzadeh is a term for a shrine-tomb of the descendants of Imams, who are directly related to Muhammad; these shrines are only for the descendants of imams and they are not for imams themselves. Imamzadehs are sayyids, though not all sayyids are considered imamzadehs; these shrine-tombs pilgrimages. These shrine-tombs are believed to have miraculous properties and the ability to heal. Many of these are located in Iraq, Medina and Iran. There are many important imamzadehs. Two of these are Fātimah bint Mūsā, the sister of Imam Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Twelver Imam, Zaynab bint Ali, daughter of Ali, considered by Shi'i Muslims to be the first Imam and by Sunni Muslims as the fourth Rashid.
Imamzadehs are not traditionally women. Many people visit the imamzadehs that are close to them. There are special ziyarat-namas for many of the imamzadehs; some of these pilgrimages happen annually during the certain time of year. Some of the imamzadehs are not as well kept as others. According to Reinisch an imamzadeh that he saw was in ruins, though it is still important. Imamzadeh Hamzah, Tabriz Imamzadeh Ja'far, Borujerd Imamzadeh Saleh, Shemiran Imamzadeh Sultan Mutahhar Sultan Ali at Mashhad-e Ardehal Shah-Abdol-Azim shrine Shah Cheragh Imamzadeh Emamzadeh Ahmad Emamzadeh Esmaeil, Isfahan Emamzadeh Haroun-e-Velayat Emamzadeh Jafar Emamzadeh Shah Zeyd Imamzadeh Hossein Sayyid Holiest sites in Shia Islam Ziyarat Iranian architecture
An iwan is a rectangular hall or space vaulted, walled on three sides, with one end open. The formal gateway to the iwan is called pishtaq, a Persian term for a portal projecting from the facade of a building decorated with calligraphy bands, glazed tilework, geometric designs. Since the definition allows for some interpretation, the overall forms and characteristics can vary in terms of scale, material, or decoration. Iwans are most associated with Islamic architecture; the root of this term is Old Persian'Apadana' where king Darius I declares in an inscription, "I, Darius... had this'Apadana' constructed...". Apadana is a name given to this particular palace in modern literature, although the name implies a type of structure, the iwan, not a particular palace; the term in Old Persian means "unprotected", the design allows the structure to be open to the elements on one side. At Persepolis, the'apadana' takes the form of a veranda, that is, a flat roof held up by columns, rather than a vault — but still open to the elements on only one side.
A comparable structure is found 2000 years in Isfahan at the Palace of Chehel Sotoun. By the time of the Parthian and the Sasanian dynasties, the iwan had emerged as two types of structure: the old columned one, a newer vaulted structure—both, carrying the same native name of apadana/iwan, because both types are "unprotected". Iwans were a trademark of the Parthian Empire and the Sassanid architecture of Persia finding their way throughout the Arab and Islamic architecture which started developing in 7th century AD, after the period of Muhammad; this development reached its peak during the Seljuki era, when iwans became a fundamental unit in architecture, the Mughal architecture. The form is not confined to any particular function, is found in buildings for either secular or religious uses, in both public and residential architecture. Ivan is an alternative form of the name, reflecting the Persian pronunciation. Many scholars - including Edward Keall, André Godard, Roman Ghirshman, Mary Boyce - discuss the invention of the iwan in Mesopotamia, the area around today's Iraq.
Although debate remains among scholars as to how the iwan developed, there is a general consensus that the iwan evolved locally, was thus not imported from another area. Similar structures, known as "pesgams", were found in many Zoroastrian homes in Yazd, where two or four halls would open onto a central court; the feature which most distinctly makes the iwan a landmark development in the history of Ancient Near Eastern architecture is the incorporation of a vaulted ceiling. A vault is defined as a ceiling made from arches, known as arcuated constructed with stone, concrete, or bricks. Earlier buildings would be covered in a trabeated manner, with post and lintel beams. However, vaulted ceilings did exist in the ancient world before the invention of the iwan, both within Mesopotamia and outside it. Mesopotamian examples include Susa, where the Elamites vaulted many of their buildings with barrel vaults, Nineveh, where the Assyrians vaulted their passages for fortification purposes. Outside Mesopotamia, a number of extant vaulted structures stand, including many examples from Ancient Egypt and the Mycenaeans.
For example, the Mycenaean Treasury of Atreus, constructed around 1250 BCE, features a large corbelled dome. Egyptian architecture began to use vaulting in its structures after the Third Dynasty, after around 2600 BCE, constructing early barrel vaults using mud bricks. Although some scholars have asserted that the iwan form may have developed under the Seleucids, today most scholars agree that the Parthians were the inventors of the iwan. One of the earliest Parthian iwans was found at Seleucia, located on the Tigris River, where the shift from post-and-lintel construction to vaulting occurred around the 1st century CE. Other early iwans have been suggested at Ashur, where two buildings containing iwan-like foundations were found; the first building, located near the ruins of a ziggurat, featured a three-iwan façade. The proximity of the building to a ziggurat suggests that it may have been used for religious preparations or rituals, it could indicate a palatial building, as it was common for the ziggurat and palace to be situated next to one another in the Ancient Near East.
What seems to be a palace courtyard had iwans on each side, which remained a common features well into Islamic times. The second iwan building is located across a courtyard, Walter Andrae, a German archaeologist, suggested that it served as an administrative building rather than as a religious center because there is no evidence of inscriptions or wall carvings. Although the absence of inscriptions or carvings does not equate to a civic function, it was not uncommon for iwans to serve a secular use, as they were incorporated into palaces and community spaces. Other early sites including Parthian iwans include Hatra, the Parthian ruins at Dura Europos, Uruk; the Sasanian Persians favored the iwan form, adopted it into much of their architecture. The Parthian iwan led to other spaces. In contrast, the Sasanian iwan served as a grand entran
Ilam Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is located in the western part of the country, sharing 425 kilometers of border with Iraq, bordering on the provinces of Kermanshah and Khuzestan; the provincial capital is the city of Ilam. The population of the province is 600,000 people. Covering an area of 19,086 square kilometers, Ilam Province includes the cities of Ilam, Dehloran, Darreh Shahr, Eyvan and Arkwaz; when the regions of Iran were created in 2014, the province was placed in Region 4. Ilam province covers an area of about 4.1 percent of the country. The northwest-southeast alignment of Zagros Mountains forms the terrain of the area; the two important mountain ridges are Dinar Kuh. Being located in the western-most part of Zagross Mountains gives the province its special landscape including deserts in the western counties of Mehran and Dehloran bordering Iraq which feature hot summers and mild winters and low precipitations and the mountainous regions of east like Abdanan and Darreh Shahr which are milder and receive higher precipitations in form of rain, although snow is not rare.
The northern region of Ilam, due to its altitude, experiences cold winters and mild summers and receives the highest amount of precipitation in the province. The variety of land is one of the main reasons. Ilam Province is divided into 10 counties: Ilam is inhabited by various people, with Kurds in the majority with 79.6%, followed by Lurs with 10.7%, Laks and Arabs. In Abdanan and Mehran the majority of residents speak in Kurdish and Luri respectively. In Darreh Shahr, the majority of residents speak in Laki and Lurish, there are some tribes of Lurs such as Shuhans and Kaydkhordeh living in the southern and eastern parts of the province; the north is inhabited by Kurdish tribes who speak two dialects: Kalhuri and Feyli. The majority are Feyli, such as those of Arkawâzi, Beyrey and Malek Shahi. Most residents in Ilam province are Shi'a Muslims. Limited archaeological studies and discoveries indicate 6,000 years of tribal residence in Ilam. Historical evidence indicates. In some of the epigraphs left from Sumerian history, this territory was called Alam, Alamo, or Alamto meaning the high lands where the sun rises.
In October 2018, officials announced that dozens of historical objects dating back to 1,200 years ago have been discovered during archaeological excavations in the village of Sarab-e Kalan. The name "Pahla" was used for the area include Ilam province by the early Muslim geographer until the 13th century, after which when Lurs from Luristan captured the Kurdish populated regions of Ilam and part of Kermanshah provinces the name "Luristan or Pushtkooh" came to replace it. Due to the name of Luristan or Pushtkooh, the Kurdish population in Pushtkooh are called Lur wrongly. Arabic texts recorded the name as "Fahla" or "Bahla". Subsequently, "Fahla" evolved to'Faila' and'Faili' -- the modern name of the Pahli Kurds, it is worthy to note that still a small town called'Pahla' exist in the south of the major city of Ilam and occupied by Pahli Kurds.'. It was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Existence of numerous historical vestiges in Ilam province belonging to the Sassanid period indicates the specific importance of the region in that time.
In this period Ilam province was divided into two regions, Mehrjankadak in the eastern part and Mâsabazân at the western part. Kurdish tribes governed the region from the late 11th century till the early 13th century.. When Iran was divided into provinces in 1930, Ilam became a part of Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces, only becoming a province by itself. During the Iran–Iraq War, Ilam province suffered and Iraq's intense bombings left no economic infrastructure for the province. Ilam thus remains one of Iran's more undeveloped provinces. Ilam's unemployment rate was 19.9% in 2003. Only in recent years has the central government began investing in advanced industries like Petrochemical facilities, with Japanese help, in Ilam. Ilam has a bright future in the tourist sector, with 174 historical sites listed under Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization, though it remains undeveloped. Ilam province contains the following universities: Ilam University of Medical Sciences University of Ilam Islamic Azad University of Ilam Payame noor University of Ilam Imamzadehs: These are shrines from the Middle Ages: Imamzadeh Ali Saleh, Imamzadeh Seyd mammad Abed, Imamzadeh Seyd Akbar, Imamzadeh Seyd Fakhreddin, Imamzadeh Seyd Nasereddin, Imamzadeh Ibrahim, Imamzadeh Abbas, Imamzadeh Abdullah, Imamzadeh Pir Muhammad, Imamzadeh Baba Seifuddin, Imamzadeh Mehdi Saleh, Imamzadeh Ibrahim Qetal, Imamzadeh Seyd Hasan, Imamzadeh Seyd Salaheddin Muhammad, Imamzadeh Haji Bakhtiar, Imamzadeh Haji Hazer, Imamzadeh Jabir.
Fire Temples: These are Zoroastrian shrines from the Sassanid era, now in ruins: Siyahgol Iwan, Chahar Taghi in Darreh Shahr. Mansions and castles: Ghal'eh Vali, Posht Ghal'eh Chowar, Ghal'eh Paghela Chekarbuli, Ghal'eh Falahati,Ghal'eh Ghiran, Shiagh castle in Dehloran, Ismail Khan fort, Sam castle, Pur Ashraf castle, Mir Gholam Hashemi ghal'eh, Posht Ghal'eh Abdanan, Konjancham fort and Farhad Iwan in Mehran (Part
Ilam is a city and capital of Ilam Province, Iran. It is the third largest Kurdish city in Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 213,579 people, 52,474 families; the Kabir Kuh mountain range lies east of the city. From the west it borders Iraq; the city is populated by Kurds and they speak Southern Kurdish. The people of the ilam city are Kurdish ethnic group and they speak Southern Kurdish; the Cloths of Ilam residence are Kurdish traditional clothing Like many other regions of Iran the architecture in Ilam includes traditional and contemporary periods. Although easy access to fossil fuels and electricity may have aided the transition in Iranian architecture in other regions of Iran from its traditional to modern styles, in Ilam the increasing population has played a kord; the Governor Castle, Falahaty Mansion and The Mirgholam Castle are examples of some surviving traditional buildings in Ilam. The courtyard dwelling is the main type of the buildings of this period; this type of building was accepted as the main building type over all Iran for both climatic and cultural reasons.
Brick is the main constructional material in these buildings. The passive thermal techniques indicated for the Iranian traditional buildings are used in these buildings; the Governor Castle of Ilam was built in type of courtyard. Adding shade and moisture by using green landscape, high trees and a pond, were the main passive techniques used in this building to reduce the temperature in summer; the Mirgholam Castle of Ilam presents a classic Iranian courtyard. The garden and the pound were the main elements of this type of buildings; the Falahaty Mansion used a pitched roof as it was regular beside the flat roofs in the traditional buildings in Ilam earlier. Ilam is situated in the cold mountainous region of Iran at a height of 1,319 metres above mean sea level, it is located in the west of Iran at a latitude of 33 ° 38' longitude of 46 ° 26' east. Although this city is surrounded by mountains, its climate is affected by deserts from the west and the south; this region presents a variable annual weather profile.
Heavy showers or snow in the winter and dusty, brutally hot, dry weather in the summer are normal for this region. Monthly rainfalls have been as high as 352.1 millimetres in March 1974, whilst daily rainfalls have reached 86 millimetres or 3.39 inches on 26 February 1991. Temperatures have ranged from a high of 47.0 °C or 116.6 °F on 20 August 1975 to a low of −15.0 °C or 5.0 °F on 5 February 1974. Ilam’s climate is classed under the Köppen climate classification as a Mediterranean climate with continental influences. Ilam contains the following universities: Ilam University of Medical Sciences University of Ilam Islamic Azad University of Ilam Safir Danesh Farhangian University, Shahid Modares Campus of Ilam and Imam Jafar -e- Sadiqh Campus of Ilam Farshid Sāmāni, the Sleeping Beauty, in Persian, Jadid Online, 26 May 2009:.• Discovering Ilam, in English, Jadid Online, 22 October 2009.• Photo gallery, containing 25 photographs with informative captions in English
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Road 64 (Iran)
Road 64 is a road in western Iran connecting Mehran Border to Khuzestan