Beijing South railway station
Beijingnan railway station is a large railway station in Fengtai District, about 7.5 km south of central Beijing, between the 2nd and 3rd ring roads. The station in its present form opened on 1 August 2008 and replaced the old Beijing South station known as Majiapu railway station and renamed Yongdingmen railway station, which stood 500 metres away; the old station was in use from 1897 to 2006. The new Beijing South railway station is the city's largest station, is one of the largest in Asia, it joins the main Beijing railway station and the Beijing West railway station as one of three main passenger rail hubs in the Chinese capital. It serves as the terminus for high-speed trains on the Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway and Beijing–Shanghai high-speed Railway which can reach speeds up to 350 km/h. CRH night sleepers to and from Shanghai depart from this station; the station integrates two Beijing Subway line stations, bus hubs, taxi stands, into the same building, includes a wide variety of restaurants in the station itself.
The terminus occupies a 32-hectare site in Fengtai. The enormous oval-shaped station was designed by the British architecture firm of TFP Farrells in collaboration with the Tianjin Design Institute, it was built from more than 60,000 tons of steel and 490,000 cubic metres of concrete by 4,000 workers in less than three years. The glass ceiling is outfitted with 3,246 solar panels to generate electricity; the structure spreads out like a ray or trilobite and covers 320,000 square metres, more than the Beijing National Stadium's 258,000 square metres. Its 24 platforms have the capacity to dispatch 30,000 passengers per hour or 241 million a year; the 251,000-square-metre waiting area can accommodate 10,000 passengers. On the elevated departures concourse, there are designated waiting areas and VIP lounges for passengers travelling in CRH Business Class, a number of restaurants and corner shops. There are a number of ticket counters and an increasing number of retail stores and fast food stalls. Ticket machines are available to holders of the PRC ID card and sell tickets for trains departing from this station.
23 sets of ticket gates despatch passengers onto trains. The arrivals level is underground, with 8 arrival gates situated in the immediate vicinity of the Beijing Subway station concourse. To the sides are two taxi stands, separated West and East parking lots for private cars. Express entrances have been built, are presently in use for all C trains to Tianjin, as well as some trains to Shanghai. Ticket machines and a few ticket counters are available at the arrivals level; as with the departures level, a variety of restaurants and corner shops are available at the arrivals level. Two floors below the arrivals level are the platforms for Lines 14, respectively. Reconstruction began on 10 May 2006 after services ended at the old station; the station was complete for the 1 August 2008 reopening. In 2011 and 2012, new restaurants, fast food stalls, corner shops were added. To cut queues, traditional counters at the arrival level were replaced with ticket machines; as of 2019, public transportation is accessible within the station itself.
The Beijing Subway's Beijing South Station subway stop has Line 14 service. The Beijing Bus has three stops at the station; the Beijing Airport Bus provides service to the Beijing Capital International Airport. After 11:30pm, the only public transport option is night buses 17. A taxi line is available inside the station. Beijing South Station is the terminal for two China Railway High-speed railway lines; the Beijing–Tianjin Intercity Railway has frequent service to Tianjin. The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway runs trains to Jinan and Shanghai, with several trains continuing to Hangzhou and Ningbo; this railway has services to Qingdao and Fuzhou. There is a service to Northeast China. In July 2013, travel time to Hangzhou was cut by one hour for direct services. Beijing South Railway Station is a subway station on Line 4 and Line 14 of the Beijing Subway in China, it is located under the building of Beijing South railway station. The station opened on 28 September 2009; the station on average has 135,000 exits per day.
Beijing South Railway Station is an underground station with two side tracks. Line 4 runs at the station in the direction north-south, Line 14 runs west-east. Beijing South Railway Station Guide Official site Photos of the reconstruction 2007-2008 Beijing Train Time Table & Rail Transportation Guide
A mobile app or mobile application is a computer program or software application designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch. Apps were intended for productivity assistance such as Email and contact databases, but the public demand for apps caused rapid expansion into other areas such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, order-tracking, ticket purchases, so that there are now millions of apps available. Apps are downloaded from application distribution platforms which are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the App Store or Google Play Store; some apps are free, others have a price, with the profit being split between the application's creator and the distribution platform. Mobile applications stand in contrast to desktop applications which are designed to run on desktop computers, web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the mobile device. In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones.
The term "app", short for "software application", has since become popular. Most mobile devices are sold with several apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, mapping program, an app for buying music, other media, or more apps; some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps. Apps that are not preinstalled are available through distribution platforms called app stores, they began appearing in 2008 and are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, BlackBerry App World. However, there are independent app stores, such as GetJar and F-Droid; some apps are free. They are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider, the rest goes to the producer of the app.
The same app can, cost a different price depending on the mobile platform. Apps can be installed manually, for example by running an Android application package on Android devices. Mobile apps were offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, contacts, the stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages; as with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review and curation sources, including blogs and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps medical apps; some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content with certain advantages over an official website. With a growing number of mobile applications available at app stores and the improved capabilities of smartphones, people are downloading more applications to their devices.
Usage of mobile apps has become prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively. Researchers found that usage of mobile apps correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day. Mobile apps are playing an ever-increasing role within healthcare and when designed and integrated can yield many benefits. Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013, which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion. By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than €10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market. There are three kinds of apps — native and web-based. All apps targeted towards particular mobile platforms are known as native apps.
Therefore, an app meant for Apple device will never open in Android devices. This is. While developing native apps, professionals incorporate best-in-class user interface modules; this accounts for better performance and good user experience. Users benefit from wider access to APIs and make limitless use of all apps from the particular device. Further, they switch over from one app to another effortlessly; the main purpose behind creating such apps is to ensure best performance for specific mobile operating system. Concept of hybrid apps is a mix of web-based apps. Apps developed using Xamarin, React Native, Sencha Touch and other similar technology fall within this category; these are made to support web and native technologies across multiple platforms, hence the name hybrid. Moreover, these apps are faster to develop, it involves use of single code. Despite such advantages, hybrid apps are slower in performance. Apps fail to bear the same look n feel in different mobile op
Airbus SE, from 2000 to 2014 known as the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, is a European multinational aerospace corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France and Spain. It designs and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures in the European Union and various other countries; the company has three divisions: Commercial Aircraft and Space, Helicopters, the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries. The company's main civil aeroplane business is based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities in the European Union but in China and the United States. Final assembly production is based in France; the company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 10,000th aircraft, an A350, was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 14 October 2016.
The global Airbus fleet have performed more than 110 million flights, totaling over 215 billion kilometres and carrying 12 billion passengers. Airbus's corporate headquarters is located in Leiden and the main office is located in Toulouse, France; the company is led by CEO Guillaume Faury and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The current company is the product of consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired. EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014, 2015, respectively. Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE, these parent and subsidiary companies were merged in January 2017, keeping the name of the parent company.
The company was given its present name in April 2017. The logos of Airbus Industrie GIE and Airbus SAS displayed a stylised turbine symbol, redolent of a jet engine, a font similar to Helvetica Black; the logo colours were reflected in the standard Airbus aircraft livery in each period. The EADS logo between 2000 and 2010 combined the logos of the merged companies, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Aérospatiale-Matra, after which these elements were removed and a new font with 3D shading was chosen; this font was retained in the logos of Airbus Group NV and Airbus Group SE Airbus SE: The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320 notable for being the first commercial jet to use a fly-by-wire control system; the A320 has been, continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets.
A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320 family's primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family; the longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres, the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR. All Airbus aircraft developed since have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing 777. Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft"; those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements; this "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017–2018.
On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like the Chinese Comac C919, scheduled to operate by 2015–2020. In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff. Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003; the Airbus Corporate Jets modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997.
Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was used only for the A319CJ, it is now us
Engadget is a multilingual technology blog network with daily coverage of gadgets and consumer electronics. Engadget operates a total of ten blogs—four written in English and six international versions with independent editorial staff. Engadget has in the past ranked among the top five in the "Technorati top 100" and was noted in Time for being one of the best blogs of 2010, it has been operated by AOL since October 2005. Engadget was founded by co-founder, Peter Rojas. Engadget was the largest blog in Weblogs, Inc. a blog network with over 75 weblogs including Autoblog and Joystiq which included Hack-A-Day. Weblogs Inc. was purchased by AOL in 2005. Engadget's editor-in-chief, Ryan Block, announced on July 22, 2008, that he would be stepping down as editor-in-chief in late August, leaving the role to Joshua Topolsky. On March 12, 2011, Topolsky announced. Editorial Director Joshua Fruhlinger appointed Tim Stevens — profiled by Fortune on May 31, 2012—as the editor-in-chief. On February 13, 2013, AOL acquired gdgt, a device review website, created by Rojas and Block.
Overnight on July 15, 2013, Tim Stevens stepped down as the editor-in-chief, placing gdgt's Marc Perton as the interim executive editor. In November 2013, a major redesign was launched that merged gdgt's features into Engadget, such as database of devices and aggregated reviews; the changes aimed to turn Engadget into a more extensive consumer electronics resource to CNET and Consumer Reports, aimed towards "the early adopter in all of us". As of April 2014, Michael Gorman was tapped as the Editor-In-Chief alongside Christopher Trout as Executive Editor, with Perton leaving AOL to pursue other opportunities. On December 2, 2015, Engadget introduced another redesign, as well as a new editorial direction with a focus on broader topics influenced by technology. In September 2018, Dana Wollman was promoted to Editor-in-Chief of Engadget. Engadget operates a number of blogs spanning seven different languages including English, Japanese, Polish and German; the English edition of Engadget operates four blogs which, like the international editions, have been assimilated into a single site with a sub-domain prefix.
These include Engadget Mobile, Engadget HD and Engadget Alt. As of late 2013, these editions have been wrapped into Engadget Classic. In March 2014, a UK edition of Engadget launched to target the developing European tech market. Launched in March 2004, Engadget is updated multiple times a day with articles on gadgets and consumer electronics, it posts rumors about the technological world offers opinion within its stories, produces the weekly Engadget Podcast that covers tech and gadget news stories that happened during the week. Since its founding, dozens of writers have written for or contributed to Engadget, Engadget Alt, Engadget Mobile and Engadget HD, including high-profile bloggers, industry analysts, professional journalists; these writers include Jason Calacanis, Paul Boutin, Phillip Torrone, Joshua Fruhlinger and Susan Mernit. Darren Murph, has worked on the site as Managing Editor-at-Large, he has written over 17,212 posts as of October 5, 2010. Industry analyst Ross Rubin has contributed a weekly column called Switched On since October 2004.
Engadget uses proprietary AOL CMS to publish its content. The Engadget podcast was launched in October 2004 and was hosted by Phillip Torrone and Len Pryor. Torrone was the host for the first 22 episodes of the podcast. Eric Rice is known for his own podcast, called The Eric Rice Show and has produced podcasts for Weblogs, Inc.. Eric hosted and produced 4 episodes of the podcast for Engadget until the show was taken over by Peter Rojas and Ryan Block; the podcast was hosted by Editor-in-chief Joshua Topolsky along with editors Paul Miller and Nilay Patel with occasional special guests until their 2011 departure. The podcast was produced by Trent Wolbe under Topolsky's editorship and continued to be under Tim Stevens until December 2012; the topic of discussion for the podcast is technology-related and linked to events that have happened during the week in the world of technology. The show lasts an hour or more; the show is weekly, the frequency can change during special events. When events such as the Consumer Electronics Show and the Electronic Entertainment Expo occur, the podcast has been known to be broadcast daily.
The Engadget podcast is available as a subscription as an RSS feed. Alternatively, it can be downloaded directly from the site in Ogg, AAC or m4b format; the m4b version features images related to the current topic of discussion and can be displayed in iTunes or on a compatible player. Engadget started doing live podcasts broadcasting Thursday or Friday afternoons hosted by Ben Gilbert and Terrence O'Brien; the recorded podcast is available the day after. Engadget hosts weekly Mobile and HD-focused podcasts, with the former featuring Brad Molen, the latter is hosted by Ben Drawbaugh and Richard Lawler; as of June 27, 2014, all Engadget podcasts are on hiatus ac
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published since 2009 by Bloomberg L. P. Businessweek, founded in 1929, aimed to provide information and interpretation about events in the business world; the magazine is headquartered in New York City. Megan Murphy served as editor from November 2016; the magazine is published 47 times a year. Businessweek was first published in September 1929, weeks before the stock market crash of 1929; the magazine provided information and opinions on what was happening in the business world at the time. Early sections of the magazine included marketing, finance and Washington Outlook, which made Businessweek one of the first publications to cover national political issues that directly impacted the business world. Businessweek was published to be a resource for business managers. However, in the 1970s, the magazine shifted its strategy and added consumers outside the business world; as of 1975, the magazine was carrying more advertising pages annually than any other magazine in the United States.
Businessweek began publishing its annual rankings of United States business school MBA programs in 1988. Stephen B. Shepard served as editor-in-chief from 1984 until 2005 when he was chosen to be the founding dean of the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism. Under Shepard, Businessweek's readership grew to more than six million in the late 1980s, he was succeeded by Stephen J. Adler of The Wall Street Journal. In 2006, Businessweek started publishing annual rankings of undergraduate business programs in addition to its MBA program listing. Businessweek suffered a decline in circulation during the late-2000s recession as advertising revenues fell one-third by the start of 2009 and the magazine's circulation fell to 936,000. In July 2009, it was reported that McGraw-Hill was trying to sell Businessweek and had hired Evercore Partners to conduct the sale; because of the magazine's liabilities, it was suggested that it might change hands for the nominal price of $1 to an investor, willing to incur losses turning the magazine around.
In late 2009, Bloomberg L. P. bought the magazine—reportedly for between $2 million to $5 million plus assumption of liabilities—and renamed it Bloomberg BusinessWeek. It is now believed McGraw-Hill received the high end of the speculated price, at $5 million, along with the assumption of debt. In early 2010, the magazine title was restyled Bloomberg Businessweek as part of a redesign; as of 2014, the magazine was losing $30 million per year, about half of the $60 million it was reported losing in 2009. Adler resigned as editor-in-chief and was replaced by Josh Tyrangiel, deputy managing editor of Time magazine. In 2016 Bloomberg announced changes to Businessweek, losing between $20 and $30 million. Nearly 30 Bloomberg News journalists were let go across the U. S. Europe and Asia and it was announced that a new version of Bloomberg Businessweek would launch the following year. In addition, editor in chief Ellen Pollock stepped down from her position and Washington Bureau Chief Megan Murphy was named as the next editor in chief.
International editions of Businessweek were available on newsstands in Europe and Asia until 2005 when publication of regional editions was suspended to help increase foreign readership of customized European and Asian versions of Businessweek's website. However, the same year the Russian edition was launched in collaboration with Rodionov Publishing House. At the same time, Businessweek partnered with InfoPro Management, a publishing and market research company based in Beirut, Lebanon, to produce the Arabic version of the magazine in 22 Arab countries. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek continued the magazine's international expansion and announced plans to introduce a Polish-language edition called Bloomberg Businessweek Polska, as well as a Chinese edition, relaunched in November 2011. Bloomberg Businessweek launched an iPad version of the magazine using Apple's subscription billing service in 2011; the iPad edition was the first to use this subscription method, which allows one to subscribe via an iTunes account.
There are over 100,000 subscribers to the iPad edition of Businessweek. On October 4, 2018, Bloomberg Businessweek published a report claiming that China had hacked dozens of technology corporations including Amazon and Apple by placing an extra integrated circuit on a Supermicro server motherboard during manufacturing; the claim has been questioned. The report was refuted by Amazon and Supermicro; the United States security department DHS and UK's GCHQ put out statements that they saw no reason to question those refutations. NSA claims to have no knowledge of the attack. FBI, named by Bloomberg to be investigating the alleged attack, is prevented from commenting on it, but notes that it would have an obligation to inform US companies of attacks like these, should they occur. Experts describe the attack as implausible and in technical details impossible. One source quoted in the Bloomberg text claims that several details of the attack as described by Bloomberg are identical to hypothetical scenarios that he presented to Bloomberg.
No other media organization has, by the end of October, corroborated the story. None of the 30 companies that Bloomberg claims were hit by the infiltration have confirmed this. Apple's CEO and Amazon's CTO have demanded. In the year 2011, Adweek named Bloomberg Businessweek as the top business magazine in the country. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek won the general excellence award for general-interest magazines at the National Magazine Awards. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek editor Josh
A weighing scale is a device to measure weight or mass. These are known as mass scales, weight scales, mass balance, weight balance, or scale, balance, or balance scale; the traditional scale bowls suspended at equal distances from a fulcrum. One plate holds an object of unknown mass, while known masses are added to the other plate until static equilibrium is achieved and the plates level off, which happens when the masses on the two plates are equal. A spring scale will make use of a spring of known stiffness to determine mass. Suspending a certain mass will extend the spring by a certain amount depending on the spring's stiffness; the heavier the object, the more the spring stretches, as described in Hooke's law. Other types of scale making use of different physical principles exist; some scales can be calibrated to read in units of force such as newtons instead of units of mass such as kilograms. Scales and balances are used in commerce, as many products are sold and packaged by mass; the balance scale is such a simple device that its usage far predates the evidence.
What has allowed archaeologists to link artifacts to weighing scales are the stones for determining absolute mass. The balance scale itself was used to determine relative mass long before absolute mass; the oldest evidence for the existence of weighing scales dates to c. 2400–1800 B. C. in the Indus River valley. Prior to that, no banking was performed due to lack of scales. Uniform, polished stone cubes discovered in early settlements were used as mass-setting stones in balance scales. Although the cubes bear no markings, their masses are multiples of a common denominator; the cubes are made of many different kinds of stones with varying densities. Their mass, not their size or other characteristics, was a factor in sculpting these cubes. In Egypt, scales can be traced to around 1878 B. C. but their usage extends much earlier. Carved stones bearing marks denoting mass and the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for gold have been discovered, which suggests that Egyptian merchants had been using an established system of mass measurement to catalog gold shipments or gold mine yields.
Although no actual scales from this era have survived, many sets of weighing stones as well as murals depicting the use of balance scales suggest widespread usage. In China, the earliest weighing balance excavated was from a tomb of the State of Chu of the Chinese Warring States Period dating back to the 3rd to 4th century BC in Mount Zuojiagong near Changsha, Hunan; the balance was made of wood and used bronze masses. Variations on the balance scale, including devices like the cheap and inaccurate bismar, began to see common usage by c. 400 B. C. by many small merchants and their customers. A plethora of scale varieties each boasting advantages and improvements over one another appear throughout recorded history, with such great inventors as Leonardo da Vinci lending a personal hand in their development. With all the advances in weighing scale design and development, all scales until the seventeenth century AD were variations on the balance scale; the standardization of the weights used – and ensuring traders used the correct weights – was a considerable preoccupation of governments throughout this time.
The original form of a balance consisted of a beam with a fulcrum at its center. For highest accuracy, the fulcrum would consist of a sharp V-shaped pivot seated in a shallower V-shaped bearing. To determine the mass of the object, a combination of reference masses was hung on one end of the beam while the object of unknown mass was hung on the other end. For high precision work, such as empirical chemistry, the center beam balance is still one of the most accurate technologies available, is used for calibrating test masses; the balance was the first mass measuring instrument invented. In its traditional form, it consists of a pivoted horizontal lever with arms of equal length – the beam – and a weighing pan suspended from each arm; the unknown mass is placed in one pan and standard masses are added to the other pan until the beam is as close to equilibrium as possible. In precision balances, a more accurate determination of the mass is given by the position of a sliding mass moved along a graduated scale.
Technically, a balance compares weight rather than mass, but, in a given gravitational field, the weight of an object is proportional to its mass, so the standard masses used with balances are labeled in units of mass. Unlike spring-based scales, balances are used for the precision measurement of mass as their accuracy is not affected by variations in the local gravitational field. A change in the strength of the gravitational field caused by moving the balance does not change the measured mass, because the moments of force on either side of the beam are affected equally. A balance will render an accurate measurement of mass at any location experiencing a constant gravity or acceleration. Precise measurements are achieved by ensuring that the balance's fulcrum is friction-free, by attaching a pointer to the beam which amplifies any deviation from a balance position. For greatest accuracy, there needs to be an allowance for the bu
Wireless speakers are loudspeakers which receive audio signals using radio frequency waves rather than over audio cables. The two most popular RF frequencies that support audio transmission to wireless loudspeakers include a variation of WiFi IEEE 802.11, while others depend on Bluetooth to transmit audio data to the receiving speaker. Wireless speakers are composed of two units: a main speaker unit combining the loudspeaker itself with an RF receiver, an RF transmitter unit; the transmitter connects to the audio output of any audio devices such as hi-fi equipment, computers, mp3 players, etc. An RCA plug is used to achieve this; the receiver is positioned where the listener wants the sound to be, providing the freedom to move the wireless speakers around without the need of using cables. The receiver/speaker unit contains an amplifier to boost the audio signal to the loudspeaker. Batteries may last for 3 to as long as 24 hours; the signal frequency range used by wireless speakers is the same as that used by cordless telephones — 900 MHz.
The RF signal can traverse floors/ceilings. Most manufacturers claim the signal transmits over a range of 150 to 300 feet. Many wireless speakers feature variable transmission channels that can be set using a tuning knob to overcome potential RF interference with other nearby wireless devices, such as cordless phones or baby monitors. Bluetooth devices use a radio communication frequency such that the devices do not have to be in a visual line of sight with each other. Different types of wireless speakers are designed for specific needs: Stereo speakers can deliver both Left and Right stereo channels in a single speaker. Speakers designed for outdoor use have a robust casing. Home theatres utilize a specialized set of speakers in which only the rear speaker/s are wireless, while the front speakers are wired. Wireless speakers receive considerable criticism from high-end audiophiles because of the potential for RF interference with other signal sources, like cordless phones, as well as for the low sound quality some models deliver.
Despite the criticism, wireless speakers have gained popularity with consumers and a growing number of models are marketed. Small and portable wireless Bluetooth speaker models have become popular with consumers. Wireless speakers can be connected with computers use a AUX jack with a USB adaptor for Bluetooth pairing. Starting 2015, some Wireless Speakers integrate VOIP telephony functions. Smart speaker Loudspeaker Loudspeaker enclosure Audio crossover Full-range speaker Tweeter Super tweeter Midrange speaker Woofer Subwoofer