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Delaware Colony

Delaware Colony in the North American Middle Colonies consisted of land on the west bank of the Delaware River Bay. In the early 17th century the area was inhabited by Lenape and the Assateague tribes of Native Americans; the first European settlers were the Swedes and the Dutch, but the land fell under English control in 1664. William Penn was given the deed to what was called "the Lower Counties on the Delaware" by the Duke of York, in a deed separate from that which he held for the larger Province of Pennsylvania. Delaware was governed as part of Pennsylvania from 1682 until 1701, when the Lower Counties petitioned for and were granted an independent colonial legislature, though the two colonies shared the same governor until 1776, when Delaware's assembly voted to break all ties with both Great Britain and Pennsylvania, forming the state of Delaware. From the early Dutch settlement in 1631 to the colony's rule by Pennsylvania in 1682, the land that became the U. S. state of Delaware changed hands many times.

Because of this, Delaware became a heterogeneous society made up of individuals who were both religiously and culturally diverse. The first European exploration of what would become known as the Delaware Valley was made by the Dutch ship Halve Maen under the command of Henry Hudson in 1609, during a voyage to locate the Northwest Passage to Asia. Hudson sailed into, he would name it the South River, but this would change after Samuel Argall found the river in 1610 after being blown off course. Argall would rename the river Delaware, after Thomas West, Lord De La Warr, the second governor of Virginia. Follow-up expeditions by Cornelius May in 1613 and Cornelius Hendrickson in 1614 mapped the shoreline of what would become Delaware for inclusion in the New Netherland colony. Initial Dutch settlement was centered up river at Fort Nassau at Big Timber Creek south of what is now Gloucester City, New Jersey. Neither the Dutch nor the English showed any early interest in establishing any kind of settlement on this land.

The first true attempt to settle Europeans in the territories that would become the State of Delaware was not made until 1629 when agents of the Dutch West India Company Gillis Hossitt and Jacob Jansz arrived to negotiate with the Native Americans to "purchase" land for a colony. Hossitt and Jansz secured a treaty granting the Dutch a parcel of land running along the shore eight Dutch miles long and half a Dutch mile deep, nearly coincidental with the coast of modern Sussex and Kent counties in Delaware. In 1631 the Dutch sent a group of twenty-eight men to build a fort inside Cape Henlopen on Lewes Creek to establish the Zwaanendael Colony; this first colony was established to take advantage of the large whale population and produce whale oil. A cultural misunderstanding with the Native Americans led to the massacre of the initial 28 colonists before a year was out. Patroon David Pietersz. de Vries arrived shortly thereafter with an additional 50 settlers. Although he concluded a treaty with the Indians, deVries, his partners in Holland, the Dutch West India Company decided the location was too dangerous for an immediate reattempt and the additional settlers were landed in New Amsterdam instead.

In March 1638, the Swedish colony of New Sweden became the first permanent European settlement in Delaware. The Kalmar Nyckel anchored at a rocky point on the Minquas Kill, known today as Swedes' Landing The New Sweden Company was organized and overseen by Clas Larsson Fleming, a Swedish admiral and administrator. Samuel Blommaert, a Flemish director of the Dutch West India Company who had grown frustrated with the company's policies assisted the fitting-out; the expedition was led, had been instigated by Peter Minuit, the founding governor of New Netherland, dismissed by the Dutch West India Company which operated the colony as a concession. Minuit resented the company and was well aware of the spareness of Dutch occupation along the Zuyd river valley. Like the Dutch colony it aimed to squat, New Sweden was a multicultural affair, with Finns, Dutch and Germans as well as Swedes among the settlers; the first outpost of the Swedish settlement was named Fort Christina after Queen Christina of Sweden.

Governor Johan Björnsson Printz administered the colony from 1643 to 1653. He was succeeded by the last governor of New Sweden; the Dutch had never accepted the Swedish colony as legitimate and the struggle between the forces of the Dutch West India Company and the officials and backers of New Sweden was on going. In 1651, New Netherland Governor Peter Stuyvesant had removed Fort Nassau and had it reassembled down river of Fort Christina as Fort Casimir encircling the Swedish colony. Fort Beversreede, a short-lived attempt to establish a foothold at the end of the Great Minquas Path was abandoned. Three years the New Sweden colony attacked and seized the outpost, renaming it Fort Trinity; the struggle came to an end in September 1655. With the Second Great Northern War raging in Europe, Stuyvesant assembled a sufficient army and naval squadron to capture the Swedish forts, thus re-establishing control of the colony. Fort Casimir/Trinity was again renamed as New Amstel was made the center for fur trading and the colony's administration headquarters

Avery Point Light

Avery Point Light or Avery Point Lighthouse is a lighthouse in Groton, United States, on the Avery Point Campus of the University of Connecticut. Although construction was completed in March 1943, the lighthouse was not lit until May 1944 due to concerns of possible enemy invasion, its original light consisted of eight 200-watt bulbs that were replaced by a flashing green light in 1960. It was deactivated on June 25, 1967, when the United States Coast Guard Training Station moved to Governors Island, it is listed as the last lighthouse built in the state. The lighthouse deteriorated until it was declared a hazard by the University of Connecticut in 1997. A restoration effort was launched in 1999 through the American Lighthouse Foundation and in 2000 by a new local chapter, the Avery Point Lighthouse Society; the restoration of the lighthouse began in 2001 and was completed in 2006, requiring a replica lantern and extensive structural repairs and replacement of the crumbling of the blocks. Two bills for $150,000 and $100,000 were used to complete the restoration.

The relighting and re-dedication of the lighthouse was held on October 15, 2006. The lighthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002; the land upon which Avery Point Light was constructed was owned by Morton F. Plant's estate. Twenty four years after Plant's death the estate was sold to the state of Connecticut before being transferred to the U. S. Coast Guard; the Coast Guard's deed required the construction and maintenance of beacon lights or other navigational aids as part of the Coast Guard's new training facility. The Avery Point Light was named for Captain James Avery of Connecticut; the Avery Point Light was designed by Alfred Hopkins and Associates to be a 41-foot octagonal tower. Construction of the tower was completed in March 1943. During the restoration effort, it was discovered that six different types of concrete blocks were used in the construction; the tower has a total of five windows, with two facing south and one for the north and west. The lantern gallery deck is constructed of concrete and lined with thirty two Italian marble balusters imported from Italy around 1900.

The interior has an iron ladder wooden, that leads up to the watchroom level. The lighthouse design and masonry tower have Colonial Revival elements, it is the last lighthouse built in the state of Connecticut as an official navigational aid. The Avery Point Light was not lighted until May 2, 1944, due to concerns about possible enemy invasions by sea. D'Entremont notes that the first light, consisting of eight 200-watt bulbs, were an unusual array that created a fixed white light source. Though it never had a formal keeper, the lighthouse was tended by personnel or students from the United States Coast Guard Training Station. In 1960, the light was changed to flashing green and the candlepower rating doubled from 100 to 200; the light was deactivated on June 25, 1967 when the training facility moved from Avery Point to Governors Island. The Avery Point Light was listed by the university as being in "dangerously poor condition" by July 1997 and declared it a safety hazard. In December 2007, Lighthouse Digest included a brief article with the title "Avery Point added to Doomsday List" after rumors of it being torn down were reported.

The article included two images that show the blocked off lighthouse with its crumbling bricks and a sign reading "Keep Out Hazardous Area". In 1999, fund-raising began to save and restore the lighthouse through the American Lighthouse Foundation and in 2000 through the Avery Point Lighthouse Society, a chapter of the ALF. In 2000, the APLS website estimated $25,000 for the initial engineering study and $150,000-200,000 to complete the restoration. In 2001, Connecticut State Senator Catherine Cook introduced a bill for $150,000 in bonds to fund the restoration of the Avery Point Light. An article in the New London Day noted an engineering study valued at $40,000 was being conducted for no cost by James Nordon's engineering firm of Gibble and Champion. On December 1, 2001, the first part of the restoration began with the removal of the lantern. Due the deterioration of the lantern, the decision was made to make a replica of the original lantern. From 2003 through 2004, the West Mystic Wooden Boat Building Company donated the materials and labor to construct the replica.

The company's owner, Steve Jones, has close ties to the Avery Point Light. The concrete blocks used in the construction were of poor construction due to the high sand content that crumbled with the expanding and contraction of the mortar; the decision was made to replace the outer face of the concrete blocks and strengthen the remaining original blocks with cement and steel reinforcements. A total of 3,000 blocks were needed to complete the restoration and had to be produced using special molds; the restoration work on the tower began in September 2003. Though increased costs of the restoration resulted in another need of funding to complete the project. In 2003, federal funding for another $100,000 came from the National Park Service's "Save America’s Treasures Act" and it was endorsed by Senators Christopher Dodd and Joseph Lieberman. Delays in the appropriation of funding delayed the second phase of the structural restoration until June 2005; the relighting and re-dedication of the lightho

Revolutionary Socialist League (UK, 1957)

The Revolutionary Socialist League was a Trotskyist group in Britain which existed from 1956 to 1964. It became the Militant tendency, an entryist group within the Labour Party. After the dissolution of the Revolutionary Communist Party, Ted Grant and his supporters were expelled from the RCP's successor The Club in 1950 and formed the International Socialist Group, they went on to fuse with supporters of the International Secretariat of the Fourth International in Britain as the Revolutionary Socialist League in 1956 and were recognised as the official British section at its fifth world congress in 1957. The RSL held its first congress in 1957, it was an entryist group within the Labour Party. In 1958 the group was recognised as the British section of the International Secretariat of the Fourth International and, after the reunification in 1963, the British section of the Fourth International. However, the League registered substantial political differences at the 1965 World Congress, failed to integrate other supporters of the International in Britain.

The Congress recognised two sympathising sections in Britain: both the RSL and what became the International Marxist Group, prompting the RSL to turn its back on the International. In 1964 the RSL founded a newspaper called Militant and the group itself soon became known as Militant or the Militant tendency although the official designation of the RSL was still used internally after this time. Catalogue of the RSL archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick

Waterfall (M. C. Escher)

Waterfall is a lithograph by the Dutch artist M. C. Escher, first printed in October 1961, it shows a perpetual motion machine where water from the base of a waterfall appears to run downhill along the water path before reaching the top of the waterfall. While most two-dimensional artists use relative proportions to create an illusion of depth, Escher here and elsewhere uses conflicting proportions to create a visual paradox; the watercourse supplying the waterfall has the structure of two Penrose triangles. A Penrose triangle is an impossible object designed by Oscar Reutersvärd in 1934, found independently by Roger Penrose in 1958; the image depicts a watermill with an elevated waterwheel as the main feature. The aqueduct flows behind it; the walls of the aqueduct step downward. The aqueduct turns three times, first to the left to the right, to the left again; the viewer looks down at the scene diagonally, which means that from the viewer's perspective the aqueduct appears to be slanted upward.

The viewer is looking across the scene diagonally from the lower right, which means that from the viewer's perspective the two left-hand turns are directly in line with each other, while the waterwheel, the forward turn and the end of the aqueduct are all in line. The second left-hand turn is supported by pillars from the first, while the other two corners are supported by a tower of pillars that begins at the waterwheel; the water falls off the edge of the aqueduct and over the waterwheel in an impossible infinite cycle. The use of the Penrose stairs is paralleled by Escher's Ascending and Descending, where instead of the flow of water, two lines of monks endlessly march uphill or downhill around the four flights of stairs; the two support towers continue above the aqueduct and are topped by two compound polyhedra, revealing Escher's interest in mathematics as an artist. The one on the left is a compound of three cubes; the one on the right is known as Escher's solid. Below the mill is a garden of giant plants.

This is a magnified view of a cluster of moss and lichen that Escher drew in ink as a study in 1942. The background seems to be a climbing expanse of terraced farmland. First stellation of rhombic dodecahedron Escher's Solid—from Wolfram MathWorld Escher's Solid Includes a great deal of metric data The Polyhedra of M. C. Escher from George W. Hart

Tjitske Reidinga

Tjitske Jacoba Reidinga is a Dutch actress and comedian. Reidinga acted in numerous plays, she won a Colombina award for her role in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf in 2002. She made her screen debut in 1996, her first major film role was as "Jet" in Nee Zuster. She is known best for her role as'Claire' in the successful Dutch series Gooische vrouwen, she grew up in Africa. Her parents moved to Uganda shortly, her father who had just graduated from Academie Minerva, an art school in Groningen, found a job at an advertising agency in Kampala. They moved back to the Netherlands to flee Idi Amin's reign of terror, her mother was pregnant at the time, a few months she was born in the Frisian capital. After she was born her parents wanted to go back to Africa, the three went to Malawi where she lived until the age of 8, she remembered it as a beautiful country with a glittering lake. Her brother Hesling was born there and a few years they returned to the Netherlands, she had a hard time trying to adjust herself to the crowded country where she was born.

Since she was a little girl she knew she wanted to be an actress. Her parents had always supported their daughter's dream. Strengthened by her parents confidence, she never considered the possibility her dream wouldn't come true. If so she'd have quite a problem, having nothing in reserve; the only moment she had her doubts was at the academy. She noticed, they had no idea what to make of her and as a result she had to do the year all over again. Though being disappointed, she was strong an resilient and graduated in 1997. On her time at the Amsterdamse Toneelschool she commented: "Op de Toneelschool word je klaargestoomd om de keiharde praktijk aan te kunnen. Maar na m'n afstuderen heb ik de praktijk eigenlijk als een stuk makkelijker ervaren dan de opleiding." After her graduation she made a flashy start on stage at RO Theater, one of the major theatrical companies in the Netherlands, in the play "De ziekte die jeugd heet". Since she has appeared in twenty different plays. One of those was 2001 production of.

For the latter she received a Colombina award for "Best Female Supporting Role" as child-wife Honey in 2002. Her first role was a walk-on in the 1996 production De Zeemeerman, she appeared in a few more feature films such as "Ja Zuster, Nee Zuster", "Kees de Jongen", "De Passievrucht" and "Ellis in Glamourland". She is seen weekly in Children's television series Klokhuis as "prinsesje Petronella", as well as "dochter konijn" ("daughter rabbit" -being the daughter of mother rabbit, she seen in "FIT", "Spangen", "Ibbeltje", "De Band" and "Keyzer en de Boer Advocaten". She is without a doubt best known for her starring role in the successful television series "Gooische Vrouwen". Whilst in the academy in Amsterdam she got to know actor Vincent Croiset, whom she is now with for ten years, they have two children together, twins Klaas. They have plans to do so in the future. Tjitske Reidinga on IMDb Tjitske Reidinga at AllMovie Details on the Colombina award she won in 2002 at Killendoornse Courant Interview Moov Interview


Edem, Sometimes referred to as "Edem Ani" is an area in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Today, it is made up of three autonomous communities/towns: Ozi-Edem and Edem-Ani. Edem has an area of 50.492 km2 with several hills providing stunning views from multiple points. The population of Edem is 309,633 based on the National Population Commission census conducted in 2006, but more than half of this number live outside Edem. Edem shares common borders with Obimo on the south, Nsukka on the east, Ibagwa Ani on the north, Nrobo on the west. Towns along the border include Okpuje near Owa and Egu Amegu, Abbi near Egu Amegu Abbi, Ugwuoke Ugwuinyi near Egu Amegu, Ero Uno near Edem-Ani; the people of Edem are from the Igala ethnic group but located in the South East of Nigeria since the division of the country into states and geopolitical zones. Due to their ancestry and proximity to Northern Nigeria, as well as their location in the northern part of Igboland, they are referred to as Northern Igbos.

Edem is made up of 38 villages: Akpa-Edem Zone Ama Oba Amadiuba Amadimogo Amankwa Dimunazu Igoro Agbo Igoro Ugwu Isamani Nkawushi Okiti Owa-Edem Uwenu Na Uwani ObekeOzi-Edem Zone Ama Uwenu Amabunegu Amamkpume Amaudo Amaukpa Amaukwa Dimoke Ikwe Ezike Obinegun Ukpara Umueyi Umuoji UmuokoEdem-Ani Zone Amaenu-Edem Amaezumesu Amaogwu Isu Nkofi Odojo Ogbododu Owere-Ugwu Owereagbo Ozara Ubogidi Umuchiagwu Umuchioke Uwani-EdemEach of the villages is headed by an Onyishi according to their culture and traditions. Edem is known for having indigenes that live long over 100 years; this may be attributed to the quality of life or other factors. Christianity is one of the main religions in Edem. Amongst all the denominations, the area is dominated by Catholics. Regardless all the major Christian denominations have a presence in Edem, a change from Edem of old, known to have priestesses and traditional worshippers. Presently, the practice of idol worshipping is still common; the main economic activity in the kingdom is agriculture.

The people practice shifting crop rotation. Cash crops: kolanuts, oil beans, black-eyed beans, brown beans, cocoyams, maize and groundnuts. Fruits: citrus fruits, avocado pears, pawpaws, bananas, mangoes, African star apples, black apples, blue apples and irvingia. Vegetables: light green amaranth, dark green amaranth, waterleaves, pumpkins, garden eggs, fluted pumpkins, red chili peppers, yellow chili peppers, alligator peppers and black pepper. Due to the rocky nature of certain parts of Edem, another significant economic activity is the small-scale manual production of stone for construction. Natural features that visitors can view include the Akatakata Waterfalls from Ugwu Ovo down to Igoro Agbo, Okpu cave and stream in Nkawushi and a valley from Amaho down to Owa, all in Akpa-Edem. Another major tourist attraction is the year-round hunting; the kingdom has thick forests where various types of wild animals can be hunted. These forests have some trees. Edem has a beneficial temperature throughout the year.

The lowest temperature is in the rainy season or dry season. The five main festivals celebrated at different times of the year and, in some cases, on a zone-by-zone basis are as follows: Onunu Edem, Omabe Festival, Egba Chukwu, Okputukputu Eze Edem and Edem Week