Harrington Park, New Jersey
Harrington Park is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 4,664, reflecting a decrease of 76 from the 4,740 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 117 from the 4,623 counted in the 1990 Census. Harrington Park was formed on March 29, 1904, from portions of Harrington Township and Washington Township, parts of the borough of Closter; the name "Harrington Park" was based on the larger Harrington Township from which it was in part derived, which in turn was based on the family name Haring, who were early settlers of the region. According to the United States Census Bureau, Harrington Park borough had a total area of 2.059 square miles, including 1.832 square miles of land and 0.227 square miles of water. The borough borders Closter, Norwood, Old Tappan and River Vale; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,664 people, 1,592 households, 1,327.728 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,545.9 per square mile.
There were 1,624 housing units at an average density of 886.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 79.76% White, 0.69% Black or African American, 0.02% Native American, 17.43% Asian, 0.19% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.49% of the population. Korean Americans accounted for 13.0% of the population. There were 1,592 households out of which 41.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.6% were non-families. 14.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.26. Same-sex couples headed 34 households in 2010, an increase more than five-fold from the 6 counted in 2000. In the borough, the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 18.3% from 25 to 44, 33.4% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $115,875 and the median family income was $132,108. Males had a median income of $95,119 versus $49,656 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $49,159. About 0.0% of families and 1.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 1.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,740 people, 1,563 households, 1,344 families residing in the borough; the population density was 2,555.0 people per square mile. There were 1,583 housing units at an average density of 853.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 83.52% White, 0.68% African American, 0.04% Native American, 14.66% Asian, 0.63% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.57% of the population.
There were 1,563 households out of which 44.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 78.4% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.0% were non-families. 12.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.31. In the borough the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $100,302, the median income for a family was $124,376. Males had a median income of $71,776 versus $42,833 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $39,017. About 1.8% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 1.2% of those age 65 or over.
Harrington Park is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Harrington Park, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie; the mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.
As of 2017, the Mayor of Harrington Park is Independent Paul Hoelscher, whose term of office expires December 31, 2019. Members of the Harrington Park Borough Council are Joon Chung, Gregory J. Evanella, Laura Fitzgerald, Allan Napolitano, Jorden "Nick" Pedersen and Diane
Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest
Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest is a comprehensive four-year public high school serving students from several municipalities in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. The high school serves students from the suburban communities of Closter and Haworth; the school is one of two high schools that are part of the Northern Valley Regional High School District, the other being Northern Valley Regional High School at Old Tappan, which serves students Harrington Park, Northvale and Old Tappan, along with students from Rockleigh, who attend as part of a sending/receiving relationship. As of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,093 students and 96.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 11.3:1. There were 13 students eligible for free none eligible for reduced-cost lunch; the high school is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Education and has been accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Secondary Schools since 1959.
During the 1994-96 school years, Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest was awarded the Blue Ribbon School Award of Excellence by the United States Department of Education, the highest award an American school can receive. The school was the 42nd-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 339 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2014 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", using a new ranking methodology; the school had been ranked 34th in the state of 328 schools in 2012, after being ranked 14th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed. The magazine ranked the school 9th in 2008 out of 316 schools; the school was ranked 16th in the magazine's September 2006 issue, which included 316 schools across the state. Schooldigger.com ranked the school tied for 23rd out of 381 public high schools statewide in its 2011 rankings which were based on the combined percentage of students classified as proficient or above proficient on the mathematics and language arts literacy components of the High School Proficiency Assessment.
In its listing of "America's Best High Schools 2016", the school was ranked 234th out of 500 best high schools in the country. In its 2013 report on "America's Best High Schools", The Daily Beast ranked the school 351st in the nation among participating public high schools and 28th among schools in New Jersey. In the 2011 "Ranking America's High Schools" issue by The Washington Post, the school was ranked 21st in New Jersey and 755th nationwide; the school was ranked 378th in Newsweek's 2009 ranking of the top 1,500 high schools in the United States and was the seventh-ranked school in New Jersey, with 2.364 AP tests taken in 2008 per graduating senior and 35% of all graduating seniors passing at least one AP exam. In Newsweek's 2007 rankings of the country's top 1,200 high schools, Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest was listed in 1045th place, the 32nd-highest ranked school in New Jersey. In 2018, the school's Ultimate Frisbee team, The Northern Valley Coalition, were ranked 5th statewide.
The team, formed in 2015, overcame great odds to enjoy a historic 2018 season. The Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest Norsemen compete in the Big North Conference, a super-conference of 40 schools in Bergen and Passaic counties established in 2009 as part of an effort to achieve greater competitive balance between schools, following a reorganization of sports leagues in Northern New Jersey by the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association; the school had competed in the North Bergen Interscholastic Athletic League, an athletic conference that consisted of high schools located in Bergen County. With 752 students in grades 10-12, the school was classified by the NJSIAA for the 2015-16 school year as North I, Group II for most athletic competition purposes, which included schools with an enrollment of 495 to 761 students in that grade range; the school offers over 23 sports, which include participation at the freshman, junior varsity, varsity level, as well as 18 co-curricular activities.
Sports include bowling and boys' and girls' basketball. The boys' tennis team won the Group III state championship in 1973 and 1979. In 1997, the boys' tennis team went undefeated at 15-0 to claim the NBIL league championship, under head coach Dan Moses. In 1977, the varsity soccer team won the Bergen County championship; the football team won the North I Group III state sectional championship in 1992. The field hockey team won the North I Group III state sectional final in 1984, 1992, 1994 and 2007. In 1997, the team won the Northeast Field Hockey League Championship and the Bergen County Championship beating Northern Highlands High School by a score of 1-0 in the tournament final. In 2007, the field hockey team won the North I, Group III state sectional championship with a 19-0 win over West Morris Central High School in the tournament final; the baseball team won the Group III state championship in 1995 and 1999. The baseball team won three Bergen County Championships in years from 1991-1995.
The 2000 girls' volleyball won the state Group III championship, topping Paramus Catholic High School, 15-8 and 15-7. The 2001 team repeated; the girls took the title again in 2003, over cross-district rival Northern Valley Regional High School at Old Tappan. The team took the 2006 Group II title over Cha
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Norwood, New Jersey
Norwood is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 5,711, reflecting a decline of 40 from the 5,751 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 893 from the 4,858 counted in the 1990 Census. Norwood was formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 14, 1905, from portions of Harrington Township; the territory comprising Norwood was settled about 1686 by a dozen or more families from the Dutch Republic, who purchased the land under the Tappan Patent. About that time a grant was given by Philip Carteret, Governor of the Province of East Jersey, during the reign of King Charles II of England; the Lenni Lenape Native Americans roamed the valley. The name Norwood emanated from the old description of its location in the "North-Woods", it was a part of Harrington Township, formed in 1775 from the northernmost portions of Hackensack Township and New Barbadoes Township, stretching from the Hudson River in the east to the Saddle River in the west.
In 1840, the portions of Harrington Township west of the Hackensack River were taken away to create Washington Township. At that point, Harrington Township was somewhat in the form of a square measuring across each way about 5 miles, bounded on the north by Rockland County, New York. At that time, Northvale, Old Tappan, Demarest and Harrington Park were communities within Harrington Township. On March 14, 1905, Norwood seceded from its parent Harrington Township and was incorporated as an independent borough. According to the United States Census Bureau, Norwood borough had a total area of 2.735 square miles, including 2.728 square miles of land and 0.007 square miles of water. Norwood is about 2 miles from the New York state line, it is bordered by the boroughs of Northvale, Old Tappan, Harrington Park, Closter and Rockleigh. Unincorporated communities and place names within the borough include West Norwood; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,711 people, 1,927 households, 1,541.600 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 2,093.5 per square mile. There were 2,007 housing units at an average density of 735.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 69.25% White, 1.37% Black or African American, 0.00% Native American, 27.18% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.55% of the population. Korean Americans accounted for 20.1% of the population. There were 1,927 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.8% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.0% were non-families. 18.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.23. Same-sex couples headed 7 households in 2010, an increase from the 6 counted in 2000. In the borough, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 18.6% from 25 to 44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46.1 years. For every 100 females there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 85.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $102,132 and the median family income was $107,356. Males had a median income of $80,837 versus $56,429 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $38,755. About 0.6% of families and 1.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.9% of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 5,751 people, 1,857 households, 1,563 families residing in the borough; the population density was 2,091.4 people per square mile. There were 1,888 housing units at an average density of 686.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 77.86% Caucasian, 18.99% Asian, 0.83% African American, 0.02% Native American, 0.94% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.99% of the population.
As of the 2000 Census, 12.69% of Norwood's residents identified themselves as being of Korean ancestry, the eighth highest in the United States and sixth highest of any municipality in New Jersey, for all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. There were 1,857 households out of which 41.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.8% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.8% were non-families. 13.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.97 and the average family size was 3.26. In the borough the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $92,447, the median income for a family was $100,329.
Males had a median income of $70,000 versus $
New Jersey School Report Card
The New Jersey School Report Card is an annual report produced each year by the New Jersey Department of Education for all school districts and schools in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The current School Report Card presents thirty-five fields of information for each school in the following categories: school environment, student performance indicators and district finances; the report cards were first proposed in 1988 by Governor Thomas Kean and mailed out in 1989. Although various types of school report cards had been released in California and Virginia, New Jersey was the first to send the reports home to parents and make them available to all taxpayers. In 1995, the New Jersey legislature passed a law expanding the scope of the report cards to include more financial matters and the withholding of state aid to inefficient schools; this was part of Governor Christine Todd Whitman’s push to decrease administrative costs in education. The report cards are still issued, their annual release attracts attention in large papers such as the New York Times.
Governor Thomas Kean first broached the idea of school report cards in his 1988 State of the State address. He argued; this is a way to arm them with that knowledge." The proposal faced strong opposition, in the spring of 1988 some superintendents refused to release their test score data to the state because they feared it would be used in the report cards. The schools consented to release the data and no report cards were issued that year. In February 1989 Kean announced, they were released. The first report cards did not offer a comparison or ranking of schools, the version sent home to parents only included information about their individual school and the statewide averages; the released information included SAT and standardized test scores, student-teacher ratios, hours of instruction, attendance rates, the average cost per pupil. Saul Cooperson the New Jersey State Education Commissioner, insisted that the point of the reports was not to rank districts or make comparisons between them. One statistic that received a large amount of coverage was that Newark spent $1,237 more per student than Sparta, but still had SAT scores that were 278 points lower on average.
Throughout the early 1990s, the reports continued to be published and remained a popular subject for papers like The Philadelphia Inquirer and The New York Times. Additional statistics began to be tracked, including average teacher salaries and state and federal aid. In the mid 1990s, Governor Christine Todd Whitman began making a drive for increased efficiency in education. At that point, New Jersey had administrative costs per pupil of $1,700, the highest cost of any state in the nation. In the summer of 1995, the New Jersey Legislature passed a bill enabling state aid to be withheld from schools that spent more than 30% on administrative costs and requiring the release of more financial data; the bill was signed into law by Governor Whitman on August 23, 1995. The report cards are still released annually, their contents have evolved over the years, such as the addition of Advanced Placement Program data in 2002. However, the main focus has remained unchanged and their contents continue to be reported on by large local papers.
The New Jersey School Report Card program has been criticized by education professionals and activists for being unhelpful, making unfair comparisons and oversimplifying difficult issues. James A. Moran, the executive director of the New Jersey Association of School Administrators said "We don't believe it will do good for the students of New Jersey or the school districts." The state's largest teachers union, the New Jersey Education Association, said through spokesman Roger Broderick, "In and of itself, the card has no value." The NJEA believed that it would cause unfair comparisons, saying through a separate spokesman: "Regardless of the positive attitude the Governor and Commissioner seem to be putting forth, they're still going to be comparing a Camden to a Livingston." Philip Esbrandt, superintendent of the Cherry Hill Public Schools, said that many of the released numbers "don't convey an accurate picture of things." Susan Fuhrman of the Center for Policy Research in Education "My major concern is that parents and real-estate agents will draw simplistic conclusions."
Although it has many critics, the Report Card has many defenders. The Parent-Teacher Association of New Jersey has supported the initiative since the beginning. James O'Neill of The Philadelphia Inquirer has argued that the cards opponents are excessively defensive. "For every statistic that jumps out of the school report cards as an extreme, there is a district official who can provide an explanation for it." The New Jersey Report Card program was selected for one of the National Governors Association’s "Ideas That Work" in 1996. It was discussed at their annual conference, a pamphlet describing its popularity with taxpayers and effectiveness was published by the NGA that year. New Jersey School Report Card index for 2011
United States Department of Education
The United States Department of Education referred to as the ED for Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979; the Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has an annual budget of $68 billion; the 2019 Budget supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" and is often abbreviated informally as "DoEd"; the primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."
The Department of Education does not establish colleges. Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is decentralized, the federal government and Department of Education are not involved in determining curricula or educational standards; this has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control; the Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States. Opposition to the Department of Education stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money; the U. S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system.
The Department sets uniform standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs". Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues, discussed about within the U. S. Department of Education’s four walls; the goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students. However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance.
“The U. S. like other countries in the 21st century, is operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens". For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion; as of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion. A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868; as an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it became a minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health and Welfare. In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.
Carter planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice and Urban Development, Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, the Department of Labor's education and training programs. Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause; the National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –