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Deixis

In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as "me" or "here", that cannot be understood without additional contextual information—in this case, the identity of the speaker and the speaker's location. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denoted meaning varies depending on time and/or place. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning—for example, English pronouns—are deictic. Deixis is related to anaphora, as will be further explained below. Although this article deals with deixis in spoken language, the concept is sometimes applied to written language and communication media as well. In linguistic anthropology, deixis is treated as a particular subclass of the more general semiotic phenomenon of indexicality, a sign "pointing to" some aspect of its context of occurrence. Although this article draws examples from English, deixis is believed to be a feature of all natural languages; the term's origin is Ancient Greek: δεῖξις, romanized: deixis, lit.'display, demonstration, or reference', the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus.

Fillmore termed the most common categories of contextual information of person and time the "major grammaticalized types". Similar categorizations can be found elesewhere. Personal deixis concerns itself with the grammatical persons involved in an utterance, those directly involved, those not directly involved, those mentioned in the utterance. In English, the distinctions are indicated by pronouns; the following examples show how. I am going to the movies. Would you like to have dinner? They tried to hurt me. In many languages with gendered pronouns, the third-person masculine pronoun has traditionally been used as a default when referring to a person, but the gender of its antecedent is unknown or inapplicable. For example: To each his own. In contrast, English used the neuter gender for gender ambiguous cases in the singular, but many grammarians drew on Latin, to come to a preference for "he" in ambiguous cases in the singular; however it remains common to use the third-person plural when the antecedent is singular: To each their own.

In languages that distinguish between masculine and feminine plural pronouns, such as French or Serbo-Croatian, the masculine is again used as default. "Ils vont à la bibliothèque", "Oni idu u biblioteku" may refer either to a group of masculine nouns or a group of both masculine and feminine nouns. "Elles vont...", "One idu..." would be used only for a group of feminine nouns. In many such languages, the gender of a noun is only tangentially related to the gender of the thing the noun represents. For example, in French, the generic personne, meaning a person is always a feminine noun, so if the subject of discourse is "les personnes", the use of "elles" is obligatory if the people being considered are all men. Spatial deixis concerns itself with the spatial locations relevant to an utterance. To person deixis, the locations may be either those of the speaker and addressee or those of persons or objects being referred to; the most salient English examples are the adverbs "here" and "there" and the demonstratives "this" and "that"—although those are far from being the only deictic words.

Some examples: I enjoy living in this city. Here is, she was sitting over there. Unless otherwise specified, place deictic terms are understood to be relative to the location of the speaker, as in The shop is across the street.where "across the street" is understood to mean "across the street from where I am right now." Although "here" and "there" are used to refer to locations near to and far from the speaker "there" can refer to the location of the addressee, if they are not in the same location as the speaker. So, although Here is a good spot. Deictic projection: In some contexts, spatial deixis is used metaphorically rather than physically, i.e. the speaker is not speaking as the deictic centre. For example:I am coming home now; the above utterance would be considered as the speaker's expression of his/her going home, yet it appears to be normal for one to project his physical presence to his home rather than away from home. Here is another common example: I am not here, please leave a message.

Despite its common usage to address people who call with no one answering the phone, the here here is semantically contradictory to one's absence. This is considered normal for most people as speakers have to project themselves as answering the phone when in fact they are not physically. Languages show at least a two-way referential distinction in their deictic system: proximal, i.e. near or closer to the speaker. English exemplifies this with such pairs as this and that and there, etc. In other languages, the distinction is three-way or higher: proximal, i.e. near the speaker. This is the case in a few Romance languages and in Serbo-Croatian, Japanese, Filipino, Macedonian and Turk

Laser bonding

Laser bonding is a marking technique that uses lasers to bond an additive marking substance to a substrate. First invented in the mid 1990s by Paul W. Harrison, the founder of TherMark, LLC, this patent protected and patent pending technology produces permanent marks on metal, glass and plastic parts for a diverse range of industrial and artistic applications, ranging from aerospace and medical to the awards and engraving industries, it differs from the more known techniques of laser engraving and laser ablation in that it is an additive process, adding material to the substrate surface instead of removing it. Laser bonding has been achieved by Nd:YAG, CO2 laser, Fiber laser and Diode-pumped solid-state laser and can be accomplished using other forms of radiant energy. Mark quality depends on a variety of factors, including the substrate used, marking speed, laser spot size, beam overlap, materials thickness, laser parameters. Laser bonding materials may be applied by various methods, including a brush on technique, pad printing, screen printing, roll coating and others.

The marking process comprises three steps: 1. Application of the marking material. 2. Irradiating the marking material with a laser in the form of the desired mark. 3. Removal of excess, unbonded material; the resulting marking is permanently bonded to the substrate, in most cases it is as durable as the substrate itself. Markings placed on stainless steel are durable and have survived such testing as abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, outdoor exposure, extreme heat, extreme cold, acids and various organic solvents. Marks on glass have been tested for resistance to acids and scratching. NASA's International Space Station, or ISS, was home to aluminum squares laser marked with CerMark® marking material for four years; these squares were part of the Material International Space Station Experiment, or MISSE. In this experiment test markings were applied to coupons made of materials used in the construction of the external components used on space transportation vehicles and space stations. Markings applied using a wide range including laser bonding.

The material test coupons were affixed to spaces provided on test panels, which were installed onto trays which were attached to the ISS during a space walk conducted during the STS-105 Mission flown on August 10, 2001. The trays were positioned on the ISS so that they could expect to receive the maximum amount of impact damage and exposure to a high degree of atomic oxygen and UV radiation; the experiment was recovered on July 30, 2005 during STS-114 and returned to earth on August 9, 2005. The markings, DataMatrix two dimensional bar codes, were evaluated and found to be readable and visually looked as good as the day they were placed in orbit; the laser bonding process is outlined and specified in both military and NASA marking specifications and standards. Laser bonding is a preferred technique for use in the United States Department of Defense "Item Unique Identification" system. Laser engraving Laser ablation Laser applications

Kunming Economic and Technology Development Zone

The Kunming Economic and Technology Development Zone, is a state-level economic development zone established on February 13, 2000 in East Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. It is administratively under Kunming Prefecture, it has a developed area of 6 square kilometers. The KETDZ has formed the industrial chain with the following major industries as its pillar industries: tobacco and related industries IT and electronics manufacturing bio-pharmaceuticals, food processing new materials development industry Established industries integrated optical-electric-mechanical industry biofood industry bio-pharmaceutical industryCommercialization and marketing information electronics high-efficiency agriculture new materials new building materials environment-friendly technologiesInvestment and modernization Logistics Trading servicesEconomic spin-offs Venture capital Intermediary services Cultural programs Educational programs The KETDZ is 4 kilometers from the downtown Kunming, where the highways lead straight to the China-Laos border town of Mohan, the China-Vietnam border town of Hekou, the China-Myanmar border town of Ruili.

All three border towns are rated as Grade A border ports of China. All the highways within a radius of 200 kilometers from Kunming are of high-grade standards. A railroad network has been built around Kunming, consisting of the Guiyang-Kunming, Chengdu-Kunming, Nanning-Kunming, Guangtong-Dali, Yunnan-Vietnam Railways; the KETDZ is 2 kilometers away from the Kunming East Railway Station, 4 kilometers from the Kunming South Railway Station, both are rail centers for both cargo and passenger transportation. The Kunming International Airport, 1.8 kilometers from the KETDZ, is Yunnan's most important gateway to international destinations. It operates eight air routes to overseas airports such as Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Seoul and more than 70 domestic routes to Hong Kong and other cities; the KETDZ has access to ocean shipping at the Beihai and Fangcheng Ports in Guangxi province via the Nanning-Kunming Railway, at Zhanjiang Port of Guangdong province via the Guiyang-Kunming Railway, at Shanghai Port, at Haiphong of Vietnam via the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway.

Kunming High-tech Industrial Development Zone Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone Ruili Border Economic Cooperation Zone Wanding Border Economic Cooperation Zone Economic and Technological Development Zones http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2006-04/19/content_571682.htm Kunming Economic and Technology Development Zone Official Website

Sultan Al Kuwari

Sultan Al Kuwari is a Qatari footballer who plays for Al-Rayyan as a striker. He plays for Qatar's U–20 team, he graduated from the acclaimed Aspire Academy in 2013. Besides attending Aspire Academy, Kuwari played for Al Rayyan's youth teams, he made his first-team debut on November 2012 against Al Gharafa, but came to the forefront with the arrival of coach Manuel Jiménez, who succeeded in establishing many youth team players in the first-team. He had a trial in Spanish club Villarreal in October 2013. In April 2014, after his team was relegated to the Qatargas League, Rayyan loaned him out to Villarreal B for one season. Statistics accurate as of 24 May 2014 1Includes Emir of Qatar Cup. 2Includes Sheikh Jassem Cup. 3Includes AFC Champions League. Kuwari was part of the Qatar's under–20 football team that competed in the 2012 AFC U-19 Championship, he made 3 appearances in the tournament. Last update: 24 May 2014. Emir of Qatar CupWinner: 2013Sheikh Jassem CupWinner: 2012–13, 2013–14

Deer Creek State Park (Utah)

Deer Creek State Park a state park in south western Wasatch County, United States, featuring large Deer Creek Dam and Reservoir. The park is located near the town of Charleston in the southwest corner of the Heber Valley. Established as a state park in 1971, the 3,260-acre Deer Creek State Park features the large Deer Creek Reservoir, popular for fishing and sun tanning, along with other surface water sports such as boating, sailing and windsurfing; the park is at an elevation of 5,400 feet. Park facilities include two concrete ramps for boat-launching, a summer-only 75-unit campground, rest rooms and sewage-disposal, two group-use areas, picnic areas, fish cleaning stations. There is a restaurant and gas station, boat rentals are available; the park recorded 338,865 visitors for the fiscal year 2017. Most of the multiple areas of the park are accessible directly from U. S. Route 189, which runs near the southern shores of the reservoir. However, Utah State Route 314 provides additional access from US-189 to the facilities on the southern shore.

In the 1930s the Salt Lake City area and surrounding farmland were suffering from water shortages. Creation of a reservoir was approved by the United States Congress in 1935 to help alleviate this problem, Deer Creek Reservoir became a significant part of the Provo River Project; the Bureau of Reclamation began construction of the reservoir in the spring of 1938. Water was available for use in 1941, the project was completed in 1955; the Provo River Water Users Association, under contract with the BOR, repaid construction costs, operated and maintained the facilities until the area became a state park in 1971. During this time, fishing was the chief recreational activity, as other water sports were prohibited; the Division of Parks and Recreation became responsible for the administration and operation of the park in January, 1971, maintains it today. List of Utah State Parks Official website

Thomas F. Gallagher

Thomas F. Gallagher was a Justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court from 1943 until his retirement in 1967, he attended St. Thomas Academy located in Saint Paul, Minnesota but graduated from Faribault High School in 1915, he earned his B. A. in 1919 from the University of Minnesota after having interrupted his schooling in 1918 to serve as a commissioned officer in the United States Field Artillery. In 1921 he was graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School with an LL. B.. He practiced law in Minneapolis from 1921 until 1942, at first with his cousin, John E. Tappan, the founder of Investors Diversified Services, Inc.. In 1929, Judge Gallagher opened his own law office in Minneapolis, where he practiced until 1942. In 1936, Judge Gallagher was the Democratic Party's candidate for the office of Attorney General, he led the Minnesota campaign for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, speaking from a sound truck-trailer on street corners in more than 400 Minnesota villages and cities. In 1938, he was the Democratic Party's candidate for Governor of Minnesota.

This was prior to the merger of the Democratic and Farmer Labor parties, now known as the DFL. The Farmer-Labor, Republican Party candidates received a higher percentage of the vote, than the Democratic candidates for most statewide offices at the time. In 1939 and 1940 Gallagher led a drive promoting the merger of the two parties. Judge Gallagher promoted the ideas and platform of the national Democratic Party, but was one of the first to espouse merger of the two liberal state political parties. In 1940 he served as Minnesota delegate at large at the Democratic national convention in Chicago; the Minnesota Democratic Party and the Farmer–Labor Party did merge on April 15, 1944. Shortly before he died, Franklin D. Roosevelt had appointed Judge Gallagher to serve on the United States District Court, but U. S. Senator Joseph H. Ball, blocked the appointment. Senator Ball was a political ally of fellow Republican Harold Stassen, disapproved of the domestic policies of F. D. R. and his successor, Harry S. Truman.

Thomas Francis Gallagher was elected as an Associate Justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court in 1943, re-elected thereafter until his retirement in 1967. During his twenty-four years on the Court, Judge Gallagher participated in more than 4,000 decisions and wrote over 600 majority and dissenting opinions. Judge Gallagher's work on the Court received praise from many. Professor Brainerd Currie of Duke University Law School wrote that Justices Thomas Gallagher, Harlan Stone, Robert H. Jackson and Roger Traynor were "among the modern Justices whose work has contributed to the enlightenment and to the cause of justice and reason in the conflict of laws." Judge Gallagher's opinions are regarded by many members of the Minnesota bar as notable for their clarity and brevity. Judge Gallagher took pride in mentoring his law clerks to think and write clearly, his law clerks who obtained prominence include Harry M. Walsh, Minnesota Revisor of Statutes, Walter F. Mondale, Vice President of the United States.

When the Court was in recess, Judge Gallagher served on Presidential Emergency Boards created by President Harry S. Truman to avert railway strikes, he served as President of the Minnesota Safety Council for seven years. In 1948, he was Chairman of the Minnesota Branch of the National Conference of Jews, he was active in the American Legion, serving as Commander of Downtown Post 335, as Judge Advocate for its Fifth District. Each year, he conducted panels for Legion-sponsored "Boys' State," in which he outlined for the young delegates the structure and jurisdiction of the state and federal courts. In 1962, he served as President of the University of Minnesota Law School Alumni Association. Minnesota State Law Library Biographies of Justices and Judges of the Minnesota Appellate Courts