Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge
The Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge is a 12,941 acre National Wildlife Refuge located in Washington County, Mississippi. Named after the Yazoo tribe, it was established to provide waterfowl and other migratory birds in the Mississippi Flyway with nesting, feeding and resting habitat; the refuge serves as the headquarters for the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex, is maintained with an eleven person staff with a fiscal year 2005 budget of $2,097,000. The refuge office administers 12,800 acres of Farmers Home Administration transfer properties: 42 fee title tracts and 12 easements. A Cooperative farming program provides 3,942 acres for local farmers to use. In the early 1900s, natural habitat supplemented by agricultural crops provided excellent waterfowl hunting in and around the refuge area. Records indicate that ducks and swans were abundant throughout the wintering season. Hunters came from as far away. Land acquisition began under authority of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act in 1936 with the initial purchase of 2,166 acres.
In March, 1937, an additional 639 acres were purchased with plans to acquire 20,000 acres. The refuge remained unstaffed from 1936 until 1956. In 1959 the refuge office was built; the Service was given permission to purchase additional land in 1960 under the provision of Section 5928 of the Mississippi Code of 1942, re-compiled by Governor Ross R. Barnett. Various tracts were purchased from individuals and hunting clubs until a total of 12,471 acres was reached on July 30, 1969; as land acquisition progressed, habitat management was diversified for mourning doves, wood ducks, Canada geese and colonial wading birds, along with endangered and resident species. A nucleus flock of wild turkey was introduced in 1970. In 1992, the Service purchased the 470 acre Cox property bringing total refuge area to 12,941 acres. Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge's 12,941 acres of undulating Delta soils range from heavy clay to silt loam and limited sand ridges. Most farm area is classed as prime agricultural land. Elevations range from 90 feet in the main drainage to 113 feet in agricultural areas.
Yazoo NWR's primary feature is a 4,000+ acre oxbow lake named Swan Lake which formed thousands of years ago when the Mississippi River abandoned a segment of riverbed. In years past, Silver Lake Bayou flowed into the oxbow lake, accelerating the deposit of silt and sediment on the lake bottom, making the lake more shallow; the Corps of Engineers constructed a new channel to divert silt-laden waters around Swan Lake. Weirs and water control structures maintain water levels in the oxbow lake while the new channel diverts silt-laden flows around the north side of Swan Lake and into Steele Bayou; the Corps project prevents the accelerated build-up of sediment that has reduced water depths in Swan Lake. The past meanderings of the Mississippi River have created a "ridge-and-swale" topography on the refuge that varies by 23 feet in elevation. From 90 feet above sea level in the swamp to 113 feet on sandy ridges, this mixture of elevations translates into a diversity of habitats for wildlife. Refuge staff have utilized this rolling landscape and through the years have installed 96 water control structures creating over 70 impoundments which have provided a myriad of habitats for migratory waterfowl, colonial wading birds and other wildlife.
Since 1968 2,000 acres of marginal agricultural lands have been reforested on Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge. Reforestation has been accomplished with seedling plantings. At least 20 tree species have been planted on refuge lands; these plantations, some of which are among the oldest on record, now provide unique opportunities for researchers to study the development process for the restoration of bottomland hardwoods over time. Reforestation on Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge catalyzed similar habitat restoration on other refuges and private lands throughout the southeast region. Habitats vary from bottomland hardwoods to agricultural fields. Emphasis is placed on providing food for wintering waterfowl, which utilize the refuge in large numbers, at times exceeding 250,000 birds; these foods consist of corn, rice, etc. and moist-soil plants. The refuge has over 70 water management units and has restored over 2,000 acres of marginal agricultural land to bottomland hardwoods. A unique opportunity for intensive moist-soil management occurred when the refuge purchased 240 acres of abandoned catfish ponds known today as the Cox Ponds.
The ponds were reshaped to provide optimal bottom and side slopes, each pond has its own water control structure and drain. Irrigation wells provide a permanent water source for each pond, giving the refuge broad management options. A rotating cycle of management treatments in these 14 ponds provides habitat for waterfowl, long-legged waders, other water birds; some ponds are managed as moist-soil areas. Frequent visitors to the Cox Ponds include white ibis, glossy ibis, little blue and great blue herons, great egrets, snowy egrets and a wide variety of wintering dabbling and diving ducks. Habitat is provided for southward-bound shorebirds from July 15 to November. In 2003, the first documented brood of black-bellied whistling ducks in Mississippi was photographed here. In August 2004, as many as thirteen grown ducks plus a brood of eight were observed, indicating an increasing population of this tropical species; the well-e
Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge is one of seven refuges in the Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex in Mississippi. Established in 1978, Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge encompasses 38,697 acres. Included in those acres is one of the largest blocks of bottomland forest in the lower Mississippi River alluvial floodplain; the upland areas or ridges crest at no more than one foot above swamp areas, contain nuttall and water oaks and other species while overcup oak, bitter pecan and ash dominate the transition zone from swamp to upland. Additional habitat types consist of agricultural areas. In addition to providing resting and feeding areas for over 100,000 wintering waterfowl annually, the refuge provides habitat for 200 species of neotropical migratory songbirds. Resident species making their home among the woodlands and reforested areas include the American alligator, white-tail deer, swamp rabbit, wild turkey and other various small fur-bearers such as mink and raccoon.
Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
George P. Cossar State Park
George P. Cossar State Park is a state park in the U. S. state of Mississippi located on the shores of Enid Lake 7 miles north of Oakland off Mississippi Highway 32. The park is named for Sr. a prominent Mississippi attorney in the 20th century. The park features boating and fishing on 28,000-acre Enid Lake, 76 campsites, 13 camper cabins, visitors center, 18-hole disc golf course, 18-hole miniature golf course, picnic area, a 2.2-mile nature trail. The world record crappie was caught in Enid Lake in 1954. Most of the land around the lake and in nearby Holly Springs National Forest is open for hunting. George P. Cossar State Park Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Parks
National Natural Landmark
The National Natural Landmarks Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the natural history of the United States. It is the only national natural areas program that identifies and recognizes the best examples of biological and geological features in both public and private ownership; the program was established on May 18, 1962, by United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall. The program aims to encourage and support voluntary preservation of sites that illustrate the geological and ecological history of the United States, it hopes to strengthen the public's appreciation of the country's natural heritage. As of November 2016, 599 sites have been added to the National Registry of National Landmarks; the registry includes nationally significant geological and ecological features in 48 states, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands; the National Park Service administers the NNL Program and if requested, assists NNL owners and managers with the conservation of these important sites.
Land acquisition by the federal government is not a goal of this program. National Natural Landmarks are nationally significant sites owned by a variety of land stewards, their participation in this federal program is voluntary; the legislative authority for the National Natural Landmarks Program stems from the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. The NNL Program does not have the protection features of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Thus, designation of a National Natural Landmark presently constitutes only an agreement with the owner to preserve, insofar as possible, the significant natural values of the site or area. Administration and preservation of National Natural Landmarks is the owner's responsibility. Either party may terminate the agreement; the NNL designation is made by the Secretary of the Interior after in-depth scientific study of a potential site. All new designations must have owner concurrence; the selection process is rigorous: to be considered for NNL status, a site must be one of the best examples of a natural region's characteristic biotic or geologic features.
Since establishment of the NNL program, a multi-step process has been used to designate a site for NNL status. Since 1970, the following steps have constituted the process. A natural area inventory of a natural region is completed to identify the most promising sites. After landowners are notified that the site is being considered for NNL status, a detailed onsite evaluation is conducted by scientists other than those who conducted the inventory; the evaluation report is peer reviewed by other experts to assure its soundness. The report is reviewed further by National Park Service staff; the site is reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior's National Park Advisory Board to determine that the site qualifies as an NNL. The findings are provided to the Secretary of the Interior who declines. Landowners are notified a third time informing them that the site has been designated an NNL. Prospective sites for NNL designation are aquatic ecosystems; each major natural history "theme" can be further subdivided into various sub-themes.
For example, sub-themes suggested in 1972 for the overall theme "Lakes and ponds" included large deep lakes, large shallow lakes, lakes of complex shape, crater lakes, kettle lake and potholes, oxbow lakes, dune lakes, sphagnum-bog lakes, lakes fed by thermal streams, tundra lakes and ponds and marshy areas, sinkhole lakes, unusually productive lakes, lakes of high productivity and high clarity. The NNL program does not require designated properties to be owned by public entities. Lands under all forms of ownership or administration have been designated—federal, local and private. Federal lands with NNLs include those administered by the National Park Service, National Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation and Wildlife Service, Air Force, Marine Corps, Army Corps of Engineers and others; some NNL have been designated on lands held by Native tribes. NNLs have been designated on state lands that cover a variety of types and management, as forest, game refuge, recreation area, preserve.
Private lands with NNLs include those owned by universities, scientific societies, conservation organizations, land trusts, commercial interests, private individuals. 52% of NNLs are administered by public agencies, more than 30% are privately owned, the remaining 18% are owned or administered by a mixture of public agencies and private owners. Participation in the NNL Program carries no requirements regarding public access; the NNL registry includes many sites of national significance that are open for public tours, but others are not. Since many NNLs are located on federal and state property, permission to visit is unnecessary; some private property may be open to public visitation or just require permission from the site manager. On the other hand, some NNL private landowners desire no visitors whatever and might prosecute trespassers; the reasons for this viewpoint vary: potential property damage or liability, fragile or dangerous resources, desire for solitude or no publicity. NNL designation is an agreement between the federal government.
NNL designation does not change ownership of the property nor induce any encumbrances on the property. NNL status does not transfer with changes in ownership. Participation in the NNL Program involve
Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve
The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve is one of the most biologically productive estuarine ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico region, supporting several rare or endangered plant and animal species, numerous important marine fishery resources, diverse habitat types and archaeological sites, in the U. S. State of Mississippi; the reserve encompasses coastal bay, expansive saltwater marshes, maritime pine forest, pine savanna and pitcher plant bogs. It supports extensive and productive oyster seagrass habitats, it serves as nursery area for many of the Gulf of Mexico's important recreational and commercial marine species, such as shrimp, blue crab, speckled trout, red fish. As part of the Grand Bay Savannah Conservation Partnership, the Grand Bay Reserve is participating in a prescribed burn management program for the East Mississippi Sound Region; this project is supported by local and state government agencies as well as the oil and gas industry with facilities in adjacent fire-dependent woodlands.
The Grand Bay Coastal Resources Center Interpretative Area is the headquarters for the Reserve and the Grand Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Completed in 2009, the Center features interpretive exhibits, laboratories and a dormitory. Environmental education programs for and special events are offered. Visitor activities include hiking, paddling, photography and hunting. Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve - official site This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the NOAA
De Soto National Forest
De Soto National Forest, named for 16th-century explorer Hernando de Soto, is 518,587 acres of pine forests in southern Mississippi. It is one of the most important protected areas for the biological diversity of the Gulf Coast ecoregion of North America, it is a nationally important site for protection of longleaf pine savannas, pine flatwoods, longleaf pine forests. More than 90 percent of this ecosystem type has been lost in the United States; the wet pine savannas support rare and endangered plant and animal species, such as the orchid Calopogon multiflorus, gopher frogs, gopher tortoises. These habitats have large numbers of carnivorous plants pitcher plants; this National Forest offers year-round opportunities for outdoor activities including camping, bird-watching, hunting and more. There are two nationally significant wilderness areas within DeSoto: Black Creek Wilderness and Leaf River Wilderness. Black Creek is a popular stream for canoeing and fishing, is Mississippi's only designated National Wild and Scenic River.
Two National Recreational Trails, the Black Creek Trail and Tuxachanie Trail, offer more than 60 miles of hiking opportunities. The forest is headquartered in Jackson; the local ranger district office is in Wiggins, surrounded by the National Forest on three sides: north and south. De Soto National Forest is located between Hattiesburg and Gulfport, can be accessed by U. S. Highway 49 and U. S. Highway 98, it lies in parts of ten counties. In descending order of land area they are Perry, Harrison, Stone, Jones, Jackson and Pearl River counties. De Soto National Memorial, on the west coast of Florida List of U. S. National Forests Brooklyn, Mississippi Perry County, Mississippi Black Creek Wilderness Red Creek Red Creek Wildlife Management Area Leaf River Wildlife Management Area National Forests in Mississippi Longleaf Pine conservation savannas and carnivorous plants