University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV was an American poet. He was born into a Boston Brahmin family, his family and present, were important subjects in his poetry. Growing up in Boston informed his poems, which were set in Boston and the New England region; the literary scholar Paula Hayes believes that Lowell mythologized New England in his early work. Lowell stated, "The poets who most directly influenced me... were Allen Tate, Elizabeth Bishop, William Carlos Williams. An unlikely combination!... but you can see that Bishop is a sort of bridge between Tate's formalism and Williams's informal art." Lowell wrote in both metered verse as well as free verse. After the publication of his 1959 book Life Studies, which won the 1960 National Book Award and "featured a new emphasis on intense, uninhibited discussion of personal and psychological struggles," he was considered an important part of the confessional poetry movement. However, much of Lowell's work, which combined the public with the personal, did not conform to a typical "confessional poetry" model.
Instead, Lowell worked in a number of distinctive stylistic modes and forms over the course of his career. He was appointed the sixth Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, where he served from 1947 until 1948. In addition to winning the National Book Award, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1947 and 1974, the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1977, a National Institute of Arts and Letters Award in 1947, he is "widely considered one of the most important American poets of the postwar era." His biographer Paul Mariani called him "the poet-historian of our time" and "the last of influential public poets." Lowell was born to Commander Robert Traill Spence Lowell III and Charlotte Winslow in Boston, Massachusetts. The Lowells were a Boston Brahmin family that included poets James Russell Lowell, his mother was a descendant of a signer of the United States Constitution. Lowell's parents share a common descent from Philip Livingston, the son of Robert Livingston, were sixth cousins.
As well as a family history steeped in Protestantism, Lowell had notable Jewish ancestors on both sides of his family, which he discusses in Part II of Life Studies. On his father's side, Lowell was the great-great-grandson of Maj. Mordecai Myers, a soldier in the War of 1812 and mayor of Kinderhook and Schenectady; as a youth, Lowell had a penchant for violence and bullying other children. Describing himself as an 8½-year-old in the prose piece "91 Revere Street," Lowell wrote that he was "thick-witted, thuggish"; as a teenager, Lowell's peers gave him the nickname "Cal" after both the villainous Shakespeare character Caliban and the tyrannical Roman emperor Caligula, the nickname stuck with him throughout his life. Lowell would reference the nickname in his poem "Caligula," first published in his book For the Union Dead and republished in a revised sonnet version for his book Notebook 1967–1968. Lowell received his high school education at St. Mark's School, a prominent prep-school in Southborough, Massachusetts.
There he met and was influenced by the poet Richard Eberhart, who taught at the school, as a high school student, Lowell decided that he wanted to become a poet. At St. Mark's, he became lifelong friends with Frank Parker, an artist who created the prints that Lowell used on the covers of most of his books. Lowell attended Harvard College for two years. While he was a freshman at Harvard, he visited Robert Frost in Cambridge and asked for feedback on a long poem he had written on the Crusades. In an interview, Lowell recalled, "I had a huge blank verse epic on the First Crusade and took it to him all in my undecipherable pencil-writing, he read a little of it, said,'It goes on rather a bit, doesn't it?' And he read me the opening of Keats's'Hyperion,' the first version, I thought all of, sublime."After two years at Harvard, Lowell was unhappy, his psychiatrist, Merrill Moore, a poet, suggested that Lowell take a leave of absence from Harvard to get away from his parents and to study with Moore's friend, the poet-professor Allen Tate, living in Nashville and teaching at Vanderbilt.
Lowell traveled to Nashville with Moore. Lowell asked Tate if he could live with him and his wife, Tate joked that if Lowell wanted to, Lowell could pitch a tent on Tate's lawn. Lowell called the act "a terrible piece of youthful callousne
John Orley Allen Tate, known professionally as Allen Tate, was an American poet, social commentator, Poet Laureate from 1943 to 1944. Tate was born near Winchester, Kentucky, to John Orley Tate, a businessman, Eleanor Parke Custis Varnell. In 1916 and 1917 Tate studied the violin at the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, he began attending Vanderbilt University in 1918. Warren and Tate were invited to join an informal literary group of young Southern poets under the leadership of John Crowe Ransom. Tate contributed to the group's magazine The Fugitive; the aim of the group, according to the critic J. A. Bryant, was "to demonstrate that a group of southerners could produce important work in the medium, devoid of sentimentality and crafted," and they wrote in the formalist tradition that valued the skillful use of meter and rhyme; when Robert Penn Warren left Rhodes College to accept a position at Louisiana State University, he recommended Tate to replace him. Tate accepted the position, spent 1934-36 as lecturer in English at Rhodes.
Tate joined Ransom to teach at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. Some of his notable students there included the poets Randall Jarrell. Lowell's early poetry was influenced by Tate's formalist brand of Modernism. In 1924, Tate moved to New York City where he met poet Hart Crane, with whom he had been exchanging correspondence for some time. Over a four-year period, he worked freelance for The Nation, contributed to the Hound & Horn, Poetry magazine, others. To make ends meet, he worked as a janitor. During a summer visit with the poet Robert Penn Warren in Kentucky, he began a relationship with writer Caroline Gordon; the two lived together in Greenwich Village, but moved to "Robber Rocks", a house in Patterson, New York, with friends Slater Brown and his wife Sue, Hart Crane, Malcolm Cowley. Tate married Gordon in New York in May 1925, their daughter Nancy was born in September. In 1928, along with others New York City friends, he went to Europe. In London, he visited with T. S. Eliot, whose poetry and criticism he admired, he visited Paris.
In 1928, Tate published his first book of poetry, Mr. Pope and Other Poems, which contained his most famous poem, "Ode to the Confederate Dead"; that same year, Tate published a biography Stonewall Jackson: The Good Soldier. Just before leaving for Europe in 1928, Tate described himself to John Gould Fletcher as "an enforced atheist", he told Fletcher, "I am an atheist, but a religious one — which means that there is no organization for my religion." He regarded secular attempts to develop a system of thought for the modern world as misguided. "Only God," he insisted, "can give the affair a genuine purpose." In his essay "The Fallacy of Humanism", he criticized the New Humanists for creating a value system without investing it with any identifiable source of authority. "Religion is the only technique for the validation of values," he wrote. Although he was attracted to Roman Catholicism, he deferred converting. Louis D. Rubin, Jr. observes that Tate may have waited "because he realized that for him at this time it would be only a strategy, an intellectual act".
In 1929, Tate published a second biography Jefferson Davis: Fall. After two years abroad, he returned to the United States, in 1930 was back in Tennessee. Here he took up residence at Riverview, an antebellum mansion with an 85-acre estate attached, bought for him by one of his brothers, "who had made a lot of northern money out of coal." He resumed his senior position with the Fugitives. Along with fellow Fugitives and Ransom, as well as nine other Southern writers, Tate joined the conservative political group known as the Southern Agrarians; the group was made up of 12 members who published essays on their political philosophy in the book I'll Take My Stand published in 1930. Tate contributed "Remarks on the Southern Religion" to I'll Take My Stand; this book was followed in 1938 by Who Owns America?, the Southern Agrarians' response to The New Deal. During this time, Tate became the de facto associate editor of The American Review, published and edited by Seward Collins. Tate believed, he objected to Collins's open support of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, condemned Fascism in an article in The New Republic in 1936.
Much of Tate's major volumes of poetry were published in the 1930s, the scholar David Havird describes this publication history in poetry as follows: By 1937, when he published his first Selected Poems, Tate had written all of the shorter poems upon which his literary reputation came to rest. This collection--which brought together work from two recent volumes, Poems: 1928-1931 and the printed The Mediterranean and Other Poems, as well as the early Mr. Pope--included "Mother and Son," "Last Days of Alice," "The Wolves," "The Mediterranean," "Aeneas at Washington," "Sonnets at Christmas," and the final version of "Ode to the Confederate Dead." In 1938 Tate published his only novel, The Fathers, which drew upon knowledge of his mother's ancestral home and family in Fairfax County, Virginia. Tate and Gordon were divorced in 1945 and remarried in 1946. Though devoted to one another for life, they could not get along and divorced again. Tate was a poet-in-residence at Princeton University until 1942.
He founded the Creative Writi
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Star Trek Generations
Star Trek Generations is a 1994 American science fiction film directed by David Carson and based on the franchise of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the seventh film in the Star Trek film series, as well as the first to star the cast of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation. In the film, Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the USS Enterprise-D joins forces with Captain James T. Kirk, to stop a villain from destroying a planet. Parts of the film were shot at the Valley of Fire State Park near Overton, Paramount Studios, Lone Pine, California; the film performed well at the box office. In the year 2293, retired Starfleet officers James T. Kirk, Montgomery Scott and Pavel Chekov attend the maiden voyage of the USS Enterprise-B, under the command of the unseasoned Captain John Harriman. During the shakedown cruise, Enterprise is pressed into a rescue mission to save two El-Aurian ships from a strange energy ribbon, despite not being equipped for service. Enterprise is able to save some of the refugees before their ships are destroyed, but the starship becomes trapped in the ribbon.
Kirk volunteers to modify the ship's deflector dish, allowing Enterprise to escape, but the trailing end of the ribbon strikes Enterprise's hull, exposing Kirk to space and leaving him presumed dead. 78 years in 2371, the crew of the USS Enterprise-D celebrate the promotion of Worf to Lieutenant Commander. Captain Jean-Luc Picard receives a message from Earth that his brother and nephew were killed in a fire. Since Picard never fathered children of his own, he is distracted by the knowledge that the family line will end with him. Enterprise receives a distress call from an observatory in the Amargosa star system, where they rescue an El-Aurian named Dr. Tolian Soran, eager to return to complete his research. Data and Geordi La Forge discover. Soran appears, knocks La Forge unconscious, launches a trilithium probe at the Amargosa star; the probe causes the star to implode, sending a shock wave toward the observatory that will destroy it and everything else in the system. Soran and La Forge are transported away by a Klingon Bird of Prey belonging to the Duras sisters, in league with Soran.
Data is rescued just before the station is destroyed by the shock wave, Enterprise warps away from the system. Guinan tells Picard more about Soran. Guinan explains that Soran is obsessed with reentering the ribbon, a portal to the "Nexus", an extra-dimensional realm that exists outside of normal space-time. Picard and Data determine that Soran, unable to fly a ship into the ribbon, is instead altering the path of the ribbon by destroying stars, plans to bring the ribbon to him on the planet Veridian III by destroying its sun; as a neighboring planet in that system is host to millions, Picard orders the Enterprise there at maximum warp. Upon entering the Veridian system, Enterprise makes contact with the Duras Bird of Prey. Picard offers himself to the sisters in exchange for La Forge, but insists that he be transported to Soran first to reason with him. La Forge is returned with his VISOR under surveillance by the Klingons; this causes him to inadvertently reveal Enterprise's shield frequency, allowing the Duras sisters to fire weapons directly through them and inflict crippling damage.
Enterprise has sustained irreversible damage to its warp core. Commander William Riker orders an evacuation to the forward saucer section of the ship, which separates from the engineering section; the shock wave from the warp core's detonation sends the saucer crashing to the surface of Veridian III. Picard is too late to stop him from launching his missile; the collapse of the Veridian star alters the course of the Nexus ribbon as predicted, sweeps Picard and Soran away while the resulting shock wave obliterates everything in the system. In the Nexus, Picard finds himself surrounded by an idealised family, but realizes it is an illusion, he is confronted by an "echo" of Guinan, after being told that he may go wherever and whenever he wishes within the Nexus, Guinan sends him to meet Captain Kirk safe in the Nexus. Though Kirk is at first wrapped up in the illusion, he realizes that nothing in the Nexus is real, therefore does not matter. Picard convinces Kirk to leave the Nexus for Veridian III to help him stop Soran.
Kirk and Picard arrive on Veridian III only minutes. Working together, they distract Soran long enough for Picard to lock the missile in place, causing it to explode on the launchpad and kill Soran. Kirk is fatally injured in the effort. Picard buries Kirk on a mountainside, before a shuttle arrives to transport him to the Enterprise wreckage. Three Federation starships arrive to retrieve Enterprise's survivors; as Riker laments that he will never sit in the captain's chair of this ship, Picard muses that given the name's legacy, this won't be the last ship to carry the name Enterprise. Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard William Shatner as Captain James T. Kirk Jonathan Frakes as Commander William T. Riker Brent Spiner as Lieutenant Commander Data LeVar Burton as Lieutenant Commander Geordi La Forge Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Commander Worf. Unlike his TNG co-stars, this was his second Star Trek film, having appeared on Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, portraying Worf's grandfather Colonel Worf, who defended Kirk and McCoy at their trial.
Gates McFadden as Chief Medical Officer Commander Beverly Crusher Marina Sirtis as ship's counselor Commander Deanna Troi Alan Ruck as Enterprise-B captain John
Partisan Review was a small circulation quarterly "little magazine" dealing with literature and cultural commentary published in New York City. The magazine was launched in 1934 by the Communist Party, USA-affiliated John Reed Club of New York and was part of the Communist political orbit. Growing disaffection on the part of PR's primary editors began to make itself felt and the magazine abruptly suspended publication in the fall of 1936; when the magazine reemerged late in 1937, it came with additional editors and new writers who advanced a political line critical of Stalin's USSR. By the 1950s the magazine had evolved towards a moderate social democratic and staunchly anti-Communist perspective and was supportive of American foreign policy. Partisan Review received covert funding from the Central Intelligence Agency during the 1950s and 1960s as part of the agency's efforts to shape intellectual opinion during the Cold War; the journal moved its offices to the campus of Rutgers University in 1963 to the campus of Boston University in 1978 losing its cultural relevance.
The final issue of the publication appeared in April 2003. The literary journal Partisan Review was launched in New York City in 1934 by the John Reed Club of New York — a mass organization of the Communist Party, USA; the publication was published and edited by two members of the New York club, Philip Rahv and William Phillips. The launch of the magazine was assisted by the editors of New Masses, the Communist Party's national artistic and literary magazine, including Joseph Freeman. Early issues of the magazine included a mixture of ostensibly proletarian literature and essays of cultural commentary — the latter of which became a hallmark of PR for the whole of its nearly seven decades of existence. Rahv and Phillips were committed to the idea that radical new artistic forms and radical politics could be combined and were critical of much of the form and hackneyed content of much of what passed as "proletarian literature." This critical perspective brought the pair into conflict with party stalwarts at the New Masses such as Mike Gold and Granville Hicks but was not sufficient to break Partisan Review from the CPUSA orbit.
In 1936 as part of its Popular Front strategy of uniting Communist and non-Communist intellectuals against fascism, the CPUSA launched a new mass organization called the League of American Writers, abandoning the John Reed Clubs as part of the change. PR editors Phillips and Rahv were disaffected by the change, seeing the new organization as a watering down and mainstreaming of the party's commitment to a new, proletarian literature. Intellectual interest turned to events abroad and interest in PR faltered to the point that effective with its October 1936 issue, publication of the magazine was suspended. While Partisan Review was relaunched by Rahv and Phillips in December 1937, it was changed at a fundamental level. News of the Great Purge in the Soviet Union and of Soviet duplicity in the Spanish Civil War pushed the pair of editors to a new outspokenly critical perspective. A new cast of editors were brought on board, including Dwight Macdonald and literary critic F. W. Dupee, a sympathy for Trotskyism began to make itself felt in the magazine's editorial political line.
The CPUSA press was hostile. A new group of left wing writers critical of the Soviet Union began to write for the publication, including James Burnham and Sidney Hook; the new period of independence had begun. Effective with the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, the magazine began to divorce itself from the Communist movement altogether, including its dissident Trotskyist wing. Rahv and Phillips gave qualified support to the campaign for American rearmament and the country's preparation for war, opposed by Macdonald and another editor at the time, Clement Greenberg. A tentative truce between the editors averted a split, with Macdonald departing in 1943 to form the pacifist magazine politics. Anti-Communism began to loom in the raison d'être of Partisan Review in the post-war years and bolstered by the contributions of such writers as Hook, James Farrell, George Orwell, Arthur Koestler, the political trajectory of PR moved rightwards. Conservative and nationalist, by the early 1950s the magazine had become devoutly supportive of American virtues and values, although critical of the country's biases and excesses.
Although vehemently denied by founding editor William Phillips, in the years after the fall of the Soviet Union it was revealed that Partisan Review was the recipient of money from the Central Intelligence Agency as part of its effort to shape intellectual opinion in the so-called "cultural cold war." In 1953 the magazine found itself in financial difficulties, when one of its primary backstage financial backers, Allan D. Dowling, became embroiled in a costly divorce proceeding; the financial shortfall was made up by a $2,500 grant from the American Committee for Cultural Freedom, a CIA front organization on the executive board of which editor Phillips sat throughout the decade of the 1950s. Additional CIA money came in the 1950s; when the ACCF terminated its operations, half of the money remaining in the organization's coffers was transferred to Partisan Review. Additional funds came to the magazine to alleviate its financial problems in the 1950s in the form of a $10,000 donation from Time magazine publisher Henry Luce.
Luce seems to have been instrumental in expediting contacts between PR publisher Phillips and Director of Central Intelligence Walter Bedell Smith. A successor organization established by the CIA to funnel money to sympathetic groups and individuals, the Congress for Cultural Freedom, stepped up to assist the magaz