Infanticide is the intentional killing of infants. Parental infanticide researchers have found that mothers are far more than fathers to be the perpetrators of neonaticide and more to commit infanticide in general. Anthropologist Laila Williamson notes that "Infanticide has been practiced on every continent and by people on every level of cultural complexity, from hunter gatherers to high civilizations, including our own ancestors. Rather than being an exception it has been the rule."In many past societies, certain forms of infanticide were considered permissible. The practice of infanticide has taken many forms over time. Child sacrifice to supernatural figures or forces, such as that believed to have been practiced in ancient Carthage, may be only the most notorious example in the ancient world. A frequent method of infanticide in ancient Europe and Asia was to abandon the infant, leaving it to die by exposure. On at least one island in Oceania, infanticide was carried out until the 20th century by suffocating the infant, while in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and in the Inca Empire it was carried out by sacrifice.
Many Neolithic groups resorted to infanticide in order to control their numbers so that their lands could support them. Joseph Birdsell believed that infanticide rates in prehistoric times were between 15% and 50% of the total number of births, while Laila Williamson estimated a lower rate ranging from 15% to 20%. Both anthropologists believed that these high rates of infanticide persisted until the development of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution. Comparative anthropologists have calculated that 50% of female newborn babies were killed by their parents during the Paleolithic era. From the infants hominid skulls, traumatized, has been proposed cannibalism by Raymond A. Dart; the children were not actively killed, but neglect and intentional malnourishment may have occurred, as proposed by Vicente Lull as an explanation for an apparent surplus of men and the below average height of women in prehistoric Menorca. Archaeologists have uncovered physical evidence of child sacrifice at several locations.
Some of the best attested examples are the diverse rites which were part of the religious practices in Mesoamerica and the Inca Empire. Three thousand bones of young children, with evidence of sacrificial rituals, have been found in Sardinia. Pelasgians offered a sacrifice of every tenth child during difficult times. Syrians sacrificed children to Juno. Many remains of children have been found in Gezer excavations with signs of sacrifice. Child skeletons with the marks of sacrifice have been found in Egypt dating 950–720 BCE. In Carthage " sacrifice in the ancient world reached its infamous zenith". Besides the Carthaginians, other Phoenicians, the Canaanites and Sepharvites offered their first-born as a sacrifice to their gods. In Egyptian households, at all social levels, children of both sexes were valued and there is no evidence of infanticide; the religion of the Ancient Egyptians forbade infanticide and during the Greco-Roman period they rescued abandoned babies from manure heaps, a common method of infanticide by Greeks or Romans, were allowed to either adopt them as foundling or raise them as slaves giving them names such as "copro -" to memorialise their rescue.
Strabo considered it a peculiarity of the Egyptians. Diodorus indicates. Egypt was dependent on the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate the land and in years of low inundation severe famine could occur with breakdowns in social order resulting, notably between 930–1070 AD and 1180–1350 AD. Instances of cannibalism are recorded during these periods but it is unknown if this happened during the pharaonic era of Ancient Egypt. Beatrix Midant-Reynes describes human sacrifice as having occurred at Abydos in the early dynastic period, while Jan Assmann asserts there is no clear evidence of human sacrifice happening in Ancient Egypt. According to Shelby Brown, descendants of the Phoenicians, sacrificed infants to their gods. Charred bones of hundreds of infants have been found in Carthaginian archaeological sites. One such area harbored as many as 20,000 burial urns. Skeptics suggest that the bodies of children found in Carthaginian and Phoenician cemeteries were the cremated remains of children that died naturally.
Plutarch mentions the practice, as do Tertullian, Diodorus Siculus and Philo. The Hebrew Bible mentions what appears to be child sacrifice practiced at a place called the Tophet by the Canaanites. Writing in the 3rd century BCE, one of the historians of Alexander the Great, described that the infants rolled into the flaming pit. Diodorus Siculus wrote that babies were roasted to death inside the burning pit of the god Baal Hamon, a bronze statue; the historical Greeks considered the practice of adult and child sacrifice barbarous, the exposure of newborns was practiced in ancient Greece, it was advocated by Aristotle in the case of congenital deformity — "As to the exposure of children, let there be a law that no deformed child shall live.” In Greece, the decision to expose a child was the father's, although in Sparta the decision was made by a group of elders. Exposure was the preferred method of disposal, as that act in itself was not considered to be murder; this situation was a recurring motif in Greek mythology.
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Poisoning is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed by a toxic substance or venom of an animal. Acute poisoning is exposure during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the degree of exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning. In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye, are classified as corrosives rather than poisons. Furthermore, many common household medications are not labeled with skull and crossbones, although they can cause severe illness or death. In the medical sense and poisoning can be caused by less dangerous substances than those classified as a poison. Toxicology is the study and practice of the symptoms, mechanisms and treatment of poisoning. Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not occur or after each exposure; the patient becomes ill, or becomes ill after a long latent period. Chronic poisoning most occurs following exposure to poisons that bioaccumulate, or are biomagnified, such as mercury and lead.
Contact or absorption of poisons can cause rapid impairment. Agents that act on the nervous system can paralyze in seconds or less, include both biologically derived neurotoxins and so-called nerve gases, which may be synthesized for warfare or industry. Inhaled or ingested cyanide, used as a method of execution in gas chambers instantly starves the body of energy by inhibiting the enzymes in mitochondria that make ATP. Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of potassium chloride, such as in the execution of prisoners in parts of the United States stops the heart by eliminating the cell potential necessary for muscle contraction. Most biocides, including pesticides, are created to act as poisons to target organisms, although acute or less observable chronic poisoning can occur in non-target organisms, including the humans who apply the biocides and other beneficial organisms. For example, the herbicide 2,4-D imitates the action of a plant hormone, which makes its lethal toxicity specific to plants.
Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison, but classified as "harmful". Many substances regarded. An example is "wood alcohol" or methanol, not poisonous itself, but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver, the genetic variability of certain liver enzymes makes the toxicity of many compounds differ between individuals. Exposure to radioactive substances can produce radiation poisoning, an unrelated phenomenon
A familicide is a type of murder or murder-suicide in which a perpetrator kills multiple close family members in quick succession, most children, spouse, siblings, or parents. In half the cases, the killer kills themselves in a murder-suicide. If only the parents are killed, the case may be referred to as a parricide. Where all members of a family are killed, the crime may be referred to as family annihilation. Familicides were used as an enhanced punishment in antiquity. In ancient China, the "nine familial exterminations" was the killing of an entire extended family or clan for treason. Machiavelli advocated the extermination of a previous ruler's family to prevent uprisings in The Prince. Sippenhaft was used in Nazi Germany to punish and sometimes execute the relatives of defectors and anyone involved in the 20 July plot. La Cosa Nostra began killing the relatives, including women and more children, of informants and rivals in the 1980s, it is not incorporated formally into any modern judicial systems, except in North Korea, where whole-family internment at Kaechon internment camp ends in death.
Between 1900 and 2000, there were 909 victims of mass murder in the US. Of those, more than half occurred within an immediate family. Although the total number of familicide cases are rare, they are the most common form of mass killings. However, statistical data are difficult to establish due to reporting discrepancies. Familicide differs from other forms of mass murder in that the murderer kills family members or loved ones rather than anonymous people; this has a different psychodynamic and psychiatric significance, but the distinction is not always made. A study of 30 cases in Ohio found that most of the killings were motivated by a parent's desire to stop their children's suffering. According to ABC News contributor and former FBI agent Brad Garrett, people responsible for killing their families tend to be white males in their 30s. Many of these crimes occur in August, before school starts, which may delay detection and investigation. In Australia, a study was done of seven cases of familicide followed by suicide in which marital separation followed by custody and access disputes were identified as an issue.
Some common factors such as marital discord, domestic violence, sexual abuse, threats of harm to self or others were found in varying degrees. It was not clear; the internal logic for family annihilation can stem from a number of sources. David Wilson of Birmingham City University has divided these cases into four groups: anomic, self-righteous and paranoid. In this typology, the anomic killer sees his family purely as a status symbol; the disappointed killer seeks to punish the family for not living up to his ideals of family life. The self-righteous killer destroys the family to exact revenge upon the mother, in an act that he blames on her; the paranoid killer kills their family in what they imagine to be an attempt to protect them from something worse. Watts family homicides, August 13, 2018, Colorado. Osmington shooting, May 11, 2018, Western Australia. Van Breda murders, January 27, 2015, South Africa. David Crowley, December 2014, Apple Valley, Minnesota. Cairns child killings, December 18–19, 2014, Australia.
Dupont de Ligonnès murders and disappearance - The wife and four children of Xavier Dupont de Ligonnès were found murdered and buried at the family home in Nantes, France. Xavier, the only suspect and has never been found. William Parente, April 19–20, 2009, killed his wife, two daughters, himself. Steven Sueppel, March 23 or March 24, 2008, killed his wife, four children, himself. Chris Benoit, June 22–24, 2007, killed his wife and himself. Neil Entwistle, January 20, 2006, killed his wife and infant daughter Marcus Delon Wesson, March 12, 2004, killed nine of his children/wives that he fathered through his legal wife and his polygamist wives who were his daughters and nieces. Scott Peterson, December 24, 2002, killed his wife Laci, eight months pregnant at the time of her death Christian Longo, December 18, 2001, killed his wife and three children. Fled to Mexico and now on death row in Oregon. Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah, June 1, 2001 killed the royal family of Nepal at a family dinner and died from a self-inflicted gunshot to the head.
Mark Lundy, 29 August 2000, checked into a hotel in Petone, North Wellington, on a regular business trip from Palmerston North, drove back up to his home town at great speed, setting a record, to murder his wife and daughter for the life insurance money he needed to pay off the $NZD 2 million he was in debt. Robert William Fisher, April 10, 2001, wanted for murder of his wife and their two children in Scottsdale, Arizona. Phillip Austin, July 10, 2000, murdered his wife, two children, the family's two dogs in a series of violent attacks. Kip Kinkel, May 20, 1998, killed his parents before committing a school shooting, leaving two additional dead and 25 wounded. Bain Fa
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Latin suffix - caedo; the United Nations Genocide Convention, established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial or religious group". The term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Others are listed in Genocides in List of genocides by death toll; the Political Instability Task Force estimated that, between 1956 and 2016, a total of forty-three genocides took place, causing the death of about 50 million people. The UNHCR estimated that a further 50 million had been displaced by such episodes of violence up to 2008. Before 1944, various terms, including "massacre", "crimes against humanity", "extermination" were used to describe intentional, systematic killings. In 1941, Winston Churchill, when describing the German invasion of the Soviet Union, spoke of "a crime without a name".
In 1944, Raphael Lemkin created the term genocide in his book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europe, cites earlier mass killings; the term described the systematic destruction of a nation or people, the word was adopted by many in the international community. The word genocide is the combination of the Greek prefix geno- and caedere; the word genocide was used in indictments at the Nuremberg trials, held from 1945, but as a descriptive term, not yet as a formal legal term. According to Lemkin, genocide was "a coordinated strategy to destroy a group of people, a process that could be accomplished through total annihilation as well as strategies that eliminate key elements of the group's basic existence, including language and economic infrastructure". Lemkin defined genocide as follows: Generally speaking, genocide does not mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation.
It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, national feelings and the economic existence of national groups, the destruction of the personal security, health and the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups; the preamble to the 1948 Genocide Convention notes that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history. But it was not until Lemkin coined the term and the prosecution of perpetrators of the Holocaust at the Nuremberg trials that the United Nations defined the crime of genocide under international law in the Genocide Convention. Lemkin's lifelong interest in the mass murder of populations in the 20th century was in response to the killing of Armenians in 1915 and to the mass murders in Nazi-controlled Europe.
He referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history". He dedicated his life to mobilizing the international community, to work together to prevent the occurrence of such events. In a 1949 interview, Lemkin said "I became interested in genocide, it happened to the Armenians after the Armenians, Hitler took action." After the Holocaust, perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its allies prior to and during World War II, Lemkin campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides. In 1946, the first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that "affirmed" that genocide was a crime under international law and enumerated examples of such events. In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide which defined the crime of genocide for the first time. Genocide is a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live of individual human beings.
Many instances of such crimes of genocide have occurred when racial, religious and other groups have been destroyed or in part. The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951, it contains an internationally recognized definition of genocide, incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, was adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which established the International Criminal Court. Article II of the Convention defines genocide as:... any of the following acts committed with i