click links in text for more info

Yoshio Markino

Yoshio Markino was a Japanese artist and author who spent much of his life in London. He was born at the town of Toyota at birth being named Heiji Makino, he was attracted to Western culture. When he was 24 he took ship on his way to San Francisco, he stayed in the city for the next four years. In 1897 he went to London via New York City, decided to stay at the British capital where he spent most of his subsequent life and career, he was well received among British writers and artists, his illustrations of the city published in 1907 in The Colour of London got critical acclaim. This was followed by in 1908 by The Colour of Paris and The Colour of Rome, in 1912 by The Charm of London, he was a popular member of a significant group of expatriate Japanese artists working in London, including Urushibara Mokuchu and Ryuson Matsuyama. Several of his works are held in the collections of the Museum of London. Markino's literary talents were recognized, with the support of friends like Douglas Sladen he published several autobiographical works, including A Japanese Artist in London, When I was a Child, My Recollections and Reflections.

Markino's quirky English style was appreciated by readers who enjoyed his unique humor, but was not infrequently lamented by critics as the popularity of his works grew. Among his friends and acquaintances were the writers Yone Noguchi, Arthur Ransome, M. P. Shiel, the artist Pamela Colman Smith. Although unnamed, he plays an important role in Ransome's Bohemia in London, is considered to have been the model for the male protagonist in Shiel's book The Yellow Wave — a Romeo and Juliet-type tragic romance on the background of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. In 1915 he co-produced a season of Russian and Italian Opera at the London Opera House. Directed by Vladimir Rosing, the season included the first performance by Japanese singer, Tamaki Miura as Cio-Cio-San in Madama Butterfly. Between October 18, 1923 and March 9, 1927, he conducted an artistically fruitful visit to the United States, his watercolour "The Plaza Hotel, New York City" dates from that visit. "Plaza Hotel, New York City"

Stonehenge road tunnel

The Stonehenge road tunnel is a planned tunnel in Wiltshire, England drawn up by Highways England to upgrade the A303 road. It would move the A303 into a tunnel under the Stonehenge World Heritage Site, completing the removal of traffic begun with the closure of the A344 road; the wider project was designed to improve the landscape around the monument and to improve safety on the A303, was part of proposals to change the site in other ways including moving the visitors centre. The A303 primary route is one of the main routes from London to the South West of England. Sections have been upgraded to dual carriageway status, though one third of the road remains single carriageway. Traffic flows on the A303 between Amesbury and Winterbourne Stoke are above the capacity of the road and the Highways Agency expressed concern about safety on this road and the A344; the two roads passed through Stonehenge and land owned by the National Trust with the A303 passing directly south and the A344 directly to the north, with a pedestrian tunnel passing from the Stonehenge visitor centre to the site underneath this road.

As part of the development of the proposals, over 50 routes were considered by the Highways Agency. Since 1991, 51 proposals have been considered for improving the A303 in the area and to remove it from the Stonehenge site. In 1995 it was proposed to build a tunnel for the A303 underneath the World Heritage Site. A conference agreed on a 2.5-mile bored tunnel. These plans were criticised by the National Trust, Transport 2000 and others who expressed concern that it would cause damage to archaeological remains along the route, destroy ancient sites and not achieve an improvement in the landscape. In 2002, new plans for a bored tunnel of 1.3 miles were announced by the Secretary of State for Transport as part of a 7.7-mile plan to upgrade the A303 to dual carriageway status, with the tunnel estimated to cost £183 million. This proposal brought further protests from the National Trust, English Heritage, UNESCO, CPRE, the Council for British Archaeology and local groups as the tunnel approach cutting would cut in two a prehistoric track way between Stonehenge and a nearby river.

These groups are calling for a tunnel at least 2.9 km long, which would, while being sited within the world heritage site, clear most of the known major artefacts, claiming that if the government goes ahead with the 2.1 km tunnel there may never be another chance to remove the road from the site completely. In 2004 a public enquiry required under the Highways Act 1980 was conducted by a planning inspector, Michael Ellison, his enquiry agreed. The report stated: but concluded: On 20 July 2005 the tunnel scheme was withdrawn by the Government due to rising costs of construction, which had doubled to £470 million; the Highways Agency continued to list the project as planned, but gave 2008 as the earliest date for the start of construction. On 31 October 2005 a Government steering group was set up to look at possible solutions, with the aim of choosing an "option in keeping with the special requirements of the location, affordable and deliverable." The review presented five options – the published tunnel scheme, a cut and cover tunnel, a'partial solution', two overland bypass routes.

Some of these plans have been criticised as being damaging to both archaeology and biodiversity, including the stone curlew, barn owls and the chalk grassland habitat. Five options were considered including diverting the A303 further away and only closing the A344; the group expected to produce a report in 2006, taking into account the results of public consultation which started on 23 January 2006 and ran until 24 April 2006. On 6 December 2007, Roads Minister Tom Harris announced that the whole scheme had been cancelled due to increased costs of £540 million. English Heritage expressed disappointment whilst the group Save Stonehenge were pleased with the outcome; the Highways Agency stated that they would continue to work on small scale improvements to the A303. A revised proposal, of closing the A344 road between Stonehenge Bottom and Byway 12, closing part of the B3086 was put forward in 2010; this included a proposed new roundabout to replace the current Airman's Corner junction and improvements to the Longbarrow Roundabout on the A303.

A planning inquiry to consider the proposal was started in June 2011. In July 2012 work began on the £27 million project which involved the closure and grassing over of part of the A344 and the closing of the underpass beneath the road at the monument entrance. In December 2013 the new visitors' centre at Airman's Corner on the A360 was opened. Shuttle buses take visitors to the monument along the old A344 road, a distance of 2.4 km. According to documentation released in response to a Freedom of Information request, in January 2012 local councils and the South West Local Enterprise Partnership met to discuss their proposals for "a consortium of Local Authorities to develop and take forward a new scheme for improvements to the A303/ A358/A30" and to "develop an effective lobbying framework so that we can take a planned approach to raising our profile both nationally and locally". In September 2012 a survey conducted by Somerset County Council found that more than 90% of commuters and businesses in the South West back an upgrade of the A303.

In April 2013 it was reported that the chancellor was giving consideration to "...adding lanes to the A303 – known all too well to holidaymakers – which runs from Basingstoke through Wiltshire (past Stoneheng

Stanley: The Search for Dr. Livingston

Stanley and the Search for Dr. Livingston is a side-scrolling action-adventure game for the Nintendo Entertainment System that appeared in one of the first 50 issues of Nintendo Power magazine; the video game takes place in the "deepest and darkest" part of Africa during the year 1871. Nations were sending their explorers to uncover the last remaining continent, not mapped by the European superpowers. Dr. Livingston abandoned his original quest to uncover the temple of Am-Zutuk; the magic inside this temple is believed to grant its founder amazing power. Ghosts and demons haunt the temple making it a tricky venture for any explorer; the player, as reporter Henry Morton Stanley, is exploring the last of the mysterious jungle regions for European colonization when his professor, Dr. Livingston, gets kidnapped by some African tribesmen. Now, the player must explore one of the last uncharted parts of Africa to save his mentor and end an era of exploring Africa; the player is automatically equipped with a gyrocopter to make those tricky landings much smoother.

One of the mentioned places in Africa is Port Harken.

Communities of chartered regime

The constitution of Spain of 1978 allowed for the nationalities and regions that integrate the Spanish nation to accede to self-government and be constituted as autonomous communities, which became the first-order political and territorial division of the Spanish territory. Both the process whereby the nationalities and regions were to accede to self-government and the scope of competences that were to be devolved or transferred from the central government, were intended to be asymmetrical in nature. One of the main differences was established in the first additional provision of the constitution, after much debate in the Cortes Generales acting as a Constituent Assembly; this provision established a protection and respect for the historical rights of the territories that had fueros, "charters", "privileges" or "jurisdictions", which were to be "updated" within the framework of the constitution. These territories were Álava, Gipuzkoa and Navarre; the first three joined to form the autonomous community of the Basque Country, whereas Navarre was constituted itself as the Chartered Community of Navarre.

The charters that were recognized and updated grant them specific competences not recognized in other autonomous communities, most notably, fiscal autonomy. As such, these two autonomous communities are known as communities of chartered regime as opposed to the rest of the autonomous communities without fiscal autonomy, which are known as communities of common regime. From the 12th to the 16th century, as the Kingdom of Castile expanded to the south or incorporated other kingdoms and territories into the Crown of Castile, which became the Kingdom of Spain, the monarchy granted them certain privileges and jurisdictions, which were known as fueros, or "charters"; the competences of the fueros at one point in time included the right to establish custom controls, have their own militias as well as some governing institutions, to manage their civic and fiscal affairs, but these were progressively reduced or eliminated — as was the case for the former constituent kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon.

The case of the Basque territories was unique, in that their fueros were the only to survive well into the 19th century if their scope was much reduced, whereas the fueros of other kingdoms and regions had been abolished by then. During the 19th century, in the several constitutions that were written, the monarchy tried to homogenize all regions in Spain, tried to abolish the fueros of the Basque provinces and Navarre; the constitution of 1837, for example, established that the same codes should govern the entire kingdom, a single fuero should apply to all Spaniards. Nonetheless, only two years after, by the end of the First Carlist War, the law of 25 October 1839, again recognized the validity of their fueros though the government retained the right to modify them if necessary in the nation's interest. So, the law of 16 August 1841 known as Ley Paccionada introduced changes and suppressed some of the provisions of Navarrese fueros and established the convenio económico as the system of fiscal autonomy.

In the case of the Basque provinces, at the first stance the Royal Decree of 29 October 1841 reduced the scope of the fueros in the three provinces, eliminating the judicial autonomy of the territories and substituted the Deputations and General Juntas with Provincial Deputations, which were the institutions of government common to all provinces of Spain. The law of 21 July 1876, during the time known in Spanish history as the Restoration, abolished the fueros of the Basque provinces while, keeping the fiscal autonomy of the territories in the form of a concierto económico, "economic treaty"; this system was abolished in Gipuzkoa and Biscay during the Spanish Civil War, through the decree-law of 23 July 1937, as a "punishment" for taking up arms against the National Movement, the insurrection that led to the dictatorial regime of Francisco Franco. At the end of Franco's regime, new laws derogated that decree-law. During Spanish transition to democracy, the recognition of these fueros was one of the hardest to reach a consensus on, incited many heated debates, but in the end the Constituent Assembly opted to recognize them within the framework of the constitution and the Statutes of Autonomy — the basic organic laws of the autonomous communities that were to be created — and therefore they were to be "updated" or "modernized".

The provinces of Álava and Biscay, in exercise of the right to self-government of all "nationalities and regions" granted in the constitution, joined to form the autonomous community of the Basque Country, recognized itself as one of the "nationalities of Spain". These three territories had been known as the "Basque provinces"; the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, establishes that the community could incorporate Navarre, if its population so desired. The Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, in exercising the right recognized in the First Additional Disposition, created its own autonomous treasury and established its fiscal autonomy. In practice, what this means, is that the historical territories of the Basque Country have the faculty to maintain and regulate their tax systems, including the ability to collect and inspect all State taxes —, all the taxes established by the central government — with the exception of import duties and the value added tax; the autonomous community transfers to the central government a specific amount of money, for the management of those competences that the community did not assume, but that are within the central government's scope of action.

This amount is known as cupo, "quo

Bazzocchi EB.2

The Bazzocchi EB.2 was a one off, Italian single seat glider designed and built by a university student in 1936, his second design of the year. Ermanno Bazzucchi was a nineteen-year-old student at the Polytechnic University of Milan when he designed and built his first aircraft, the EB.1 Littore, in 1936. The EB.2, a simpler and lower performance glider with a shorter span and straight edged tail surfaces followed it in the same year, built by students of Tradate Bishop College. The EB.2 was a high wing braced monoplane. Each wing was built around a single spar. Ailerons filled half the span. Centrally mounted above the fuselage on a pedestal with about 2° of dihedral, they were braced to the fuselage on each side by a single faired wooden strut which ran from just inside mid-span to the bottom of the fuselage; the cross section of the EB.2's wooden fuselage was rhomboidal with its diagonals vertical and horizontal, defined by lattice work and fabric covered. Its open cockpit was ahead of the wing, placing the pilot's head against the front of the central pedestal.

There was rudder. Its braced, blunt tipped and constant chord tailplane was set forward on top of the fuselage with the unbalanced elevator's trailing edge only just reaching the fin leading edge. A simple wooden skid served as the undercarriage. Data from Pedrelli p.203General characteristics Crew: One Length: 6.10 m Wingspan: 11.0 m Wing area: 15.00 m2 Aspect ratio: 8 Empty weight: 115 kg Gross weight: 190 kg Performance Maximum glide ratio: 12.3:1 estimated Wing loading: 12 kg/m2