Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Ottawa
Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Ottawa is Saudi Arabia's diplomatic mission to Canada. The building is located at 201 Sussex Drive in Ottawa. Prior to 2005, it was located in an office in the Clarica Centre on Bank Street; the Saudis bought the prime land in 1978 for $900 000 and top Canadian architect Arthur Erickson was hired to do the design. It was many years. Plans to build a somewhat smaller structure were announced in 1989. In the meantime, the National Capital Commission had striven to turn Sussex Drive into a ceremonial boulevard and it balked at the Saudi design, threatening to take back the land; the project again came to a halt. In 1997 a new design was developed, but neighbours complained vigorously about the number of armed guards that would surround it and the loss of green space; the plan was approved except for the guard houses and access road. The Saudis stated that without them the embassy could not function and shelved the $25 million project; the city and embassy negotiated and the Saudis made compromises on the size of the guardhouses and in other areas and city council, to the displeasure of local residents, approved the plan in May 1998.
The exterior of the building was completed in 2001. The Saudi embassy reported that its staff were too busy with diplomatic matters in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks to take time off to move to new quarters. Work on the interior resumed in March 2004 and was opened in August 2005. Canada–Saudi Arabia relations Saudi Canadians Official site
Islamic architecture is the range of architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam. It encompasses religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. Early Islamic architecture was influenced by Roman, Persian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries. Further east, it was influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture as Islam spread to Southeast Asia, it developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. The principal Islamic architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths and domestic architecture. Many of the buildings which are mentioned in this article are listed as World Heritage Sites; some of them, like the Citadel of Aleppo, have suffered significant damage in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
The most recent building that can be known as a true example modern of Islamic architecture is Imam Sadiq University, this building was the winner of Aga Khan fundation as well. This building designed by Nader Ardalan, Iranian architect teaching at Harvard University; the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture. It is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Byzantine Christian artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background; the great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre-Islamic Syrian style. The Dome of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. Desert palaces in Jordan and Syria served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, baths, were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury; the horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic structures. Some suggest the Muslims acquired this from the Visigoths in Spain but they may have obtained it from Syria and Persia where the horseshoe arch had been in use by the Byzantines.
In Moorish architecture, the curvature of the horseshoe arch is much more accentuated. Furthermore, alternating colours were added to accentuate the effect of its shape; this can be seen at a large scale in the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The Great Mosque of Damascus, built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist after the Islamic invasion of Damascus, still bore great resemblance to 6th and 7th century Christian basilicas. Certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic style of prayer; the Abbasid dynasty witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, from Baghdad to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics and art; the Great Mosque of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital. Other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir demonstrated the "despotic and the pleasure-loving character of the dynasty" in its grand size but cramped living quarters.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world. Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage and other elements resemble Roman form, it is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form from the Aghlabid period. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a massive square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas; the Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul influenced Islamic architecture; when the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work. The Hagia Sophia served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.
Domes are a major structural feature of Islamic architecture. The dome first appeared in Islamic architecture in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock, a near replica of the existing Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other Christian domed basilicas situated nearby. Domes remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques and of the Taj Mahal in the 17th century; the distinctive pointed domes of Islamic architecture originating with the Byzantines and Persians, have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st century. Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been the mathematical themes of ordered repetition, radiating structures, rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. From the eighth to the eleventh century, Islamic architectural styles were influenced by two different ancien
Charbagh or Chahar Bagh is a Persian, Indo-Persian, Islamic quadrilateral garden layout based on the four gardens of Paradise mentioned in the Qur'an. The quadrilateral garden is divided by flowing water into four smaller parts, they are found in countries including Iran and India. The quadrilateral Charbagh concept is based on the four gardens of Paradise mentioned in Chapter 55, Ar-Rahman "The Beneficient", in the Qur'an: "And for him, who fears to stand before his Lord, are two gardens." "And beside them are two other gardens." One of the hallmarks of Charbagh garden is the four-part garden laid out with axial paths that intersect at the garden's centre. This structured geometrical scheme, called the chahar bagh, became a powerful method for the organization and domestication of the landscape, itself a symbol of political territory; the Chahrbagh-e Abbasi in Isfahan, built by Shah Abbas the Great in 1596, the garden of the Taj Mahal in India are the most famous examples of this style. In the Charbagh at the Taj Mahal, each of the four parts contains sixteen flower beds.
In India, the Char Bagh concept in imperial mausoleums is seen in Humayun's Tomb in Delhi in a monumental scale. Humayan's father was the Central Asian Conqueror Babur who succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor; the tradition of paradise garden originated among the Mughals from Central Asia, found at Babur's tomb, Bagh-e Babur, in Kabul. This tradition gave birth to the Mughal gardens design and displayed its high form in the Taj Mahal — built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, the great, grandson of the Central Asian Conqueror Babur, as a tomb for his favourite Indian wife Mumtaz Mahal, in Agra, India. Here, unlike most such tombs, the mausoleum is not in the centre of the garden, but on its northern end; the garden features Italian cypress trees. Fruit trees in the garden symbolize life; the garden attracts many birds. In Pakistan, the Mughal Shalimar Gardens and the garden in the Tomb of Jehangir in Lahore are based on the Charbagh concept.
A charbagh is located on the roof top of the Ismaili Centre in London. The Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat, located on Sussex Drive in the Canadian capital Ottawa, Ontario contains a charbagh in a modern setting; the Ismaili Center and Aga Khan Museum in Toronto features a modern interpretation of a charbagh between the buildings. Lucknow Charbagh railway station Lehrman, Jonas Benzion. Earthly paradise: garden and courtyard in Islam. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04363-4. Ruggles, D. Fairchild. Islamic Gardens and Landscapes. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-4025-1. Babur's Garden - video from the Asia Society, US
Sussex Drive is a major street in Ottawa, Ontario and one of the city's major ceremonial and institutional routes. Running parallel to the Ottawa River, Sussex Drive begins at Rideau Street at the north end of Colonel By Drive, running north and bending northeast until MacKay Street, where it becomes the Sir George-Étienne Cartier Parkway. Sussex is a famous street in the capital, as it is home to the Prime Minister's residence at 24 Sussex Drive and home to the Governor General's residence at Rideau Hall. Located on Sussex are Ottawa's former city hall on Green Island, which includes Earnscliffe, a number of prominent embassies such as those of France, Saudi Arabia and the United States. Other landmarks along Sussex are Major's Hill Park, the National Gallery of Canada, the Former Geological Survey of Canada Building, the Royal Canadian Mint, Rideau Falls Park, the Peacekeeping Monument, the National Laboratories, the Connaught Building, the John G. Diefenbaker Building, the Lester B. Pearson Building, home to Foreign Affairs Canada, the Archives of the Dominion Building, home to the Global Centre for Pluralism, 700 Sussex Drive, a residential condo and retail complex.
The most significant recent addition to Sussex Drive, having been opened on December 6, 2008, is the Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat, a representative building for His Highness the Aga Khan. Sussex was three different streets; the section in the Byward Market was named Metcalfe Street, the portion east of the Rideau River was known as Ottawa Street. The centre portion, named for Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, was known as Sussex Street. Sussex Street was renamed Sussex Drive in 1967. In the 1960s the National Capital Commission launched a beautification campaign through the market section of the street. Beginning in 1961, the held buildings were purchased by the government and restored to their original appearances; the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom and the CANLOAN Army Officers Association erected a memorial on 3 June 1961 on the east side of Sussex Drive in Ottawa, Ontario dedicated to the memory of the 128 CANLOAN fatalities within the 673 that served in the British Army during the Second World War.
Through the Byward Market area, Sussex is a northbound one-way arterial road, before joining up at the Alexandra Bridge approach where it becomes a four-lane principal arterial road, with a speed limit of 50 km/h south of the bend and 60 km/h north and east of the bend. Just before becoming the Sir George-Étienne Cartier Parkway, Sussex narrows to a two-lane rural-standard parkway. Google Maps: Sussex Drive Confederation Boulevard Rideau Street Wellington Street
Aga Khan IV
Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizari Ismailism, a denomination of Isma'ilism within Shia Islam with an estimated 10-15 million adherents. The Aga Khan is a business magnate with Portuguese and British citizenship, as well as a racehorse owner and breeder, he has held this position of Imam, under the title of Aga Khan IV, since 11 July 1957, when, at the age of 20, he succeeded his grandfather, Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah Aga Khan III. It is believed that the Aga Khan is a direct lineal descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, considered the first Imam in Shia Islam, Ali's wife Fatima az-Zahra, Muhammad's daughter from his first marriage. Forbes describes the Aga Khan as one of the world's ten richest royals with an estimated net worth of US$3 billion. Additionally he is unique among the richest royals. Among the goals the Aga Khan has said, he is the founder and chairman of the Aga Khan Development Network, one of the largest private development networks in the world.
The organisation works toward improvement of the environment, education, culture, rural development, disaster reduction, the promotion of private-sector enterprise and the revitalisation of historic cities. Since his ascension to the Imamate of Nizari Ismailis in 1957, the Aga Khan has been involved in complex political and economic changes which have affected his Nizari Ismaili followers, including the independence of African countries from colonial rule, expulsion of Asians from Uganda, the independence of Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan from the former Soviet Union and the continuous turmoil in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Aga Khan IV became the first faith leader to address the Joint Session of the Canadian Parliament on 27 February 2014. Born Prince Karim Aga Khan, the Aga Khan IV is the eldest son of Prince Aly Khan, his first wife, the Hon. Princess Tajuddawlah Aly Khan the Hon. Joan Barbara Yarde-Buller, the eldest daughter of British peer 3rd Baron Churston. Born in Geneva, Switzerland, on 13 December 1936, Prince Karim was declared healthy despite being born prematurely.
The Aga Khan's brother, Prince Amyn, was born less than a year later. Their parents divorced in 1949, in part due to Prince Aly Khan's extramarital affairs, Prince Aly Khan shortly after married American actress Rita Hayworth – with whom he had a daughter, Princess Yasmin Aga Khan, the half-sister of Aga Khan IV; the Aga Khan IV had a half-brother, Patrick Benjamin Guinness, from his mother's first marriage, as Joan Yarde-Buller was married to Loel Guinness of the banking Guinnesses. Prince Karim spent his childhood in Nairobi, where his early education was by private tutoring, his grandfather, Aga Khan III, engaged Mustafa Kamil, a teacher from Aligarh Muslim University, for both Prince Karim and Prince Amyn. Prince Karim attended the Institut Le Rosey in Switzerland, the most expensive boarding school in Europe, for nine years where he ended up with, in his words, "fair grades." As a youngster Prince Karim would have preferred to attend MIT and study science, but his grandfather, Aga Khan III, vetoed the decision and Prince Karim attended Harvard University where he was elected a member of The Delphic Club.
There he majored in oriental history. When his grandfather died, the young Prince was thrust into the position of the Aga Khan, he went from being not only a university student but replacing his grandfather as the new Nizari Imam, he said about it: "my whole life changed completely. I woke up with serious responsibilities toward millions of other human beings. I knew I would have to abandon my hopes of studying for a doctorate in History." The Aga Khan IV graduated from Harvard in 1959, two years after becoming the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, with a Bachelor of Arts degree in History and his varsity H for football. The young Aga Khan was a competitive downhill skier, he skied for Iran in the 1964 Olympic Games; the Aga Khan married his first wife, former British model Sarah Frances Croker-Poole, who assumed the name Begum Salimah Aga Khan, on 22 October 1969 and 28 October 1969, at his home in Paris. The couple were married for 25 years. By 1984, the Aga Khan and Begum Salimah took to separate lives.
However, their marriage did not end by divorce until eleven years in 1995. The Aga Khan and Begum Salimah had one daughter and two sons together: Zahra Aga Khan Rahim Aga Khan Hussain Aga Khan The Aga Khan married for the second time with Gabriele Renate Thyssen, who assumed the name Begum Inaara Aga Khan, at his walled compound and chateau, Aiglemont, in Gouvieux, France, on 30 May 1998. However, a little over six years on 8 October 2004, an announcement was made that the Aga Khan and Begum Inaara were to seek a divorce. In September 2011, a divorce settlement was reached in French courts; the divorce settlement amount was agreed to by both the Aga Khan and the Begum in March 2014. By Begum Inaara, the Aga Khan has a son: Aly Muhammad Aga Khan Following the death of his grandfather
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Governor-general or governor general, in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm. Governors-general have previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as French Indochina. In modern usage, the term governor-general originated in those British colonies which became self-governing within the British Empire. Before World War I, the title was used only in federated colonies in which each of the constituent colonies of these federated colonies had a governor, namely Canada and the Union of South Africa. In these cases, the Crown's representative in the federated Dominion was given the superior title of governor-general; the first exception to this rule was New Zealand, granted Dominion status in 1907, but it was not until 28 June 1917 that Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was appointed the first Governor-General of New Zealand.
Another non-federal state, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King's representative retaining the title of governor throughout this time. Since 2016, the title governor-general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered to become governor-general upon independence, as the nature of the office became an independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the governor-general acts as the monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a head of state; the only other nation which uses the governor-general designation is Iran, which has no connection with any monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a governor general, appointed by the Minister of the Interior; until the 1920s, governors-general were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British government, who acted as agents of the British government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch.
As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The governor-general could be instructed by the colonial secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; the monarch or imperial government could overrule any governor-general, though this could be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London. The governor-general was usually the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the governor-general's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one; the governors-general are entitled to wear a unique uniform, not worn today. If of the rank of major general, equivalent or above, they were entitled to wear that military uniform. Following the Imperial Conference, subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the governor-general began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions.
As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to that country's national affairs, so too did the governor-general become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: "...it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty's Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government." These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.
In other words, the political reality of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire with a governor-general answerable to the sovereign became clear. British interference in the Dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was displayed. Canada and New Zealand were not controlled by the United Kingdom; the monarch of these countries is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority; the governor-general, however, is still appointed by the monarch and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is vested in the monarc