Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane, but including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years; the energy that the plants obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating and electricity generation, it is used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is called a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: thermogenic.
Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas; the World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas; the by-products of this processing include: ethane, butanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is informally referred to as "gas" when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline in North America, where the term gasoline is shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was discovered accidentally in ancient China, as it resulted from the drilling for brines.
Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt, in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan; the discovery and identification of natural gas in the Americas happened in 1626. In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company; the state of Philadelphia created the first municipally owned natural gas distribution venture in 1836. By 2009, 66 000 km³ had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in recoverable reserves lasting less as few as 80 to 100 years.
In the 19th century, natural gas was obtained as a by-product of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was prohibitively expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields. Today, unwanted gas associated with oil extraction is returned to the reservoir with'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. In regions with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids technologies.
GTL technologies can convert natural gas into liquids products such as diesel or jet fuel. A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch, methanol to gasoline and syngas to gasoline plus. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 barrels per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar. Natural gas can be "associated", or "non-associated", is found in coal beds, it sometimes contains a significant amount of ethane, propane and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed for commercial use prior to the methane being sold as a consumer fuel or chemical plant feedstock. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide must be removed before the natural gas can be transported. Natural gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas (whether or not produced up the a
Center Township, Delaware County, Indiana
Center Township is one of twelve townships in Delaware County, Indiana. According to the 2010 census, its population was 69,199 and it contained 31,368 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 34.75 square miles, of which 34.48 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles is water. Burlington Lake and Phillips Lake are in this township. Muncie Andersonville Aultshire Creston Drew Irvington Liberty Corners Mayfield Middletown Park Morningside Hamilton Township Delaware Township Liberty Township Perry Township Monroe Township Salem Township Mount Pleasant Township Harrison Township U. S. Route 35 Indiana State Road 3 Indiana State Road 32 Indiana State Road 332 The township contains two cemeteries: Beech Grove and Elm Ridge Memorial Park. "Center Township, Delaware County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-09-24. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana
Mount Pleasant Township, Delaware County, Indiana
Mount Pleasant Township is one of twelve townships in Delaware County, Indiana. According to the 2010 census, its population was 14,102 and it contained 6,157 housing units; the school system is Yorktown Community Schools in Yorktown. The Martin Hofherr Farm was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 33.94 square miles, of which 33.7 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water. Muncie Yorktown Cammack Reed Station West Muncie Harrison Township Center Township Monroe Township Salem Township Richland Township, Madison County Monroe Township, Madison County Interstate 69 State Road 32 State Road 332 The township contains three cemeteries: Hawk, Jones and McKinley. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files U. S. Board on Geographic Names Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana
White River (Indiana)
The White River is an American two-forked river that flows through central and southern Indiana and is the main tributary to the Wabash River. Via the west fork, considered to be the main stem of the river by the U. S. Board on Geographic Names, the White River is 362 miles long. Indiana's capital, Indianapolis, is located on the river; the West Fork, 312 miles long, is the main fork of the river. Federal maps refer to it as the White River, per a 1950 Board on Geographic Names decision, it starts south of Winchester in Randolph County at 40° 04' 46" N, 84° 55' 58" W in Washington Township. The river winds through Muncie and Indianapolis before being joined by the east fork in the triad of Daviess and Pike counties. Along the way it passes by three Indiana state parks: Mounds State Park, near Anderson. In Indianapolis the Wapahani Trail follows the eastern bank; the East Fork or Aankwaahsakwa Siipiiw in the native Miami-Illinois language starts in Columbus at the confluence of the Driftwood and Flatrock rivers.
The headwaters of the main stem of the White River are in fact farther east than those of the East Fork. The East Fork flows a total of 192 miles southwest, passing the city of Seymour flowing through rugged terrain before reaching the White River. Below the junction of the East Fork, the White River flows another 50 miles between Gibson and Pike counties before draining into the Wabash River at the Indiana–Illinois border next to Mount Carmel, Illinois, in the vicinity of where the Grand Rapids Dam and Grand Rapids Hotel used to exist; as indicated in the Drainage Area for Indiana Streams for Gibson County, the total White River basin watershed exceeds 11,305 square miles. While river quality is threatened by pollution, including overflow sewage from Indianapolis and other cities, many recreational activities take place on the White River, including fishing and canoeing; the White River Yacht Club is a boating club that utilizes pontoon boats, a section of the river in northern Indianapolis has both riverside cottages and pontoon boats.
The river isn't deep enough in many stretches to support conventionally-keeled sailing or power boats. In 1997, the White River was listed as one of the United States’ most threatened rivers. Pesticides are used extensively in the White River basin. Application of herbicides to corn and soybeans accounts for most of the use; the pesticides most detected near the mouth of the White River during 1991–1995 were the herbicides alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor. The highest concentrations of herbicides in the river were found during late spring runoff following application. Concentrations of alachlor have been decreasing while concentrations of acetochlor have been increasing in response to changes in the use of these herbicides in the basin; the total amount of the used herbicides transported by the river is about 1% or less of the amount applied to cropland. Insecticides used in urban and agricultural areas were found but in much lower concentrations than used herbicides. In 1999, the West Fork experienced a massive fish kill that spread for 50 miles for an estimated loss of 4.6 million fish.
The kill was traced back to Guide Corp, an automotive parts maker in Anderson, which had discharged 10,000 US gallons of the chemical HMP 2000 into the river. Guide Corp reached a settlement whereby the company would pay a total of $14.2 million in fines, legal expenses, river restoration. Many animals that had burrowed into the mud were protected from the chemical, by March 2000, some fish were returning to the affected area; the Indiana Department of Natural Resources conducted a restocking program in October. The city of Anderson announced in 2002 that it would invest millions of dollars for improvements to its sewage treatment system. Ten years after the fish kill, officials with the DNR stated that the White River was in better condition than before the environmental disaster. Stones along the bank of the river are still bleached and serve as a reminder of the chemical spill. List of Indiana rivers Hay, Jerry M, "White River Guidebook" 2009, ISBN 978-1-60585-216-4 Nolan, John Matthew "2,543 Days: A History of the Hotel at the Grand Rapids Dam on the Wabash River" Discusses Charles T. Hinde, one of the silent investors of the Hotel del Coronado and how the Hotel del Coronado influenced the Grand Rapids Hotel in Wabash County, Illinois.
Short Documentary on cleanup efforts in Muncie USGS Occurrence of pesticides in the White River, Indiana, 1991-95 Principal Cities and Towns of the White River Basin
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of an extra hour of sleep in the fall. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895; the German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used at various times since particularly since the 1970s energy crisis. DST is not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it; some countries observe it only in some regions. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa do not observe it. DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, sleep patterns.
Computer software adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing. Industrialized societies follow a clock-based schedule for daily activities that do not change throughout the course of the year; the time of day that individuals begin and end work or school, the coordination of mass transit, for example remain constant year-round. In contrast, an agrarian society's daily routines for work and personal conduct are more governed by the length of daylight hours and by solar time, which change seasonally because of the Earth's axial tilt. North and south of the tropics daylight lasts longer in summer and shorter in winter, with the effect becoming greater the further one moves away from the tropics. By synchronously resetting all clocks in a region to one hour ahead of standard time, individuals who follow such a year-round schedule will wake an hour earlier than they would have otherwise. However, they will have one less hour of daylight at the start of each day, making the policy less practical during winter.
While the times of sunrise and sunset change at equal rates as the seasons change, proponents of Daylight Saving Time argue that most people prefer a greater increase in daylight hours after the typical "nine to five" workday. Supporters have argued that DST decreases energy consumption by reducing the need for lighting and heating, but the actual effect on overall energy use is disputed; the manipulation of time at higher latitudes has little impact on daily life, because the length of day and night changes more throughout the seasons, thus sunrise and sunset times are out of phase with standard working hours regardless of manipulations of the clock. DST is of little use for locations near the equator, because these regions see only a small variation in daylight in the course of the year; the effect varies according to how far east or west the location is within its time zone, with locations farther east inside the time zone benefiting more from DST than locations farther west in the same time zone.
Ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than DST does dividing daylight into 12 hours regardless of daytime, so that each daylight hour became progressively longer during spring and shorter during autumn. For example, the Romans kept time with water clocks that had different scales for different months of the year. From the 14th century onwards, equal-length civil hours supplanted unequal ones, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some monasteries of Mount Athos and all Jewish ceremonies. Benjamin Franklin published the proverb "early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy and wise", he published a letter in the Journal de Paris during his time as an American envoy to France suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight; this 1784 satire proposed taxing window shutters, rationing candles, waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.
Despite common misconception, Franklin did not propose DST. However, this changed as rail transport and communication networks required a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day. In 1810, the Spanish National Assembly Cortes of Cádiz issued a regulation that moved certain meeting times forward by one hour from May 1 to September 30 in recognition of seasonal changes, but it did not change the clocks, it acknowledged that private businesses were in the practice of changing their opening hours to suit daylight conditions, but they did so of their own volition. New Zealand entomologist George Hudson first proposed modern DST, his shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects and led him to value after-hours daylight. In 1895, he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift, considerable interest was expressed in
Indiana State Road 3
State Road 3 in the U. S. State of Indiana is a discontinuous state highway running through eastern Indiana from near the Ohio River to near the Michigan state line; the southernmost terminus is at State Road 62 in Charlestown, the northernmost terminus is at State Road 120 near Brighton. The route was continuous until 1972. SR 3 heads north toward downtown Charlestown; when in downtown Charlestown SR 3 has an intersection with State Road 403. SR 3 heads north out of Charlestown. 17.17 miles north of SR 403 there is a wrong-way concurrency with State Road 203 for 1.85 miles, meaning southbound SR 203 and northbound SR 3 are going the same direction. After SR 203, SR 3 heads north toward Vernon and North Vernon. In North Vernon SR 3 has an intersection with U. S. Route 50. After North Vernon SR 3 heads due north for 22.52 miles until State Road 46 just west of Greensburg. SR 3 joins SR 46 on a four-lane divided highway and enters Greensburg from the southwest. After entering Greensburg SR 46 leaves SR 3 at Main Street.
In downtown Greensburg SR 3 has an intersection with U. S. Route 421. After US 421, SR 3 leaves Greensburg heading northeast just north. SR 3 has an interchange with Interstate 74, 1.53 miles from US 421. After I-74, SR 3 becomes a two-lane undivided highway. SR 3 has a concurrency with U. S. Route 52 that lasts for 0.42 miles in Rushville. SR 3 heads due north toward U. S. Route 40 and SR 3 heads east on US 40 for a short concurrency after 0.07 miles. After US 40, SR 3 has an interchange with interstate 70, exit number 123 on I-70. Just south of I-70 SR 3 becomes a four-lane divided highway. After I-70, SR 3 passes near New Castle. SR 3 and U. S. Route 36 have an interchange near Mount Summit. After US 36, SR 3 head north toward Muncie, where SR 3 has an interchange with State Road 67. At the interchange with SR 67, SR 3 heads east north along the bypass. Interchange includes U. S. Route 35 south, State Road 32, SR 67 north; the bypass is a limited-access highway. North of the Muncie Bypass, US 35 leaves SR 3 due west to Kokomo.
After US 35, SR 3 heads due north to Markle. Passing through Hartford City, where SR 3 meets State Road 26. South of Markle SR 3 turns northeast SR 3 meets State Road 116. 0.46 miles after SR 116, SR 3 comes to its northern terminus of the southern section of SR 3, at U. S. Route 224; the southern terminus of the northern section of SR 3 begins at Interstate 69 and the northern terminus of U. S. Route 27; the road heads North from this point, as a six–lane major arterial passing through both commercial and residential areas. North of Dupont Road, on the northside of Fort Wayne, the road becomes a rural four–lane divided highway. North of Fort Wayne, the route bypasses Huntertown, 8.20 miles north of I-69. The road enters Dekalb County with and traffic light at State Road 205. Soon after SR 205, the road enters Noble County, bypassing LaOtto and Avilla. In Noble County, the route passes through rural farming land and parallels an abandoned railroad track on its way to Kendallville. In Kendallville the route has a short concurrency with US 6.
After the US 6 concurrency SR 3, becomes a two–lane rural highway heading due North, until Mongo where the road turns northwest. Entering into Brighton, SR 3 reaches its northern terminus at SR 120. Between 1972 and 1973, SR 3 was removed between US 224 in Markle and I-69 on the north side of Fort Wayne; the final route through the Fort Wayne metro area followed Indianapolis Road/Baer Road past the city's main airport to Lower Huntington Road in the Waynedale district of Fort Wayne. SR 3 there turned east onto that road for only a short distance, before turning north again onto Bluffton Road. Bluffton Road hugs the bank of the St. Mary's River before crossing it. SR 1 and SR 3 immediately turned south onto Broadway for two blocks before turning east onto Rudisill Boulevard. SR 1/SR 3 followed Rudisill Boulevard to Lafayette Street and Clinton Street at which points the state routes turned north to join the others heading to/from downtown Fort Wayne. In the heart of the city US 33 departed upon leaving downtown Lafayette Street becomes Spy Run Boulevard before joining Clinton Street on the north side of the city.
Shortly thereafter, US 27/SR 1/SR 3 turned toward the northwest onto Northrop Street and Lima Road until they reached the I-69 interchange, where SR 3 continued north on Lima Road and US 27/SR 1 turned east onto northbound I–69. With SR 3 through traffic using the then-recently completed I-69 to bypass Fort Wayne, the route between US 224 and the junction with SR 1 on the southwest side was turned back over to local control and the SR 3 designation was removed along the portions shared with other routes within the city; until 1980, SR 3 was concurrent with SR 62. In 1990, the four-lane upgrade from the DeKalb/Allen County line north of Huntertown to Kendallville was completed, bypassing the towns of LaOtto and Avilla; this made SR 3 four lanes for the 25 miles from I-69 in Fort Wayne to US 6 in Kendallville. In early 2010, construction began on SR 3 widening for about 3 miles from Ludwig Road in Fort Wayne to Dupont Road on the north side of Fort Wayne; this section of highway along Lima Road was widened from four lane divided roadway to six lane divided highway and w
Indiana State Road 28
State Road 28 is an east–west road in central Indiana in the United States that crosses the entire state from east to west, covering a distance of about 153 miles and passing about 20 miles to the north of the state capitol of Indianapolis. The western terminus of State Road 28 is at the Illinois state line where it continues the route of Illinois Route 119, about 7.5 miles west of West Lebanon. The eastern terminus is at the Ohio state line where Ohio State Route 571 continues the route, near State Road 32 in the border-town of Union City. For most of its length it is an undivided two-lane road which travels through flat, open farm land, avoiding the hillier and more wooded areas that begin not far to the south, it is divided for about 1 mile just west of Frankfort, where it passes the Frankfort Municipal Airport. State Road 28 has concurrencies with four U. S. routes, as well as four other Indiana state roads. Before 1926 the SR 28 designation was routed between Petersburg and Bloomfield, along modern SR 57.
In 1926 SR 28 was moved to current routing, replacing SR 19 between US 31 and Alexandria and SR 33 from Muncie to the Ohio state line. The state road was extended west to the Illinois state line in either 1927 or 1928. Between 1931 and 1932 the section between Muncie and Ohio state line became SR 32 and SR 28 ended at SR 67, northeast of Muncie; the modern roadway east of Albany to the Ohio state line was proposed to be added to the state road system in this time frame. In 1932 SR 28 between Albany and the Ohio state line was added to the state road system. At this time the roadway from Williamsport to SR 25 and from US 52 to Albany was paved; the roadway west of Williamsport was paved in either 1934 and 1935. Between 1966 and 1967 the road between SR 25 and US 52 and from Albany to Union City was paved. Williamsport Falls