Earth and water
In the writings of the Ancient Greek chronicler Herodotus, the phrase earth and water is used to represent the demand of the Persians from the cities or people who surrendered to them. In Book 4, Herodotus mentions for the first time the term earth and water in the answer of king Idanthyrsus of the Scythians to king Darius. In Book 5, it is reported that Darius sent heralds demanding earth and water from king Amyntas I of Macedon, which he accepted, it was requested of the Athenian embassy to Artaphernes in 507 BC, which complied. In the 6th book, Darius sent heralds throughout Hellas bidding them demand earth and water for the king. There were not many city-states. In Book 7, he recounts that when the Persians sent envoys to the Spartans and to the Athenians demanding the traditional symbol of surrender, an offering of soil and water, the Spartans threw them into a well and the Athenians threw them into a gorge, suggesting that upon their arrival at the bottom, they could "Dig it out for yourselves."
The demand for earth and water symbolized that those surrendering to Persians gave up all their rights over their land and every product of the land. Giving earth and water, they recognized the Persian authority over everything. Negotiations would take place to specify the obligations and the benefits of the liegemen; the phrase earth and water in modern Greek, symbolizes unconditional subordination to a conqueror. According to the modern historian J. M. Balcer, the significance of earth and water is that they were Zoroastrian symbols and representative of vassalage to the Persian Empire. "Persian heralds traveled throughout Greece demanding the recognition of Persian Suzerainty and the Zoroastrian symbols of earth and water, the marks of vassalage...". Persian Wars Livius.org: Earth and water
Themistocles was an Athenian politician and general. He was one of a new breed of non-aristocratic politicians who rose to prominence in the early years of the Athenian democracy; as a politician, Themistocles was a populist, having the support of lower-class Athenians, being at odds with the Athenian nobility. Elected archon in 493 BC, he convinced the polis to increase the naval power of Athens, a recurring theme in his political career. During the first Persian invasion of Greece he fought at the Battle of Marathon and was one of the ten Athenian strategoi in that battle. In the years after Marathon, in the run-up to the second Persian invasion of 480–479 BC, Themistocles became the most prominent politician in Athens, he continued to advocate for a strong Athenian Navy, in 483 BC he persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet of 200 triremes. During the second invasion, he commanded the Greek allied navy at the battles of Artemisium and Salamis in 480 BC. Due to his subterfuge, the Allies lured the Persian fleet into the Straits of Salamis, the decisive Greek victory there was the turning point of the war.
The invasion was conclusively repulsed the following year after the Persian defeat at the land Battle of Plataea. After the conflict ended, Themistocles continued his pre-eminence among Athenian politicians. However, he aroused the hostility of Sparta by ordering the re-fortification of Athens, his perceived arrogance began to alienate him from the Athenians. In 472 or 471 BC, he was ostracised, went into exile in Argos; the Spartans now saw an opportunity to destroy Themistocles, implicated him in the alleged treasonous plot of 478 BC of their own general Pausanias. Themistocles thus fled from Greece. Alexander I of Macedon temporarily gave him sanctuary at Pydna before he traveled to Asia Minor, where he entered the service of the Persian king Artaxerxes I, he was made governor of Magnesia, lived there for the rest of his life. Themistocles died in 459 BC of natural causes, his reputation was posthumously rehabilitated, he was re-established as a hero of the Athenian cause. Themistocles can still reasonably be thought of as "the man most instrumental in achieving the salvation of Greece" from the Persian threat, as Plutarch describes him.
His naval policies would have a lasting impact on Athens as well, since maritime power became the cornerstone of the Athenian Empire and golden age. Thucydides assessed Themistocles as "a man. Themistocles was born in the Attic deme of Phrearrhioi around 524 BC, the son of Neocles, who was, in the words of Plutarch "no conspicuous man", his mother is more obscure. Like many contemporaries, little is known of his early years; some authors report that he was unruly as a child and was disowned by his father. Plutarch considers this to be false. Plutarch indicates that, on account of his mother's background, Themistocles was considered something of an outsider. However, in an early example of his cunning, Themistocles persuaded "well-born" children to exercise with him in Cynosarges, thus breaking down the distinction between "alien and legitimate". Plutarch further reports that Themistocles was preoccupied as a child, with preparing for public life, his teacher is said to have told him: "My boy, you will be nothing insignificant, but something great, either for good or evil."
Themistocles left three sons by Archippe, daughter to Lysander of Alopece: Archeptolis and Cleophantus. Plato the philosopher mentions Cleophantus as a most excellent horseman, but otherwise insignificant person, and Themistocles had two sons older than these three and Diocles. Neocles died when he was young by the bite of a horse, Diocles was adopted by his grandfather, Lysander. Themistocles had many daughters, of whom Mnesiptolema, whom he had by a second marriage, was wife to Archeptolis, her brother by another mother, became priestess of Cybele. After the death of Themistocles, his nephew, went to Magnesia, married, with her brothers' consent, another daughter and took charge of her sister Asia, the youngest of all ten children. Themistocles grew up in a period of upheaval in Athens; the tyrant Peisistratos had died in 527 BC, passing power to his sons and Hippias. Hipparchus was murdered in 514 BC, in response to this, Hippias became paranoid and started to rely on foreign mercenaries to keep a hold on power.
The head of the powerful, but exiled Alcmaeonid family, began to scheme to overthrow Hippias and return to Athens. In 510 BC, he persuaded the Spartan king Cleomenes I to launch a full-scale attack on Athens, which succeeded in overthrowing Hippias. However, in the aftermath, the other noble families of Athens rejected Cleisthenes, electing Isagoras as archon, with the support of Cleomenes. On a personal level, Cleisthenes wanted to return to Athens.
In Greek mythology, Tyndareus was a Spartan king. Tyndareus was the son of Gorgophone, he married the Aetolian princess, Leda by whom he became the father of Castor, Timandra and Philonoe, the stepfather of Helen of Troy and Pollux. Tyndareus had a brother named Hippocoon, who seized exiled Tyndareus, he was reinstated by Heracles, who killed his sons. Tyndareus' other brother was the father of Penelope. Tyndareus' wife Leda was seduced by Zeus, she laid two eggs. When Thyestes seized control in Mycenae, two exiled princes and Menelaus came to Sparta, where they were received as guests and lived for a number of years; the princes married Tyndareus' daughters and Helen respectively. According to Steischorus, while sacrificing to the gods Tyndareus forgot to honor Aphrodite and thus the goddess was angered and made his daughters twice and thrice wed and deserters of their husbands; as what Hesiod says: Helen was the most beautiful woman in the world, when it was time for her to marry, many Greek kings and princes came to seek her hand or sent emissaries to do so on their behalf.
Among the contenders were Odysseus, Ajax the Great, Diomedes and both Menelaus and Agamemnon. All but Odysseus brought rich gifts with them. Helen's favourite was Menelaus who, according to some sources, did not come in person but was represented by his brother Agamemnon, who chose to support his brother's case, himself married Helen's half-sister Clytemnestra instead. Tyndareus would accept none of the gifts, nor would he send any of the suitors away for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus promised to solve the problem in a satisfactory manner if Tyndareus would support him in his courting of Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus agreed and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with the chosen one; this stratagem succeeded and Helen and Menelaus were married. Tyndareus resigned in favour of his son-in-law and Menelaus became king; some years Paris, a Trojan prince came to Sparta to marry Helen, whom he had been promised by Aphrodite.
Helen left with him – either willingly because she had fallen in love with him, or because he kidnapped her, depending on the source – leaving behind Menelaus and Hermione, their nine-year-old daughter. Menelaus attempted to retrieve Helen by calling on all her former suitors to fulfil their oaths, leading to the Trojan War. According to Euripides's Orestes, Tyndareus was still alive at the time of Menelaus’ return, was trying to secure the death penalty for his grandson Orestes due to the latter's murder of his own mother, Tyndareus’ daughter, but according to other accounts he had died prior to the Trojan War. In some versions of the myth, Tyndareus was one of the dead men resurrected by Asclepius to live again
Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae; the Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. By 480 BC Xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, set out to conquer all of Greece; the Athenian politician and general Themistocles had proposed that the allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium. A Greek force of 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the middle of 480 BC; the Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered over one million, but today considered to have been much smaller arrived at the pass in late August or early September.
The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands. During two full days of battle, the small force led by Leonidas blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass. After the second day, a local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a small path that led behind the Greek lines. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard their retreat with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, fighting to the death. Others reportedly remained, including up to 900 helots and 400 Thebans. Themistocles was in command of the Greek Navy at Artemisium when he received news that the Persians had taken the pass at Thermopylae. Since the Greek strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, given their losses, it was decided to withdraw to Salamis; the Persians overran Boeotia and captured the evacuated Athens.
The Greek fleet—seeking a decisive victory over the Persian armada—attacked and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Wary of being trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to attempt to complete the conquest of Greece. However, the following year saw a Greek army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion. Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil; the performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. The primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus; the Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca historica provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus.
This account is consistent with Herodotus'. The Greco-Persian wars are described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias of Cnidus, are referred to by other authors, as in Aeschylus in The Persians. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column supports some of Herodotus' specific claims. George B. Grundy was the first modern historian to do a thorough topographical survey of the narrow pass at Thermopylae, to the extent that modern accounts of the battle differ from Herodotus' they follow Grundy's. For example, the military strategist Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart defers to Grundy. Grundy explored Plataea and wrote a treatise on that battle. On the Battle of Thermopylae itself, two principal sources, Herodotus' and Simonides' accounts, survive. In fact, Herodotus' account of the battle, in Book VII of his Histories, is such an important source that Paul Cartledge wrote: "we either write a history of Thermopylae with, or not at all". Surviving is an epitome of the account of Ctesias, by the eighth-century Byzantine Photias, though this is "almost worse than useless", missing key events in the battle such as the betrayal of Ephialtes, the account of Diodorus Siculus in his Universal History.
Diodorus' account seems to have been based on that of Ephorus and contains one significant deviation from Herodotus' account: a supposed night attack against the Persian camp, of which modern scholars have tended to be sceptical. The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had encouraged the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499–494 BC; the Persian Empire was still young and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. Darius, was a usurper and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule; the Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, Darius thus vowed to punish those involved the Athenians, "since he was sure that would not go unpunished for their rebellion". Darius saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece. A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece, re-conquered Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia's. Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states in 491 BC askin
The Achaemenid Empire called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, the development of civil services and a large professional army; the empire's successes inspired similar systems in empires. By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the south-western portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis, which came to be their heartland. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, establishing the Achaemenid Empire.
Alexander the Great, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered most of the empire by 330 BC. Upon Alexander's death, most of the empire's former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time; the Iranian elites of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire. The Achaemenid Empire is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon; the historical mark of the empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social and religious influences as well. Despite the lasting conflict between the two states, many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their daily lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange, some being employed by or allied to the Persian kings; the impact of Cyrus's edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, the empire was instrumental in the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China.
The empire set the tone for the politics and history of Iran. The term Achaemenid means "of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes". Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, a vassal of Assyria. Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here....: the Pasargadae and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder -the Dai, Dropici, being nomadic; the Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The name "Persia" is a Greek and Latin pronunciation of the native word referring to the country of the people originating from Persis; the Persians were an Iranian people who arrived in what is today Iran c. 1000 BC and settled a region including north-western Iran, the Zagros Mountains and Persis alongside the native Elamites.
For a number of centuries they fell under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia. The Persians were nomadic pastoralists in the western Iranian Plateau and by 850 BC were calling themselves the Parsa and their shifting territory Parsua, for the most part localized around Persis; the Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as the Medes, another group of Iranian peoples, established a short-lived empire and played a major role in the overthrow of the Assyrian. The Achaemenids were rulers of the Elamite city of Anshan near the modern city of Marvdasht. There are conflicting accounts of the identities of the earliest Kings of Anshan. According to the Cyrus Cylinder the kings of Anshan were Teispes, Cyrus I, Cambyses I and Cyrus II known as Cyrus the Great, who created the empire. In Herodotus' Histories, he writes that Cyrus the Great was the son of Cambyses I and Mandane of Media, the daughter of Astyages, the king of the Median Empire. Cyrus revolted against the Median Empire in 553 BC, in 550 BC succeeded in defeating the Medes, capturing Astyages and taking the Median capital city of Ecbatana.
Once in control of Ecbatana, Cyrus styled himself as the successor to Astyages and assumed control of the entire empire. By inheriting Astyages' empire, he inherited the territorial conflicts the Medes had had with both Lydia and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. King Croesus of Lydia sought to take advantage of the new international situation by advancing into what had been Median territory in Asia Minor. Cyrus led a counterattack which not only fought off Croesus' armies, but led to the capture of Sardis and the fall of the Lydian Kingdom in 546 BC. Cyrus placed Pactyes in charge of collecting tribute in Lydia and left, but once Cyrus had left Pactyes instigated a rebellion against Cyrus. Cyrus sent the Median general Mazares to deal with the rebellion, Pactyes was captured. Mazares, aft
Anabasis is the most famous book of the Ancient Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon. The seven-tome book of the Anabasis was composed around the year 370 BC, and, in translation, Anabasis is rendered as The March of the Ten Thousand and as The March Up Country; the narration of the journey is Xenophon's best known work, "one of the great adventures in human history". Xenophon, in his Hellenica, did not cover the retreat of Cyrus but instead referred the reader to the Anabasis by "Themistogenes of Syracuse"—the tenth-century Suda describes Anabasis as being the work of Themistogenes, "preserved among the works of Xenophon", in the entry Θεμιστογενεης. Aside from these two references, there is no authority for there being a contemporary Anabasis written by "Themistogenes of Syracuse", indeed no mention of such a person in any other context. By the end of the first century, Plutarch had said, in his Glory of the Athenians, that Xenophon had attributed Anabasis to a third party in order to distance himself as a subject, from himself as a writer.
While the attribution to Themistogenes has been raised many times, the view of most scholars aligns with that of Plutarch, that all the volumes are written by Xenophon. Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand, a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger, who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon, Cyrus was killed, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure. Stranded deep in Persia, the Spartan general Clearchus and the other Greek senior officers were killed or captured by treachery on the part of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. Xenophon, one of three remaining leaders elected by the soldiers, played an instrumental role in encouraging the 10,000 to march north across foodless deserts and snow-filled mountain passes, towards the Black Sea and the comparative security of its Greek shoreline cities. Now abandoned in northern Mesopotamia, without supplies other than what they could obtain by force or diplomacy, the 10,000 had to fight their way northwards through Corduene and Armenia, making ad hoc decisions about their leadership, tactics and destiny, while the King's army and hostile natives barred their way and attacked their flanks.
This "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon, a destination they greeted with their famous cry of exultation on the mountain of Theches in Hyssos: "Thálatta, thálatta", "The sea, the sea!". "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron. Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a direct manner; the Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. While the journey of Cyrus is an anabasis from Ionia on the eastern coast of the Aegean Sea, to the interior of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, most of Xenophon's narrative is taken up with the return march of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand, from the interior of Babylon to the coast of the Black Sea. Socrates makes a cameo appearance; the short episode demonstrates the reverence of Socrates for the Oracle of Delphi.
Xenophon's account of the exploit resounded through Greece, two generations some surmise, it may have inspired Philip of Macedon to believe that a lean and disciplined Hellene army might be relied upon to defeat a Persian army many times its size. Besides military history, the Anabasis has found use as a tool for the teaching of classical philosophy. Cyrus makes preparations. Cyrus marches to take out the Pisidians and gains troops. Word spreads that Cyrus might be moving against the king and the soldiers begin to question continuing onward. Cyrus and his generals continue marching now towards Babylon. Xenias and Pasion are seen as cowards for deserting Cyrus; the soldiers face hardship with few provisions other than meat. Dissention arises after Clearchus has one of Menos's men flogged, which leads to escalating retaliation. Orontas is put on trial for a treasonous plot against Cyrus. Cyrus sizes up the situation for the coming battle against the king. Cyrus and his army pass safely through a trench constructed by the king.
The battle between Artaxerxes's royal army and Cyrus's army commences. Xenophon describes a sort of eulogy after the passing of Cyrus; the king attacks Cyrus's army again. Artaxerxes retreats to a mound where upon being confronted again by the Hellenes, he and his men retreat for the day; the army finds out about Cyrus's death and heralds are sent to meet the army and ask for them to relinquish their weapons to the king. The generals of Cyrus's army and the officers of the Hellenes join forces to better their chances for returning home; the Hellenes are frightened by something in the night. The king asks for a truce and Clearchus asks for breakfast after establishing one. Clearchus say
Pergamon, Pergamos or Pergamum, was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometres from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus and northwest of the modern city of Bergama, Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. Pergamon was the northernmost of the seven churches of Asia cited in the New Testament Book of Revelation; the city centres around a 335 metre high mesa of andesite. This mesa falls away on the north and east sides, but three natural terraces on the south side provide a route up to the top. To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus river flows through the city, while the Cetius passes by to the east. Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey.
The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level; the site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. As a result, the area has a inland character. In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon; the climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. The Caicus valley is composed of volcanic rock andesite and the Pergamon massif is an intrusive stock of andesite; the massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a small peak - the upper city; the side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough.
On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. To the southeast of this spur, known as the'Garden of the Queen', the massif reaches its greatest height and breaks off immediately to the east; the upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and descends to the plain towards the southwest. Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds fragments of pottery imported from the west eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area; the earliest mention of Pergamon in literary sources comes from Xenophon's Anabasis, since the march of the Ten Thousand under Xenophon's command ended at Pergamon in 400/399 BC. Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops to Thibron, planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC.
At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas. In 362 BC, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. Only with Alexander the Great was the surrounding area removed from Persian control. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of all earlier structures. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founder of the Attalid dynasty.
His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281-263. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland; the city thus became the centre of a territorial realm. This final step was only taken by his successor Attalus I, after he defeated the Galatians in 238, whom Pergamon had paid tribute to under Eumenes I. Only at this point did an independent Pergamene kingdom come into existence, which would reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC; the Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.