A delimiter is a sequence of one or more characters for specifying the boundary between separate, independent regions in plain text or other data streams. An example of a delimiter is the comma character, which acts as a field delimiter in a sequence of comma-separated values. Another example of a delimiter is the time gap used to separate letters and words in the transmission of Morse code. Delimiters represent one of various means to specify boundaries in a data stream. Declarative notation, for example, is an alternate method that uses a length field at the start of a data stream to specify the number of characters that the data stream contains. Delimiters may be characterized as bracket delimiters. Field delimiters separate data fields. Record delimiters separate groups of fields. For example, the CSV file format uses a comma as the delimiter between fields, an end-of-line indicator as the delimiter between records: fname,lname,age,salary nancy,davolio,33,$30000 erin,borakova,28,$25250 tony,raphael,35,$28700 This specifies a simple flat file database table using the CSV file format.
Bracket delimiters called block delimiters, region delimiters, or balanced delimiters, mark both the start and end of a region of text. Common examples of bracket delimiters include: Historically, computing platforms have used certain delimiters by convention; the following tables depict a few examples for comparison. Programming languages. Field and Record delimiters. Delimiter collision is a problem that occurs when an author or programmer introduces delimiters into text without intending them to be interpreted as boundaries between separate regions. In the case of XML, for example, this can occur whenever an author attempts to specify an angle bracket character. In most file types there is both a field delimiter and a record delimiter, both of which are subject to collision. In the case of comma-separated values files, for example, field collision can occur whenever an author attempts to include a comma as part of a field value, record delimiter collision would occur whenever a field contained multiple lines.
Both record and field delimiter collision occur in text files. In some contexts, a malicious user or attacker may seek to exploit this problem intentionally. Delimiter collision can be the source of security vulnerabilities and exploits. Malicious users can take advantage of delimiter collision in languages such as SQL and HTML to deploy such well-known attacks as SQL injection and cross-site scripting, respectively; because delimiter collision is a common problem, various methods for avoiding it have been invented. Some authors may attempt to avoid the problem by choosing a delimiter character, not to appear in the data stream itself; this ad hoc approach may be suitable, but it depends on a correct guess of what will appear in the data stream, offers no security against malicious collisions. Other, more formal conventions are therefore applied as well; the ASCII and Unicode character sets were designed to solve this problem by the provision of non-printing characters that can be used as delimiters.
These are the range from ASCII 28 to 31. The use of ASCII 31 Unit separator as a field separator and ASCII 30 Record separator solves the problem of both field and record delimiters that appear in a text data stream. One method for avoiding delimiter collision is to use escape characters. From a language design standpoint, these are adequate, but they have drawbacks: text can be rendered unreadable when littered with numerous escape characters, a problem referred to as leaning toothpick syndrome, they do not protect against injection attacks Escape sequences are similar to escape characters, except they consist of some kind of mnemonic instead of just a single character. One use is in string literals. For example in Perl, the code: produces the same output as: One drawback of escape sequences, when used by people, is the need to memorize the codes that represent individual characters. In contrast to escape sequences and escape characters, dual delimiters provide yet another way to avoid delimiter collision.
Some languages, for example, allow the use of either a single quote or a double quote to specify a string literal. For example, in Perl: produces the desired output without requiring escapes; this approach, only works when the string does not contain both types of quotation marks. In contrast to escape sequences and escape characters, padding delimiters provide yet another way to avoid delimiter collision. Visual Basic, for example, uses double quotes as delimiters; this is similar to escaping the delimiter. Produces the desired output without requiring escapes. Like regular escaping it can, become confusing when many quotes are used; the code to print the above source code would look more confusing: In contrast to dual delimiters, multiple delimiters are more flexible for avoiding delimiter collision. For example, in Perl: all produce the desired output through use of quote operators, which allow any convenient character to act as a delimiter. Although this method is more flexible, few languages support it.
Perl and Ruby are two. A content boundary is a specia
Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3. This colorless, poisonous and reactive gas condenses to a pale-greenish yellow liquid, the form in which it is most sold; the compound is of interest as a component in rocket fuels, in plasmaless cleaning and etching operations in the semiconductor industry, in nuclear reactor fuel processing, other industrial operations. It was first reported in 1930 by Krug who prepared it by fluorination of chlorine. 3 F2 + Cl2 → 2 ClF3The molecular geometry of ClF3 is T-shaped, with one short bond and two long bonds. This structure agrees with the prediction of VSEPR theory, which predicts lone pairs of electrons as occupying two equatorial positions of a hypothetic trigonal bipyramid; the elongated Cl-F axial bonds are consistent with hypervalent bonding. Pure ClF3 is stable to 180 °C in quartz vessels. Reactions with many metals give fluorides. ClF3 violently reacts with water, oxidizing it to give oxygen or, in controlled quantities, oxygen difluoride, as well as hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride: ClF3 + 2H2O → 3HF + HCl + O2ClF3 + H2O → HF + HCl + OF2It will convert many metal oxides to metal halides and oxygen or oxygen difluoride.
One of the main uses of ClF3 is to produce uranium hexafluoride, UF6, as part of nuclear fuel processing and reprocessing, by the fluorination of uranium metal: U + 3 ClF3 → UF6 + 3 ClFThe compound can dissociate under the scheme: ClF3 → ClF + F2 In the semiconductor industry, chlorine trifluoride is used to clean chemical vapour deposition chambers. It has the advantage that it can be used to remove semiconductor material from the chamber walls without the need to dismantle the chamber. Unlike most of the alternative chemicals used in this role, it does not need to be activated by the use of plasma since the heat of the chamber is enough to make it decompose and react with the semiconductor material. Chlorine trifluoride has been investigated as a high-performance storable oxidizer in rocket propellant systems. Handling concerns, however limit its use. John Drury Clark summarized the difficulties: It is, of course toxic, but that's the least of the problem, it is hypergolic with every known fuel, so hypergolic that no ignition delay has been measured.
It is hypergolic with such things as cloth and test engineers, not to mention asbestos and water—with which it reacts explosively. It can be kept in some of the ordinary structural metals—steel, aluminum, etc.—because of the formation of a thin film of insoluble metal fluoride that protects the bulk of the metal, just as the invisible coat of oxide on aluminum keeps it from burning up in the atmosphere. If, this coat is melted or scrubbed off, has no chance to reform, the operator is confronted with the problem of coping with a metal-fluorine fire. For dealing with this situation, I have always recommended a good pair of running shoes; the discovery of chlorine pentafluoride rendered ClF3 obsolete as an oxidizer. Under the code name N-Stoff, chlorine trifluoride was investigated for military applications by the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Nazi Germany not long before the start of World War II. Tests were made against mock-ups of the Maginot Line fortifications, it was found to be an effective combined incendiary weapon and poison gas.
From 1938, construction commenced on a bunkered subterranean 14,000 m2 munitions factory, the Falkenhagen industrial complex, intended to produce 90 tonnes of N-Stoff per month, plus sarin. However, by the time it was captured by the advancing Red Army in 1945, the factory had produced only about 30 to 50 tonnes, at a cost of over 100 German Reichsmark per kilograma. N-Stoff was never used in war. ClF3 is a strong oxidizing and fluorinating agent, it is reactive with most inorganic and organic materials, such as glass, will initiate the combustion of many otherwise non-flammable materials without any ignition source. These reactions are violent, in some cases explosive. Vessels made from steel, copper, or nickel are not consumed by ClF3 because a thin layer of insoluble metal fluoride will form, but molybdenum and titanium form volatile fluorides and are unsuitable. Any equipment that comes into contact with chlorine trifluoride must be meticulously cleaned and passivated, because any contamination left may burn through the passivation layer faster than it can re-form.
Chlorine trifluoride has been known to corrode materials otherwise known to be non-corrodible such as iridium and gold. The fact that its oxidizing ability surpasses oxygen's leads to corrosivity against oxide-containing materials thought as incombustible. Chlorine trifluoride and gases like it have been reported to ignite sand and other fire-retardant materials, it will ignite the ashes of materials that have been burned in oxygen. In an industrial accident, a spill of 900 kg of chlorine trifluoride burned through 30 cm of concrete and 90 cm of gravel beneath. There is one known fire control/suppression method capable of dealing with chlorine trifluoride - the use of nitrogen and noble gases: the surrounding area must be flooded with nitrogen or helium. Barring that, the area must be kept cool until the reaction ceases; the compound re
Saint Sarkis Church, is an Armenian church in Harpukh Sulfuric Baths district of Old Tbilisi, Georgia. Destroyed by Lavrentiy Beria order in 1930s; the church got its name from it. The construction started in 1737 by Archpriest of Norashen church. Armenian catholicos Simmeon Yerevantsi listing Armenian churches of Tbilisi mentions: "there is one more church in the fortress, called Cathedral belonged to the Holy Throne, but now the fortress in being settled by Muslims who occupy the church as well. Since the church is empty, is deprived of the parish. In 1795 Agha Mohammad Khan forces enter the city and destroy the district of Sulfuric Baths. After entering Russian Empire Tbilisi became governmental center and started develop. In 1831 Manuel Kyumushkhanetsi from the Crimean Peninsula was appointed the Archpriest of the church and started complete reconstruction and restoration in short time entering list of functioning Armenian churches. Saint Sarkis Church celebrated the feast of Saint Sarkis day after Arachavorats lent in January or February.
On those days church bells rang, liturgy were held and the church was crowded. The youth in couples or alone came for blessing. Saint Sarkis Church as the whole Tbilisi Armenian community was in a rise; the church was tall. There was a pre-church parochial school beside. In 1910s Tirayr Ter-Hovhannisyan, famous Armenian churchman, poet and translator served as vicar here. Saint Sarkis Church was destroyed in 1937-38 by Lavrentiy Beria order along with 11 other Armenian churches in Tbilisi. Firstly the domes were destroyed for the wall destruction dynamite was used, but the church was not destroyed till the end and the lower part remained, reconstructed as a residential building. During the destruction two workers fell down to death; the parochial school moved to a new address - 79 Ortachala. Its building was used as antenatal clinic. Armenians in Tbilisi List of Armenian Apostolic Churches in Georgia Армянские церкви Тбилиси - Св. Саргис
Lancashire County Council is the upper-tier local authority for the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire, England. It consists of 84 councillors. After the 2017 Lancashire County Council election, the council is under Conservative control, having been under no overall control from 2013–17 and under Conservative control from 2009-13. Prior to the 2009 Lancashire County Council election, the county had been under Labour control since 1985; the Council leader, County Councillor Geoff Driver, chairs a cabinet of eight councillors - the others being A Atkinson, P Buckley, S Charles, G Gooch, M Green, K Iddon and S Turner. The eight cabinet members each have responsibility for particular functions of the council; the Interim Chief Executive and Director of Resources is Angie Ridgwell, appointed in January 2018 The council was established in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, covering the administrative county. It was reconstituted under the Local Government Act 1972 to cover a different territory.
In the 1990s, Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool left the area covered by the council. In May 2011 the council's Conservative administration established a partnership with BT Group called One Connect Limited. 40% was owned by the council and 60% by BT. 800 council staff were seconded to it. It was to run various back office functions and it was claimed it would save £400 million over ten years. In 2014 the partnership was dissolved, though some services were still run by BT. A police investigation followed allegations of corrupt practices and fraud. In May 2017 Conservative councillor Geoff Driver, Phil Halsall, the council's former Chief Executive, David McElhinney, former chief executive of One Connect and its sister organisation Liverpool Connect – and Ged Fitzgerald the current Liverpool City Council chief executive and former Lancashire County Council chief executive were arrested “on suspicion of conspiracy to pervert the course of justice and witness intimidation.” As of September 2019 no one has been charged with any offences and it is estimated the Police cost is over £2m.
Elections are held every four years. Lancashire adopted the Public Libraries Act, 1919, in 1924. Library services were slow to develop as the average ratable value of the area outside the county boroughs and the other local authorities which had adopted the act was low. In 1938/39 the average expenditure on urban libraries per head was 1s. 9d. But that on county libraries was only 8 1/4d.. Another disadvantage was that government of libraries was by a libraries sub-committee of the education committee of the council; the central administration of the county library is at Preston where there are special services, special collections and staff to maintain a union catalogue. Lancashire County Council
Lyari Expressway is a 38 km city district expressway constructed along the Lyari River in Karachi, Pakistan. The expressway was expected to be completed by August 2017, with a formal inauguration ceremony to be held on 14 August 2017; the project has been delayed for more than 15 years due to the lack of federal funding and no interest shown by the Sindh provincial Government. After High Court deadline, Lyari Expressway completion date was announced. Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi inaugurated the pending north-bound track of expressway on 28 January 2018. Which starts from end at Sohrab Goth Interchange; this toll expressway is designed to relieve congestion Karachi. Lyari Expressway was scheduled to be completed in December 2009 but completion was delayed due a lack of funding and difficulties in resettling affected residents. In June 2016, it was announced that the final legal hurdles had been cleared and 99% of construction was complete, with the last 1 km to be finished by the end of the year.
The final budget estimate is 11 billion Pakistan Rupees, up from the original estimate of 5 billion. The cost of developing this expressway has been revised several times. Estimated at Rs 5.1 billion, as of March 2006 it is expected to cost Rs 8 billion once completed. It will be a 16.5 km 8 lane expressway that will consist of four lanes on both sides, with two interchanges, five overpasses and five underpasses. Moreover, two lanes each will be constructed on either bank of the Lyari River. Once completed, traffic volume is estimated at 34,000 vehicles; the expressway will have toll plazas at four locations. The Lyari Expressway project was launched on 11 May 2002, with the aim of serving as a commuting artery connecting Mauripur Road and the M9 motorway, thus alleviating the burden of traffic plying on surface routes between to and from Karachi Port; when work started on the Lyari Expressway in May 2002, the National Highway Authority had expected to complete it in 30 months. Having revised the completion schedule, as of December 2006 the Frontier Works Organisation, the executing agency for the NHA, expects the southbound section running from Sohrab Goth to Mauripur Road completed by the end of 2007.
The construction of Lyari Expressway was stopped for several years due to the restructuring of Municipal governments in Sindh and lack of funds. In July 2014, Government of Pakistan announced Rs 6 billion for completion of Lyari Expressway. Lyari Expressway Project is 32 kilometres long and its 2013-14 revised estimate is Rs 1,202 million and 80 percent of this project has been completed; this section is copied as-is from an article in the Dawn newspaper. "The Lyari Expressway was nowhere in the picture until 1986. The Karachi Master Plan 1975–85 had proposed the Northern and Southern Bypasses to enable traffic going upcountry from Karachi port to bypass the city and thus ease congestion and pollution; the Southern Bypass was designed to go through the Defence Authority area and link Karachi port with the National Highway. It had to be dropped because of stiff resistance from the DHA on environmental grounds; the Northern Bypass that could have been constructed was not built on account of the apathy of the policy makers.
Public attention was focussed on the Lyari, which wrecked destruction in 1977 when heavy rains caused severe flooding to 200 deaths. Wapda did come up with a flood protection plan but this was never implemented. In 1986, the Lyari Expressway was proposed as an alternative to the Northern Bypass, but was found unfeasible since 100,000 people would have to be evicted; the floods in 1993 led to the revival of the plan for the expressway as a device for flood protection apart from its function of providing another traffic corridor. Opposition from civil society led the Sindh government to arrange public hearings on the project in 1996 after which the Lyari Expressway was dropped and attention was focussed on the Northern Bypass for port traffic; this was found feasible in view of the fact that most of the land on which it was to be built was uninhabited. Four years in 2000 the Karachi Port Trust decided to begin work on the Bypass on a BOT basis, it was to be a six-lane highway 68 km in length that would connect Mauripur to the Super Highway beyond the toll plaza at Sohrab Goth.
In June 2001 there was a change of heart and the government came up with the idea of building both the Northern Bypass and the Lyari Expressway together in the budget for the bypass alone. This two-in-one approach appealed to the highest quarters though it is not known how this feat was to be achieved by those masterminding it; the work was entrusted to the National Highway Authority and the FWO was appointed contractor for LEP, the NLC for the bypass. The alignment of the bypass was changed to make it shorter and its lanes were reduced to four to cut the cost." The construction of the Lyari Expressway required the demolition of 15,000 housing units and the displacement of 24,400 families living along the Lyari River. This is thought to be the largest urban demolition project for the purpose of road-making in the world. To resettle the displaced people, the government launched the Lyari Expressway Resettlement Project; as part of this project, the people were given a compensation package that included an 80 square yard plot of land on the outskirts of Karachi and Rs 50,000 for construction.
The lands were allotted in Taiser Town and Baldia Town. The demolished settlements along the Lyari River in most cases did not have all the utilities and were not planned constructions; the new suburbs at Hawke's Bay, Taiser Town and Baldia Town
The 2016 Atlantic Sun Men's Basketball Tournament marked the 37th year the league conducted a postseason tournament. The tournament was held March 1 -- 2016 at campus sites as top seeds hosted each round. Florida Gulf Coast won their second Atlantic Sun Tournament title and a berth in the 2016 NCAA Tournament. All 8 teams in the conference participated in the Tournament. Stetson was ineligible to participate in the NCAA Tournament due to APR violations, but was allowed to participate in the Atlantic Sun Tournament. Had Stetson won the tournament, North Florida would have gone to the NCAA Tournament because of its regular season Atlantic Sun Conference title. Teams were seeded by record within the conference, with a tiebreaker system to seed teams with identical conference records. * denotes overtime period 2015–16 NCAA Division I men's basketball season Atlantic Sun Men's Basketball Tournament Atlantic Sun Men's Basketball Championship Details