Short loin is the American name for a cut of beef that comes from the back of the cattle. It includes the top loin and the tenderloin; this cut yields types of steak including porterhouse, strip steak, T-bone. The T-bone is a cut. Webster's Dictionary defines it as "a portion of the hindquarter of beef behind the ribs, cut into steaks." The short loin is considered a tender beef. In Australian and South African butchery, this cut is referred to as the sirloin. Food portal
Bulgogi "fire meat", is a gui made of thin, marinated slices of beef or pork grilled on a barbecue or on a stove-top griddle. It is often stir-fried in a pan in home cooking. Sirloin, rib eye or brisket are used cuts of beef for the dish; the dish originated from northern areas of the Korean Peninsula, but is a popular dish in South Korea where it can be found anywhere from upscale restaurants to local supermarkets as pan-ready kits. Bulgogi came from the Korean word bul-gogi, consisting of gogi; the compound word is derived from the Pyongan dialect, as the dish itself is a delicacy of Pyongan Province. After the liberation of the Korean Peninsula from Japanese forced occupation in 1945, the dish became popular in Seoul and other parts of South Korea, by refugees from Pyongan, it was listed in the 1947 edition of the Dictionary of the Korean Language, as meat grilled directly over a charcoal fire. In the Standard Korean Language Dictionary published by the National Institute of Korean Language, the word is listed as meat such as beef, thinly sliced and grilled over the fire.
The word is included in English-language dictionaries such as Merriam-Webster Dictionary and Oxford Dictionary of English. Merriam-Webster dated the word's appearance in the American English lexicon at 1961. Bulgogi is believed to have originated during the Goguryeo era, when it was called maekjeok, with the beef being grilled on a skewer, it was called neobiani, meaning "thinly spread" meat, during the Joseon Dynasty and was traditionally prepared for the wealthy and the nobility. In the medieval Korean history book Donggooksesi, bulgogi is recorded under the name yeomjeok, which means'fire meat', it was grilled barbecue-style on a hwaro grill on skewers, in pieces 0.5 cm thick. Although it is no longer cooked skewered, this original type of bulgogi is today called bulgogi sanjeok. Bulgogi is made from other prime cuts of beef. Before cooking, the meat is marinated to enhance its flavor and tenderness with a mixture of soy sauce, sesame oil, ground black pepper, other ingredients such as scallions, onions or mushrooms white button mushrooms or matsutake.
Pureed pears and onions are used as tenderizers. Sometimes, cellophane noodles are added to the dish, which varies by specific recipe. Bulgogi is traditionally grilled. Whole cloves of garlic, sliced onions and chopped green peppers are grilled or fried with the meat; this dish is sometimes served with a side of lettuce or other leafy vegetable, used to wrap a slice of cooked meat along with a dab of ssamjang, or other side dishes, eaten together. Bulgogi is served in barbecue restaurants in Korea, there are bulgogi-flavoured fast-food hamburgers sold at many South Korean fast-food restaurants; the hamburger patty is marinated in bulgogi sauce and served with lettuce, tomato and sometimes cheese. Kongnamul-bulgogi Osam-bulgogi Galbi Korean barbecue Korean royal court cuisine List of beef dishes "Bulgogi – Korean food storytelling". Korean Food Foundation. Archived from the original on 2017-02-27. Retrieved 2017-02-28. "Bulgogi – recipe". Chosŏn ryori. Korean Association of Cooks. "BEEF-ore You Eat: A Guide To Korean Beef".
Korea.net. Korean Culture and Information Service
Curing (food preservation)
Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat and vegetables, by the addition of salt with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food by the process of osmosis. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential, the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the late-19th century. Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing. Many curing processes involve smoking, cooking, or the addition of combinations of sugar, nitrite. Meat preservation in general comprises the set of all treatment processes for preserving the properties, taste and color of raw cooked, or cooked meats while keeping them edible and safe to consume. Curing has been the dominant method of meat preservation for thousands of years, although modern developments like refrigeration and synthetic preservatives have begun to complement and supplant it.
While meat-preservation processes like curing were developed in order to prevent disease and to increase food security, the advent of modern preservation methods mean that in most developed countries today curing is instead practised for its cultural value and desirable impact on the texture and taste of food. For lesser-developed countries, curing remains a key process in the production and availability of meat; some traditional cured meat are cured with salt alone. Today, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrite are the most common agents in curing meat, because they bond to the myoglobin and act as a substitute for the oxygen, thus turning myoglobin red. More recent evidence shows that these chemicals inhibit the growth of the bacteria that cause the disease botulism; the combination of table salt with nitrates or nitrites, called curing salt, is dyed pink to distinguish it from table salt. Neither table salt, nor any of the nitrites or nitrates used in curing is pink. Untreated meat decomposes if it is not preserved, at a speed that depends on several factors, including ambient humidity and the presence of pathogens.
Most meats cannot be kept at room temperature in excess of a few days without spoiling. If kept in excess of this time, meat begins to change color and exude a foul odor, indicating the decomposition of the food. Ingestion of such spoiled meat can cause serious food poisonings, like botulism. Salt-curing processes have been developed since antiquity in order to ensure food safety without relying on artificial anti-bacterial agents. While the short shelf life of fresh meat does not pose a significant problem when access to it is easy and supply is abundant, in times of scarcity and famine, or when the meat must be carried over long voyages, it spoils quickly. In such circumstances the usefulness of preserving foods containing nutritional value for transport and storage is obvious. Curing can extend the life of meat before it spoils, by making it inhospitable to the growth of spoilage microbes. A survival technique since prehistory, the preservation of meat has become, over the centuries, a topic of political and social importance worldwide.
Food curing dates back both in the form of smoked meat and salt-cured meat. Several sources describe the salting of meat in the ancient Mediterranean world. Diodore of Sicily in his Bibliotheca historica wrote that the Cosséens in the mountains of Persia salted the flesh of carnivorous animals. Strabo indicates that people at Borsippa were salting them to eat; the ancient Greeks prepared tarichos, meat and fish conserved by salt or other means. The Romans called this dish salsamentum – which term included salted fat, the sauces and spices used for its preparation. Evidence of ancient sausage production exists; the Roman gourmet Apicius speaks of a sausage-making technique involving œnogaros. Preserved meats were furthermore a part of religious traditions: resulting meat for offerings to the gods was salted before being given to priests, after which it could be picked up again by the offerer, or sold in the butcher's. A trade in salt meat occurred across ancient Europe. In Polybius's time, the Gauls exported salt pork each year to Rome in large quantities, where it was sold in different cuts: rear cuts, middle cuts and sausages.
This meat, after having been salted with the greatest care, was sometime smoked. These goods had to have been important, since they fed part of the Roman people and the armies; the Belgae were celebrated above all for the care. Their herds of sheep and pigs were so many, they could provide skins and salt meat not only for Rome, but for most of Italy; the Ceretani of Spain drew a large export income from their hams, which were so succulent, they were in no way inferior to those of Cantabria. These tarichos of pig would become sought, to the point that the ancients considered this meat the most nourishing of all and the easiest to digest. In Ethiopia, according to Pliny, in Libya according to Saint Jerome, the Acridophages salted and smoked the crickets which arrived at their settlements in the spring in great swarms and which constituted, it was said, their sole food; the smoking of meat was a traditional practice in No
Surf and turf
Surf and turf or surf'n' turf is a main course combining seafood and red meat. The seafood used may be lobster, prawns, or shrimp, which may be steamed, grilled or breaded and fried; when served with lobster, the lobster tail or a whole lobster may be served with the dish. The meat is beef steak, although others may be used. One standard combination is lobster filet mignon. Surf and turf is eaten in steakhouses in the United States, Canada UK and Australia, may be available in some British/Irish-style pubs in those countries, it is unclear. The earliest known citation is in the Los Angeles Times. Surf and turf was considered to symbolize the middle-class "Continental cuisine" of the 1960s and 1970s, with lobster and steak as ersatz status foodstuffs for the middle class; the name has been reappropriated by more recent chefs, such as Thomas Keller. A variation is the surf and turf burger, prepared with ground beef and various types of seafood, such as lobster, shrimp or crab. List of seafood dishes List of steak dishes List of meat dishes Fish and chips Media related to Surf and turf at Wikimedia Commons
A beef steak is a flat cut of beef, with parallel faces spaced to a thickness of 0.5–2 in cut perpendicular to the muscle fibers, with a raw mass in common restaurant service ranging from 4–20 oz. Beef steaks are grilled, pan fried, or broiled; the more tender cuts from the loin and rib are cooked using dry heat, served whole. Less tender cuts from the chuck or round are mechanically tenderized. In Australia, beef steak is referred to as just'steak' and can be purchased uncooked in supermarkets and some smallgood shops, it is sold cooked as a meal in every pub, bistro, or restaurant specialising in modern Australian food, is ranked based on the quality and the cut. Most venues have five to seven different cuts of steak on their menu and serve it medium rare by default. A steak is accompanied by a choice of sauces and a choice of either chips or jacket potato. A complementary choice of side salad or steamed vegetables is commonly offered. In the Balkan region, steak is rubbed with mustard and pepper, marinated in vinegar and vegetable oil for up to a week.
It is fried in butter, a slice of toast is used to soak up the pan drippings. The steak is topped with optional fried egg and a sprig of parsley. In France, steak is served with French fries or pommes frites in French; the combination is known as steak-frites. Vegetables are not served with steak in this manner, but a green salad may follow or be served at the same time; this is the case in Argentina. In Italy, steak was not eaten until after World War II because the rugged countryside does not accommodate the space and resource demands of large herds of cattle; some areas of Piedmont and Tuscany, were renowned for the quality of their beef. Bistecca alla Fiorentina is a well-known specialty of Florence. From the 1960s onward, economic gains allowed more Italians to afford a red meat diet. In Mexico, as well as in Spain and other former Spanish colonies, bistec refers to dishes of salted and peppered beef sirloin strips. One form of Mexican bistec is flattened with a meat tenderizing tool, covered in bread crumbs and fried.
The dish is served in tortillas as a taco. Spain and its former colonies have variations of bistec encebollado, it can be found across the Philippines in Southeast Asia. In the Philippines, bistek Tagalog, a specialty of the Tagalog provinces, is made with strips of sirloin beef and onions cooked in soy sauce and calamansi juice. Unlike usual beefsteak that has different degrees of doneness, Filipino bistek is always served well done. In the United Kingdom, steak is served with chips, fried onions and tomatoes. Other vegetables such as peas or a green salad can be served. Various types of mustard are sometimes offered as a condiment. In the United States, a restaurant that specializes in beef steaks is known as a steakhouse, typical steak dinner consists of a steak, optionally topped with sautéed onions and mushrooms, with a starchy side dish. Chili, pasta, or beans are common sides. A side salad or a small serving of cooked vegetables accompanies the meat and side, with corn on the cob, green beans, creamed spinach, tomatoes, mushrooms and onion rings being popular.
A well-known accompaniment to steak is shrimp or a cooked lobster tail, a combination called "surf and turf" or "reef and beef", "pier and steer". Rounding out an American steak dinner is some sort of bread a dinner roll. Special steak knives are provided, which are serrated, though straight blades work. Prepared condiments known as steak sauces are on the table in steakhouses. Tenderized round or sirloin steaks and pan-fried or deep-fried, are called chicken fried or country fried steaks, respectively. Thinly sliced ribeye or other tender cuts, cooked on a hot griddle and shredded and served on Italian style rolls are called Philly steaks, named after Philadelphia, the city in which they became famous; the amount of time a steak is cooked is based upon personal preference. A vocabulary has evolved to describe the degree; the following terms are in order from least cooked to most cooked: Raw — Uncooked. Used in dishes like steak tartare, gored gored, tiger meat and kitfo. Seared, Blue rare or rare — Cooked quickly.
The steak will be red on the inside and warmed. Sometimes asked for as "blood rare" or "bloody as hell". In the United States and United Kingdom, this is sometimes jokingly asked for "still mooing", suggesting the meat is to be so rare that the animal is still alive. In the United States, this is sometimes referred to as'Black and Blue' or'Pittsburgh Rare'. In Germany this is known as "English Style or bloody", it is common for chefs to place the steak in an oven to warm the inside of
Frying is the cooking of food in oil or another fat. Similar to sautéing, pan-fried foods are turned over once or twice during cooking, using tongs or a spatula, while sautéed foods are cooked by "tossing in the pan". A large variety of foods may be fried. Frying is believed to have first appeared in the Ancient Egyptian kitchen, during the Old Kingdom, around 2500 BCE. Fats can reach much higher temperatures than water at normal atmospheric pressure. Through frying, one can sear or carbonize the surface of foods while caramelizing sugars; the food is cooked much more and has a characteristic crispness and texture. Depending on the food, the fat will penetrate it to varying degrees, contributing richness, its own flavor, calories. Frying techniques vary in the amount of fat required, the cooking time, the type of cooking vessel required, the manipulation of the food. Sautéing, stir frying, pan frying, shallow frying, deep frying are all standard frying techniques. Pan frying, sautéing and stir-frying involve cooking foods in a thin layer of fat on a hot surface, such as a frying pan, wok, or sauteuse.
Stir frying involves frying at high temperatures, requiring that the food be stirred continuously to prevent it from adhering to the cooking surface and burning. Shallow frying is a type of pan frying using only enough fat to immerse one-third to one-half of each piece of food. Deep-frying, on the other hand, involves immersing the food in hot oil, topped up and used several times before being disposed. Deep-frying is a much more involved process, may require specialized oils for optimal results. Deep frying is now the basis of a large and expanding worldwide industry. Fried products have consumer appeal in all age groups and in all cultures, the process is quick, can be made continuous for mass production, the food emerges sterile and dry, with a long shelf life; the end products can be packaged for storage and distribution. Some include potato chips, french fries, nuts and instant noodles. Media related to Frying at Wikimedia Commons
Trump Park Avenue
Trump Park Avenue is a former skyscraper hotel converted to a residential condominium by Donald Trump. It is located on the southern border of Lenox Hill at New York City, it contains 8 penthouses. The building is 32 stories high, it was built in 1929 and it was designed by Goldner and Goldner. The building has had many uses over the years, it was the Viceroy Hotel but was renamed as the Cromwell Arms and as the Hotel Delmonico. In 1929, it was purchased by Sr.. The building was converted into apartments in 1974. In 1990, real estate investor Sarah Korein converted it back to a hotel. Trump purchased the hotel from Korein's estate in 2002 for $115 million