Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,953,927 visitors to its three locations in 2018, it was the third most visited art museum in the world, its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan's Upper East Side is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; the permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art.
The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries; the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, was located at 681 Fifth Avenue; the Met's permanent collection is curated by seventeen separate departments, each with a specialized staff of curators and scholars, as well as six dedicated conservation departments and a Department of Scientific Research. The permanent collection includes works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art; the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, antique weapons and armor from around the world.
A great number of period rooms, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts large traveling shows throughout the year; the current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky, was elected in 2011 and became chairman three years after director Philippe de Montebello retired at the end of 2008. On March 1, 2017, the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss, the Met's president and COO, would temporarily act as CEO for the museum. Following the departure of Thomas P. Campbell as the Met's director and CEO on June 30, 2017, the search for a new director of the museum was assigned to the human resources firm Phillips Oppenheim to present a new candidate for the position "by the end of the fiscal year in June" of 2018; the next director will report to Weiss as the current president of the museum. In April 2018, Max Hollein was named director. Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started acquiring ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few cuneiform tablets and seals, the Met's collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. Representing a history of the region beginning in the Neolithic Period and encompassing the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the end of Late Antiquity, the collection includes works from the Sumerian, Sasanian, Assyrian and Elamite cultures, as well as an extensive collection of unique Bronze Age objects; the highlights of the collection include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures, from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II. Though the Met first acquired a group of Peruvian antiquities in 1882, the museum did not begin a concerted effort to collect works from Africa and the Americas until 1969, when American businessman and philanthropist Nelson A. Rockefeller donated his more than 3,000-piece collection to the museum. Today, the Met's collection contains more than 11,000 pieces from sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Americas and is housed in the 40,000-square-foot Rockefeller Wing on the south end of the museum.
The collection ranges from 40,000-year-old indigenous Australian rock paintings, to a group of 15-foot-tall memorial poles carved by the Asmat people of New Guinea, to a priceless collection of ceremonial and personal objects from the Nigerian Court of Benin donated by Klaus Perls. The range of materials represented in the Africa and Americas collection is undoubtedly the widest of any department at the Met, including everything from precious metals to porcupine quills; the Met's Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, arguably the most comprehensive in the US. The collection dates back to the founding of the museum: many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections. Today, an entire wing of the museum is dedicated to the Asian collection, spans 4,000 years of Asian art; every Asian civilization is represented in the Met's Asian department, the pieces on display include every type of decorative art, from painting and printmaking to sculpture and metalworking.
The department is well known for its comprehensive collection of Chinese calligraphy and painting, as well as for its Indian sculptures and Tibetan works, the arts of Burma and Thailand. All three ancient religions of India – Hinduism and Jainism – are well represented in these s
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style. History paintings depict a moment in a narrative story, rather than a specific and static subject, as in a portrait; the term is derived from the wider senses of the word historia in Latin and Italian, meaning "story" or "narrative", means "story painting". Most history paintings are not of scenes from history paintings from before about 1850. In modern English, historical painting is sometimes used to describe the painting of scenes from history in its narrower sense for 19th-century art, excluding religious and allegorical subjects, which are included in the broader term history painting, before the 19th century were the most common subjects for history paintings. History paintings always contain a number of figures a large number, show some type of action, a moment in a narrative; the genre includes depictions of moments in religious narratives, above all the Life of Christ, as well as narrative scenes from mythology, allegorical scenes.
These groups were for long the most painted. The term covers large paintings in oil on canvas or fresco produced between the Renaissance and the late 19th century, after which the term is not used for the many works that still meet the basic definition. History painting may be used interchangeably with historical painting, was so used before the 20th century. Where a distinction is made "historical painting" is the painting of scenes from secular history, whether specific episodes or generalized scenes. In the 19th century historical painting in this sense became a distinct genre. In phrases such as "historical painting materials", "historical" means in use before about 1900, or some earlier date. History paintings were traditionally regarded as the highest form of Western painting, occupying the most prestigious place in the hierarchy of genres, considered the equivalent to the epic in literature. In his De Pictura of 1436, Leon Battista Alberti had argued that multi-figure history painting was the noblest form of art, as being the most difficult, which required mastery of all the others, because it was a visual form of history, because it had the greatest potential to move the viewer.
He placed emphasis on the ability to depict the interactions between the figures by gesture and expression. This view remained general until the 19th century, when artistic movements began to struggle against the establishment institutions of academic art, which continued to adhere to it. At the same time there was from the latter part of the 18th century an increased interest in depicting in the form of history painting moments of drama from recent or contemporary history, which had long been confined to battle-scenes and scenes of formal surrenders and the like. Scenes from ancient history had been popular in the early Renaissance, once again became common in the Baroque and Rococo periods, still more so with the rise of Neoclassicism. In some 19th or 20th century contexts, the term may refer to paintings of scenes from secular history, rather than those from religious narratives, literature or mythology; the term is not used in art history in speaking of medieval painting, although the Western tradition was developing in large altarpieces, fresco cycles, other works, as well as miniatures in illuminated manuscripts.
It comes to the fore in Italian Renaissance painting, where a series of ambitious works were produced, many still religious, but several in Florence, which did feature near-contemporary historical scenes such as the set of three huge canvases on The Battle of San Romano by Paolo Uccello, the abortive Battle of Cascina by Michelangelo and the Battle of Anghiari by Leonardo da Vinci, neither of which were completed. Scenes from ancient history and mythology were popular. Writers such as Alberti and the following century Giorgio Vasari in his Lives of the Artists, followed public and artistic opinion in judging the best painters above all on their production of large works of history painting. Artists continued for centuries to strive to make their reputation by producing such works neglecting genres to which their talents were better suited. There was some objection to the term, as many writers preferred terms such as "poetic painting", or wanted to make a distinction between the "true" istoria, covering history including biblical and religious scenes, the fabula, covering pagan myth and scenes from fiction, which could not be regarded as true.
The large works of Raphael were long considered, with those of Michelangelo, as the finest models for the genre. In the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican Palace and historical scenes are mixed together, the Raphael Cartoons show scenes from the Gospels, all in the Grand Manner that from the High Renaissance became associated with, expected in, history painting. In the Late Renaissance and Baroque the painting of actual history tended to degenerate into panoramic battle-scenes with the victorious monarch or general perched on a horse accompanied with his retinue, or formal scenes of ceremonies, although some artists managed to make a masterpiece from such unpromising material, as Velázquez did with his The Surrender of Breda. An influential formulation of the hierarchy of genres, confirming the history painting at the top, was made in 1667 by André Félibien, a historiographer
Johannes Vermeer was a Dutch Baroque Period painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. He was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime but evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death because he produced few paintings. Vermeer worked and with great care, used expensive pigments, he is renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work. Vermeer painted domestic interior scenes. "Almost all his paintings are set in two smallish rooms in his house in Delft. He was mentioned in Arnold Houbraken's major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting, was thus omitted from subsequent surveys of Dutch art for nearly two centuries. In the 19th century, Vermeer was rediscovered by Gustav Friedrich Waagen and Théophile Thoré-Bürger, who published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him, although only 34 paintings are universally attributed to him today. Since that time, Vermeer's reputation has grown, he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age.
Like some major Dutch Golden Age artists such as Frans Hals and Rembrandt, Vermeer never went abroad. And like Rembrandt, he was dealer. Little was known about Vermeer's life until recently, he seems to have been devoted to his art, living out his life in the city of Delft. Until the 19th century, the only sources of information were some registers, a few official documents, comments by other artists. John Michael Montias added details on the family from the city archives of Delft in his Artists and Artisans in Delft: A Socio-Economic Study of the Seventeenth Century. Johannes Vermeer was baptized within the Reformed Church on 31 October 1632, his father Reijnier Janszoon was a middle-class worker of caffa. As an apprentice in Amsterdam, Reijnier lived on fashionable Sint Antoniesbreestraat, a street with many resident painters at the time. In 1615, he married Digna Baltus; the couple moved to Delft and had a daughter named Geertruy, baptized in 1620. In 1625, Reijnier was involved in a fight with a soldier named Willem van Bylandt who died from his wounds five months later.
Around this time, Reijnier began dealing in paintings. In 1631, he leased an inn, which he called "The Flying Fox". In 1635, he lived on Voldersgracht 25 or 26. In 1641, he bought a larger inn on the market square, named after the Flemish town "Mechelen"; the acquisition of the inn constituted a considerable financial burden. When Vermeer's father died in October 1652, Vermeer took over the operation of the family's art business. In April 1653, Johannes Reijniersz Vermeer married Catharina Bolenes; the blessing took place in the quiet nearby village of Schipluiden. Vermeer's new mother-in-law Maria Thins was wealthier than he, it was she who insisted that Vermeer convert to Catholicism before the marriage on 5 April. According to art historian Walter Liedtke, Vermeer's conversion seems to have been made with conviction, his painting The Allegory of Faith, made between 1670 and 1672, placed less emphasis on the artists’ usual naturalistic concerns and more on symbolic religious applications, including the sacrament of the Eucharist.
Walter Liedtke in Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art suggests that it was made for a learned and devout Catholic patron for his schuilkerk, or "hidden church". At some point, the couple moved in with Catharina's mother, who lived in a rather spacious house at Oude Langendijk next to a hidden Jesuit church. Here Vermeer lived for the rest of his life, producing paintings in the front room on the second floor, his wife gave birth to 15 children, four of whom were buried before being baptized, but were registered as "child of Johan Vermeer". The names of 10 of Vermeer's children are known from wills written by relatives: Maertge, Cornelia, Beatrix, Gertruyd, Franciscus and Ignatius. Several of these names carry a religious connotation, the youngest was named after the founder of the Jesuit order, it is unclear where. There is some speculation that Carel Fabritius may have been his teacher, based upon a controversial interpretation of a text written in 1668 by printer Arnold Bon. Art historians have found no hard evidence to support this.
Local authority Leonaert Bramer acted as a friend. Liedtke suggests that Vermeer taught himself, using information from one of his father's connections; some scholars think. Vermeer's style is similar to that of some of the Utrecht Caravaggists, whose works are depicted as paintings-within-paintings in the backgrounds of several of his compositions. On 29 December 1653, Vermeer became a member of the Guild of Saint Luke, a trade association for painters; the guild's records make clear. It was a year of plague and economic crisis. In 1654, the city suffered the terrible explosion known as the Delft Thunderclap, which destroyed a large section of th
Gerard Houckgeest was a Dutch Golden Age painter of architectural scenes and church interiors. Houckgeest is thought to have been born in The Hague, according to the RKD, he learned to paint from Bartholomeus van Bassen and worked in The Hague, Delft and Bergen op Zoom; some believe. He specialized in painting imaginary church interiors and renaissance buildings, died in Bergen op Zoom; some of his works now reside at the Mauritshuis. Works at WGA Works and literature on Gerard Houckgeest Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gerard Houckgeest
Hendrick Cornelisz. van Vliet
Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet was a Dutch Golden Age painter remembered for his church interiors. He studied under his uncle Willem van der Vliet and was admitted to the painters guild in Delft in 1632, he was good at perspective but took up portrait painting with Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt. Van Vliet started out with architectural painting the painting of church interiors. Before him, architectural painting had been pioneered by Pieter Saenredam, who introduced innovative techniques of perspective. By mid century, architectural painting gained great popularity. Among the churches painted by Van Vliet are the Pieterskerk in Leiden, the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft, the Oude Kerk in Delft. Emanuel de Witte and Gerard Houckgeest painted these Delft church interiors. Paintings of the tomb of William the Silent were quite popular; the paintings of Van Vliet can be seen at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, Centraal Museum Utrecht, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Walker Art Gallery, the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Ringling Art Museum in Sarasota, the Nelson-Atkins Art Museum in Kansas City, Missouri,the Baltimore Museum of Art in Baltimore,the Bildenden Kunste Art Museum in Leipzig,Germany and the Pushkin Art Museum in Moscow, Russia.
Hendrick van Vliet at the Netherlands Institute for Art History Works at WGA Works and literature on Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet Van Vliet at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Vermeer and The Delft School, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Hendrick Corneliszoon van Vliet
Nicolaes Maes was a Dutch painter known for his genre scenes, religious compositions and the occasional still life. A pupil of Rembrandt in Amsterdam, he returned to work in his native city Dordrecht for 20 years. In the latter part of his career he returned to Amsterdam where he became the leading portrait painter of his time. Maes contributed to the development of genre painting in the Netherlands and was the most prominent portrait painter working in Amsterdam in the final three decennia of the 17th century. Nicolaes Maes was born in Dordrecht as the second son of Gerrit Maes, a prosperous cloth merchant and soap boiler, Ida Herman Claesdr, he trained with a mediocre painter in his hometown. Around 1648 he went to Amsterdam, he remained in the studio of Rembrandt for about five years. He had returned to Dordrecht by December 1653. Here he is recorded making marriage arrangements as he posted on 28 December 1653 the bans of his marriage with Adriana Brouwers, the widow of the preacher Arnoldus de Gelder.
A picture of 1653, signed and dated shows that the artist had established himself as an independent artist by that year. Maes continued to live and work in Dordrecht until 1673, he was successful as attested by the fact that he paid municipal taxes on capital of 3,000 and 4,000 guilders. His high social status is demonstrated by his membership of the local civic guard, in which he reached the rank of lieutenant. At the start of his career Maes painted genre scenes and portraits. From the 1660s he dedicated himself exclusively to portrait painting. In the middle or end of the 1650s, Maes traveled to Antwerp where he studied the work of Flemish artists such as Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck and Jacob Jordaens. During his stay in Antwerp Maes is said to have paid a visit to Jacob Jordaens' studio and conversed with the artist at length about painting. Maes moved to Amsterdam in 1673; the move was related to the ready market for portrait specialists after the death of the leading Amsterdam portrait painters Abraham van den Tempel and Bartholomeus van der Helst.
The downturn in the art market in Dortrecht and other Dutch cities as a result of the Rampjaar of 1672, marked by a large-scale invasion of the Dutch Republic by French and other armies also played a role. Maes must have counted on his fashionable portrait paintings to attract the patronage of Amsterdam's larger population of prosperous burghers, his calculation was correct as Maes was so much in demand as a portraitist in Amsterdam that sitters considered it a favour to be given the chance to have the artist paint their portrait. The great number of portraits dating to the 1670s and 1680s are evidence of his success as a society portraitist. Despite his long-term residency in Amsterdam starting from 1673, Maes never became a citizen of Amsterdam, he waited until 1688 to register with the Amsterdam Guild of Saint Luke, only after the municipality had demanded a list of members from the Guild. Maes registeres with the Guild not as a'burgher' but as a resident. Maes suffered from gout in the final years of his life.
His wife Adriana Brouwers was buried in the Oude Kerk in Amsterdam on 14 March 1690. Maes died a few years and on 24 December 1693 he was buried alongside his wife. Maes had achieved financial success as his estate included 11,000 guilders in cash, two houses in Dordrecht and three houses in Amsterdam. Maes' pupils in Dortrecht included Justus de Gelder, his stepson, Margaretha van Godewijk, Jacob Moelaert, Johannes Vollevens. Maes started his career as a painter of biblical and mythological subjects, genre paintings and portraits during the period from 1653 to c. 1660. He concentrated exclusively on portrait painting. In his early years as an independent artist in the early 1650s Maes painted a few biblical and mythological scenes; these include the Suffer the little Children to come unto Me, Vertumnus and Pomona and Woman of Samaria at the Well. Maes' biblical compositions were indebted to his master Rembrandt's models but show at the same time that he was capable of interpreting the bible and the iconographic precedents in an original manner.
For instance, in the Dismissal of Hagar and Ishmael Maes portrays the Biblical figure Abraham banishing the handmaiden Hagar along with their son, Ishmael. By showing Hagar's despondency and her son Ishmael's isolated posture the work is one of the most moving renderings of this theme popular with Rembrandt's pupils. Most of Maes' religious compositions are of cabinet size except for the Christ Blessing the Children which depicts lifesize figures. During this early period Maes showed himself to be among the most inventive genre painters in the Dutch Republic, he introduced new themes and invented unprecedented expressive poses and facial expressions. Maes painted various genre scenes set on the domestic doorsteps and others praising the virtues of good parenting; these works were influential on other Dutch painters such as Jan Steen. Maes applied Rembrandt's stylistic characteristics such as the brushwork and chiaroscuro to domestic scenes that were the favourite subject-matter of Dutch genre artists of his time.
His paintings of domestic interiors showing women engaged in household tasks are endowed with a solemn dignity through the play of light and shadow and the limite
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movements were important in modern art, when each consecutive movement was considered as a new avant-garde. According to theories associated with modernism and the concept of postmodernism, art movements are important during the period of time corresponding to modern art; the period of time called "modern art" is posited to have changed halfway through the 20th century and art made afterward is called contemporary art. Postmodernism in visual art begins and functions as a parallel to late modernism and refers to that period after the "modern" period called contemporary art; the postmodern period began during late modernism, according to some theorists postmodernism ended in the 21st century. During the period of time corresponding to "modern art" each consecutive movement was considered a new avant-garde.
During the period of time referred to as "modern art" each movement was seen corresponding to a somewhat grandiose rethinking of all that came before it, concerning the visual arts. There was a commonality of visual style linking the works and artists included in an art movement. Verbal expression and explanation of movements has come from the artists themselves, sometimes in the form of an art manifesto, sometimes from art critics and others who may explain their understanding of the meaning of the new art being produced. In the visual arts, many artists, art critics, art collectors, art dealers and others mindful of the unbroken continuation of modernism and the continuation of modern art into the contemporary era, ascribe to and welcome new philosophies of art as they appear. Postmodernist theorists posit that the idea of art movements are no longer as applicable, or no longer as discernible, as the notion of art movements had been before the postmodern era. There are many theorists however who doubt as to whether or not such an era was a fact.
The term refers to tendencies in visual art, novel ideas and architecture, sometimes literature. In music it is more common to speak about styles instead. See cultural movement, a term with a broader connotation; as the names of many art movements use the -ism suffix, they are sometimes referred to as isms. Art movements portal 20th-century Western painting Art periods List of art movements Post-expressionism Western art history the-artists.org Art movements since 1900. 20th-Century Art Compiled by Dr. Witcombe, Sweet Briar College, Virginia. WebMuseum, Paris Themes index and detailed glossary of art periods