Montgomery County, Pennsylvania
Montgomery County, locally referred to as Montco, is the third-most populous county in the U. S. state of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the 71st most populous in the United States. As of 2017, the census-estimated population of the county was 826,075, representing a 3.3% increase from the 799,884 residents enumerated in the 2010 census. Montgomery County is located adjacent to and northwest of Philadelphia; the county seat is Norristown. Montgomery County is geographically diverse, ranging from farms and open land in the extreme north of the county to densely populated suburban neighborhoods in the southern and central portions of the county. Montgomery County is included in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, known as the Delaware Valley; the county marks part of the Delaware Valley's northern border with the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania. In 2010, Montgomery County was the 51st wealthiest county in the country by median household income. In 2008, the county was named the 9th Best Place to Raise a Family by Forbes.
The county was created on September 10, 1784, out of land part of Philadelphia County. The first courthouse was housed in the Barley Sheaf Inn, it is believed to have been named either for Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, or for the Welsh county of Montgomeryshire, as it was part of the Welsh Tract, an area of Pennsylvania settled by Quakers from Wales. Early histories of the county indicate the origin of the county's name as uncertain. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 487 square miles, of which 483 square miles is land and 4.2 square miles is covered by water. It is in hardiness zones 6b and 7a. Lehigh County Bucks County Philadelphia County Delaware County Chester County Berks County Valley Forge National Historical Park As of the 2010 census, the county was 79.0% White non-Hispanic, 8.7% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American or Alaskan Native, 6.4% Asian, 0.0% native Hawaiian.
About 4.3 % of the population were Latino. As of the census of 2000, 750,097 people, 286,098 households, 197,693 families resided in the county; the population density was 1,553 people per square mile. The 297,434 housing units averaged 238 units/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 86.46% White, 7.46% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 4.02% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. About 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, 17.5% were of German, 16.7% Irish, 14.3% Italian, 6.5% English, 5.0% Polish ancestry according to 2000 United States Census. Around 90.5% spoke English, 2.0% Spanish, 1.1% Korean, 1.0% Italian as their first language. Much of western Montgomery County is part of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country, with a great many descendants of German-speaking settlers from the 18th century. Montgomery County is home to large and growing African American, Korean American, Puerto-Rican American, Mexican American, Indian American populations.
The county has the second-largest foreign-born population in the region, after Philadelphia County. Of the 286,098 households, 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were not families. About 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $60,829, for a family was $72,183. Males had a median income of $48,698 versus $35,089 for females; the per capita income for the county was $30,898.
About 2.80% of families and 4.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.60% of those under age 18 and 5.10% of those age 65 or over. The largest townships/boroughs in Montgomery County include:" As of January 2010, there are 577,378 registered voters in Montgomery County. Democratic: 262,204 Republican: 231,531 Other parties: 83,643 Historically, Montgomery County was a stronghold for the Republican Party; the county was the only one carried by Barbara Hafer in the 1990 gubernatorial election over the incumbent governor, Bob Casey. However, the Democratic Party has made substantial gains in the county over the last quarter-century and gained the registration edge early in 2008; as in most of Philadelphia's suburbs, the brand of Republicanism practiced in Montgomery County for much of the 20th century was a moderate one. As the national parties have polarized, the county's voters have supported Democrats at the national level. After voting for the Republican Presidential nominee in all but one election from 1952 to 1988--Lyndon Johnson's landslide in 1964--Montgomery County residents have voted for the Democr
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Joseph Merrill Hoeffel III is an American author and politician. A Democrat, Hoeffel was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1999 to 2005, representing Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district, he served multiple terms on the Montgomery County Board of Commissioners, from 1977–84, was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. A native of Philadelphia, he is Temple University School of Law. Hoeffel was an unsuccessful candidate for the United States Senate in 2004, for Governor of Pennsylvania in 2010. Hoeffel was born in Pennsylvania, to Joseph and Eleanore Hoeffel. After graduating from William Penn Charter School in 1968, he attended Boston University and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English in 1972, he served in the Army Reserves from 1970 to 1976. He first became involved in politics during the 1972 presidential election, when his opposition to the Vietnam War led him to support Senator George McGovern. In 1973, he became a legislative aide to Representative Gerry Studds of Massachusetts, for whom Hoeffel did research on foreign overfishing.
After working for Studds for a year, Hoeffel challenged four-term Republican incumbent Daniel Beren for a seat in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, representing the Abington-based 153rd district, in 1974. He was defeated by 1,505 votes. From 1975 to 1976, he was the Central Montgomery County administrator for the American Red Cross. Hoeffel ran again for state House in 1976, after Beren decided to not seek re-election, he was the first Democrat to represent the Abington area since World War I. He served from 1977 to 1985; the first bill he passed as a state legislator was a campaign reform proposal in 1978 improving financial disclosure. In 1984, he gave up his seat to run for the United States House of Representatives in the 13th congressional district, but was defeated by longtime Republican incumbent Lawrence Coughlin. Hoeffel sought a rematch in 1986, was defeated again, he received his Juris Doctor degree from Temple University School of Law in 1986, worked at the Norristown law firms of Wright, Kinkaid & Oliver and Kane, Pugh & Driscoll.
After several years out of politics, Hoeffel won a seat on the Montgomery County Commission in 1991. In a surprise to the political establishment, Hoeffel supported Republican Mario Mele for Commission chairman over Jon Fox. In 1996, Hoeffel made a third run at Congress, taking on his former colleague on the Montgomery County Commission, Jon Fox, now a freshman Congressman; that year, Fox hung onto his seat by an 84-vote margin. However, in 1998, in his fourth attempt, Hoeffel broke through. Hobbled by a tough Republican primary and the fallout from the impeachment of President Bill Clinton, Fox could not hang on a second time. Hoeffel won by more than 5,000 votes. Hoeffel became only the second Democrat to represent the Montgomery County-based district in 86 years, he won re-election twice. In 2000 he won an expensive race against Republican State Senator Stewart Greenleaf, who represented most of the eastern portion of the congressional district, he thus became the first Democrat to serve more than one term in the district in decades.
In 2002, he defeated wealthy ophthalmologist Melissa Brown by less than expected. During the 2002 election, Hoeffel's website was praised as among the best of the 2002 election cycle. In Congress, Hoeffel was a member of two House committees: International Relations and Transportation and Infrastructure. On July 20, 2004, Hoeffel became the third sitting U. S. Congressman in one week, following Charles Rangel and Bobby Rush, to be arrested for trespassing while protesting alleged human rights violations in front of the Sudanese Embassy. U. S. Senator Arlen Specter, Hoeffel's Republican opponent in the 2004 U. S. Senate race, criticized the arrest as a publicity stunt. Rather than holding onto his seat, Hoeffel decided in 2004 to run for the U. S. Senate against incumbent Republican Arlen Specter. In the election held on November 2, 2004, Hoeffel was defeated by more than ten points to Specter, 53%-42%, only carried four counties. Hoeffel was at a considerable disadvantage because of Specter's popularity in the Philadelphia suburbs.
Hoeffel endorsed Bob Casey, Jr. for the United States Senate in 2006. Hoeffel announced that he would run for lieutenant governor in March 2006 against incumbent Catherine Baker Knoll, but dropped out of the race a day later. Governor Ed Rendell convinced Hoeffel; the Democratic Committees of Bucks and Chester Counties had overwhelmingly voted to endorse him over Knoll. In July 2006, Rendell named Hoeffel the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Community and Economic Development where he would oversee the International Commerce Office of the DCED. In February 2007, Hoeffel announced that he would resign his post in order to run for the Montgomery County Commission with incumbent Ruth Damsker. Hoeffel's and Damsker's opponents were district attorney Bruce Castor. Hopes were high that the Democrats could win majority control on the commission due to party gains in the county and a fractured county Republican party. Hoeffel finished second, behind Castor, winning a seat on the Commission, but his running mate fell short, keeping control in Republican hands.
However, thanks to a deal with Matthews, Hoeffel became Vice Chairman of the Commission, in exchange for supporting Matthews' bid to become Chairman over Castor. On Se
Camden County, New Jersey
Camden County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its county seat is Camden; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 510,719, making it the state's 8th-largest county, representing a 0.7% decrease from the 513,657 enumerated at the 2010 Census, in turn having increased by 4,725 from the 508,932 counted in the 2000 Census. The most populous place was Camden, with 77,344 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Winslow Township covered 58.19 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. It was formed on March 1844, from portions of Gloucester County; the county was named for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, a British judge, civil libertarian, defender of the American cause. The county is part of the Camden, NJ Metropolitan Division of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD / Delaware Valley Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 227.293 square miles, including 221.263 square miles of land and 6.030 square miles of water.
Located in a coastal / alluvial plain, the county is uniformly low-lying. The highest points are a survey benchmark near the Burlington County line at 219 feet above sea level; the low point is sea level, along the Delaware River. The county borders the following counties: Burlington County, New Jersey – northeast Atlantic County, New Jersey – southeast Gloucester County, New Jersey – southwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania – northwest Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Camden have ranged from a low of 26 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −11 °F was recorded in February 1934 and a record high of 106 °F was recorded in August 1918. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.75 inches in February to 4.35 inches in July. While many of its municipalities are working class, Camden County has many contrasts in its demographics. Most of Camden and parts of Lindenwold are considered impoverished, while Cherry Hill, Voorhees Township, Haddon Heights and Haddonfield have upper-income enclaves.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 513,657 people, 190,980 households, 129,866.400 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,321.5 per square mile. There were 204,943 housing units at an average density of 926.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 65.29% White, 19.55% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 5.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 7.08% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.24% of the population. There were 190,980 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 9% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37.9 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.7 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 508,932 people, 185,744 households, 129,835 families residing in the county; the population density was 2,289 people per square mile. There were 199,679 housing units at an average density of 898 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 70.88% White American, 18.09% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 3.72% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.09% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 9.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 20.6% of residents were of Irish, 18.2% Italian, 15.7% German and 8.1% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 185,744 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families.
25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.5% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,097, the median income for a family was $57,429. Males had a median income of $41,609 versus $30,470 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,354. About 8.1% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. The county is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members chosen at-large in partisan elections for three-year terms on a staggered basis by the residents of the county, with either two or three seats up for election each year as part of the November general election.
At a reorganization meeting held in January after each election, the newly constituted Freeholder Board selects one of its members to ser
Gloucester County, New Jersey
Gloucester County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 292,206, making it the state's 14th-most populous county, an increase of 1.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when its population was enumerated at 288,288, in turn an increase of 33,615 from the 254,673 counted in the 2000 U. S. Census; the percentage increase in the county's population between 2000 and 2010 was the largest in New Jersey triple the statewide increase of 4.5%, the absolute increase in residents was the third highest. Its county seat is Woodbury. Gloucester County is located south of northwest of Atlantic City, it is part of the Camden, New Jersey Metropolitan Division of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 337.18 square miles, including 322.00 square miles of land and 15.17 square miles of water. Gloucester County is composed of low-lying rivers and coastal plains.
The highest elevation in the county is a slight rise along County Route 654 southeast of Cross Keys that reaches 180 feet above sea level. Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania – north Camden County, New Jersey – northeast Atlantic County, New Jersey – southeast Cumberland County, New Jersey – south Salem County, New Jersey – southwest New Castle County, Delaware – west Delaware County, Pennsylvania – northwest Great Egg Harbor Scenic and Recreational River Swedesboro and Bridgeport were among the earliest European settlements in New Jersey as a part of the 17th century New Sweden colony. Gloucester dates back to May 26, 1686, when courts were established separate from those of Burlington, it was formed and its boundaries defined as part of West Jersey on May 17, 1694. Portions of Gloucester County were set off on February 7, 1837, to create Atlantic County, on March 13, 1844 to create Camden County; the county was named for the city of Gloucester / county of Gloucestershire in England. Woodbury, founded in 1683 by Henry Wood, is the oldest municipality in the county.
The municipality of National Park hosts the site of the Revolutionary War Battle of Red Bank where Fort Mercer once stood. It is now the site of Red Bank Battlefield Park and the remains of HMS Augusta laid there until they were moved and subsequently re-sunk in Gloucester City on their way to Philadelphia. During the colonial era, Gloucester County's main economic activity was agriculture. Woodbury was the site of the county courthouse, the county jail, a Quaker meeting house, an inn; because of the county's many creeks leading to the Delaware River and the Atlantic Ocean, smuggling was common. In 2014, the county heroin death rate was 17.3 deaths per 100,000 people, the fourth-highest rate in New Jersey nearly seven times the national average. The Gloucester County Historical Society, founded in 1903, maintains a collection of materials and artifacts related to the history of South Jersey; the Hunter-Lawrence-Jessup House Museum, in Woodbury, displays many of these artifacts. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 288,288 people, 104,271 households, 75,805.017 families residing in the county.
The population density was 895.3 per square mile. There were 109,796 housing units at an average density of 341 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.56% White, 10.06% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 2.64% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.41% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.76% of the population. There were 104,271 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.2. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.7 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males.
For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.1 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 254,673 people, 90,717 households, 67,221 families residing in the county; the population density was 784 people per square mile. There were 95,054 housing units at an average density of 293 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.07% White, 9.06% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. 2.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 26.9% were of Italian, 24.4% Irish, 22.9% German and 11.5% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 90,717 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.9% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25
WTAE-TV, virtual channel 4, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Pittsburgh, United States. It has been owned by the Hearst Television subsidiary of Hearst Communications since the station's inception, making this one of two stations that have been built and signed on by Hearst. WTAE's studios are located on Ardmore Boulevard in the suburb of Wilkinsburg, its transmitter is located in Buena Vista, Pennsylvania. On cable, WTAE is carried on Comcast Xfinity channel 8 and Verizon FiOS channel 4. WTAE-TV began broadcasting on September 14, 1958. From the beginning, the Hearst Corporation has been involved in the station's ownership. How the station came to be was the result of a long and complicated drama surrounding the awarding of the station's construction permit and ultimate broadcast license. Although it was the sixth-largest market in the country for most of the early television era, Pittsburgh had only one major commercial television station for close to a decade—DuMont-owned WDTV, which signed on in 1949 and carried programs from all four television networks.
Further development of stations in Pittsburgh was halted by the Federal Communications Commission's freeze on license awards, which ran from 1948 until 1952. After the freeze was lifted by the FCC's Sixth Report and Order, the FCC held off on allocating new VHF stations to Pittsburgh in order to give the smaller cities in the Upper Ohio Valley a chance to get on the air; the cities in the Upper Ohio Valley are close enough. Several months after the freeze was lifted two UHF stations in Pittsburgh, WENS-TV and WKJF-TV, went on the air. For reasons that were both technical and financial, both stations were short-lived. Meanwhile, revisions to the VHF allocation table had given the Pittsburgh area three additional channels—4, 11, 13, the latter reserved for non-commercial educational purposes; the channel 4 frequency on which WTAE-TV began operations during the analog television era was allocated to suburban McKeesport, in Allegheny County. Hearings on the channel 4 permit opened in 1955, it was granted by the FCC to the owners of KQV radio in 1956.
Hearst, which entered Pittsburgh broadcasting when it purchased WCAE radio in 1931, the other three applicants that lost petitioned the FCC to re-open the permit hearings following the death of KQV co-owner Irwin D. Wolf; the subsequent reconsideration awarded channel 4 to Hearst. The agency's commissioners were divided on how to break the stalemate to the satisfaction of both winning parties, suggested a merger between Hearst and the KQV group, who sold their radio station to ABC in order to appease FCC cross-ownership restrictions. Together, both firms became equal partners in Television City, Inc. under which ownership WTAE-TV went on the air. Hearst would purchase the remaining 50 percent of the station in 1962; as such, WTAE-TV is the only Pittsburgh television station affiliated with a major network to have not changed ownership. Shortly before the station signed on, the FCC moved the channel 4 assignment to Pittsburgh proper following several years of petitioning by then-Pittsburgh mayor David L. Lawrence.
However, the FCC had changed its rules so that channel 4 could have based its main studio in Pittsburgh if it had been licensed in McKeesport or Irwin. The station's original ownership group's connections with powerful U. S. Senator from Florida, George Smathers led to televised U. S. House hearings with both Lawrence and Smathers testifying in 1958. Both were exonerated with Governor Lawrence claiming that in fact it was the city's solicitors office which may have been guilty of any improper influence, with Smathers and Lawrence fulfilling their duty to their respective constituents. WTAE-TV was thus short-spaced to other channel 4 stations in Ohio. C.. Shortly after signing on, WTAE-TV was affiliated with the NTA Film Network, sharing the affiliation with KDKA-TV, WIIC-TV, WQED. In the early years, Channel 4 was best known in the market for its locally originated entertainment programming, including popular early program late night movie show Shock Theatre, hosted by former Pittsburgh radio disc jockey Bob Drews, who portrayed Sir Rodger.
Shock Theatre featured monster movies such as The Invisible Man and Frankenstein in-between live-action comedic skits. By the 1970s, WTAE-TV was running a mix of cartoons and sitcoms from 6:30 to 9 a.m. a local talk show, some ABC shows, more cartoons and off-network sitcoms in the afternoon and some first run shows in the evening, ABC prime time programming. WTAE-TV first adopted the "Circle 4" logo in 1973 adopting the current version in 1995. Due to the design and similar callsigns, the logo has received comparisons to fellow ABC affiliate WATE-TV in Knoxville, who has used the "Circle 6" logo since 2011. Aside from the ABC affiliation, the two stations are not related. In 2012, the "Circle 4" logo surpassed KDKA-TV's Group W-era logo that in va
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a