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Demo (music)

A demo is a song or group of songs recorded for limited circulation or reference use rather than for general public release. A demo is a way for a musician to approximate their ideas in a fixed format, such as cassette tape, compact disc, or digital audio files, to thereby pass along those ideas to record labels, producers, or other artists. Musicians use demos as quick sketches to share with bandmates or arrangers, or for personal reference during the songwriting process. Demos are recorded on crude equipment such as "boom box" cassette recorders, small four- or eight-track machines, or on personal computers with audio recording software. Songwriters' and publishers' demos are recorded with minimal instrumentation just an acoustic guitar or piano and the vocals. Both Elton John and Donovan gained studio experience early in their careers by recording publishers' demos for other artists since their managers handled music publishing, as did Garth Brooks, so impressed when recording the demo of "Friends in Low Places" that he asked to release the song himself.

Many unsigned bands and artists record demos. These demos are sent to record labels in hopes that the artist will be signed onto the label's roster and allowed to record a full-length album in a professional recording studio. However, large record labels ignore unsolicited demos that are sent to them by mail. Many signed artists record demos of new songs before recording an album; the demos may allow the artist to provide sketches for sharing ideas with bandmates, or to explore several alternate versions of a song, or to record many proto-songs before deciding which ones merit further development. Demos may include as few as one or two songs or as many as would be contained on a full-length album. Demos are heard by the public, although some artists do release rough demos in compilation albums or box sets, such as the album Demolicious by Green Day. Other demo versions have been unofficially released as bootleg recordings, such as The Beatles' Bootleg Demos and the Beach Boys' Sea of Tunes series.

Several artists have made official releases of demo versions of their songs as albums or companion pieces to albums, such as Florence and the Machine and Cults on the EP Sunday Jams. The event of a demo tape appearing on eBay has happened in the past, with the recordings being leaked onto the internet. In rare instances, a demo may end up as the final released recording of a song, as was the case with Foster the People's "Pumped Up Kicks"; the version of "Pumped Up Kicks", released as a single and subsequently became a hit was a demo recorded by frontman Mark Foster alone, before he had formed the group. In 1982, Bruce Springsteen recorded ten demo songs in his bedroom that he intended to record with his E Street Band, but he subsequently decided that he preferred the acoustic demos and released them as the 1982 album Nebraska. In more underground forms of music, such as noise music, black metal, or punk, demos are distributed by bands to fans as self-releases or sold at a low price. Amateur musicians may choose to make demos available to interested listeners through websites such as SoundCloud or Bandcamp in order to share new ideas, receive feedback and/or provide fans with "behind the scenes" access to the songwriting process.

Collection of Demo Covers Music From the Demo Scene

Bure Valley Railway

The Bure Valley Railway is a 15 in minimum gauge heritage railway in Norfolk, within The Broads National Park. The railway runs from Wroxham to Aylsham and is Norfolk's longest railway of less than standard gauge, it uses diesel locomotives. There are intermediate halts at Brampton and Coltishall. There are 17 bridges, including a 105-foot -long girder bridge over the River Bure in Buxton with Lammas, the Aylsham Bypass Tunnel under the A140 at Aylsham; the railway is built on the trackbed of the East Norfolk Railway. The ENR started in 1877 when the East Norfolk Railway opened from Norwich to Cromer, with an extension from Wroxham to Aylsham in 1880; the ENR was taken over by the Great Eastern Railway in 1882, amalgamated into the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923. The railway was nationalised in 1948. In 1952 the passenger service stopped. Buxton Lamas, as it was known, closed for goods in 1964, Aylsham and Coltishall in 1974. Freight trains continued to run over the line after this for two principal sources of traffic.

The line west of Aylsham via Cawston and Reepham went further to a junction at County School Station. Coal traffic continued to be carried from Norwich Thorpe via Aylsham to Norwich City There was regular traffic from Lenwade in the form of concrete building components; this traffic ended in 1981 and the line through Aylsham formally closed on 6 January 1982. A weed-killing train ran in 1983 and track-lifting trains ran the following year; the Bure Valley Railway opened on 10 July 1990 under the management of RKF Leisure which had purchased the trackbed. When the RKF's parent company, RKF Group Plc, went into receivership in January 1991, Broadland District Council moved to acquire the line from the receivers as it feared that property developers might seize the opportunity to take control of the land. Agreement was reached with Ffestiniog Railway director Mike Hart to set up a new company, Bure Valley Railway Ltd, to lease and operate the line. A long distance footpath opened alongside it in 1991.

It is home to Aylsham Bypass Tunnel, Norfolk's only operational railway tunnel, which carries the railway under the Aylsham Bypass replacing the original standard gauge level crossing. Cromer Tunnel in Cromer, the only other surviving railway tunnel in the county, is disused; when the railway first opened, several locomotives were hired from the Romney and Dymchurch Railway, including: Black Prince and Winston Churchill. Passenger rolling stock consists of 29 vehicles, which are marshalled so as to form three complete carriage sets, thus allowing for the operation of up to three distinct passenger trains; the 29 vehicles may be further subdivided as below: 19 standard passenger saloon bogie coaches 6 standard passenger saloon bogie coaches with wheelchair-accessible compartments 1 brake composite bogie coach with guard's compartment, baggage compartment, passenger compartments 1 brake composite bogie coach with guard's compartment, baggage compartment, diesel generator for winter train heating 2 brake short-wheelbase coaches with guard's compartment and baggage compartmentAll except one of the carriages are equipped with electric heating, for winter services.

All carriages are equipped with internal lighting. All carriages are connected to a passenger communication system, allowing passengers to stop the train in an emergency. On Monday 30 May 2011 a train on the line suffered a derailment at Brampton, during which wheels from one of the coaches were reported to have come up through the floor of the vehicle; the Rail Accident Investigation Branch were called in to conduct a preliminary examination into the incident, found it to have been caused by the failure due to metal fatigue of an axle journal, welded several years previously. Following this accident all wheels of this design were identified by the railway and scrapped, being replaced by new wheelsets, a new computerised passenger carriage maintenance database was introduced, providing detailed tracking of the service regime of whole carriages, of individual bogies and axles. In addition to the standard coaching stock, two non-standard passenger saloon bogie coaches used on the Fairbourne Railway, were acquired for use on special event days, purporting to be Thomas the tank engine's coaches Annie and Clarabel.

These vehicles were subsequently sold to the Evesham Vale Railway and left Aylsham in Spring 2016. The Friends of the Bure Valley Railway is the volunteer supporting group for the Bure Valley Railway, it owns locomotive number 4 and supports the railway financially and with regular working parties of volunteers. There is a hut at Aylsham which sells donated bric-a-brac, second hand books and magazines during the season to raise money to support the railway. A secondhand book, record and DVD shop is open at Wroxham station. Bressingham Steam and Gardens North Norfolk Railway Mid-Norfolk Railway Wells and Walsingham Light Railway Whitwell & Reepham railway station Yaxham Light Railway Barton House Railway Bure Valley Railway website

2002–03 Israel State Cup

The 2002–03 Israel State Cup was the 64th season of Israel's nationwide football cup competition and the 49th after the Israeli Declaration of Independence. The competition was won by Hapoel Ramat Gan who had beaten Hapoel Be'er Sheva 5–4 on penalties after 1–1 in the final; this is the first time. By winning, Hapoel Ramat Gan qualified to the 2003 -- 04 UEFA Cup. Byes: Hapoel Bat Yam, Hapoel Beit She'an, Hapoel Nahlat Yehuda, Maccabi HaShikma Ramat Hen. 100 Years of Football 1906-2006, Elisha Shohat, 2006, p. 319 Israel Cups 2002/03 RSSSF