Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive orange when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 585 and 620 nanometres. In painting and traditional colour theory, it is a secondary colour of pigments, created by mixing yellow and red, it is named after the fruit of the same name. The orange colour of carrots, sweet potatoes and many other fruits and vegetables comes from carotenes, a type of photosynthetic pigment; these pigments convert the light energy that the plants absorb from the sun into chemical energy for the plants' growth. The hues of autumn leaves are from the same pigment after chlorophyll is removed. In Europe and America, surveys show that orange is the colour most associated with amusement, the unconventional, warmth, energy, danger and aroma, the autumn and Allhallowtide seasons, as well as having long been the national colour of the Netherlands and the House of Orange, it serves as the political colour of Christian democracy political ideology and most Christian democratic political parties.
In Asia it is an important symbolic colour of Hinduism. The colour orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit; the word comes from the Old French orange, from the old term for the fruit, pomme d'orange. The French word, in turn, comes from the Italian arancia, based on Arabic nāranj, derived from the Sanskrit naranga; the first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1512, in a will now filed with the Public Record Office. Prior to this word being introduced to the English-speaking world, saffron existed in the English language. Crog referred to the saffron colour, so that orange was referred to as ġeolurēad for reddish orange, or ġeolucrog for yellowish orange. Alternatively, orange things were sometimes described as red such as red deer, red hair, the Red Planet and robin redbreast. In ancient Egypt, artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses, it was used by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts.
Pigments were made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is toxic, it was used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its yellow-orange colour, it was a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, in both China and the West. Before the late 15th century, the colour orange without the name. Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which became part of several European languages: "naranja" in Spanish, "laranja" in Portuguese, "orange" in English; the House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most influential royal houses in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. It originated in 1163 the tiny Principality of Orange, a feudal state of 108 square miles north of Avignon in southern France; the Principality of Orange took its name not from the fruit, but from a Roman-Celtic settlement on the site, founded in 36 or 35 BC and was named Arausio, after a Celtic water god.
The family of the Prince of Orange adopted the name and the colour orange in the 1570s. The colour came to be associated with Protestantism, due to participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion. One member of the house, William I of Orange, organised the Dutch resistance against Spain, a war that lasted for eighty years, until the Netherlands won its independence; the House's arguably most prominent member, William III of Orange, became King of England in 1689, after the downfall of the Catholic James II. Due to William III, orange became an important political colour in Europe. William was a Protestant, as such he defended the Protestant minority of Ireland against the majority Roman Catholic population; as a result, the Protestants of Ireland were known as Orangemen. Orange became one of the colours of the Irish flag, symbolising the Protestant heritage, his rebel flag became the forerunner of The Netherland's modern flag. When the Dutch settlers of South Africa rebelled against the British in the late 19th century, they organised what they called the Orange Free State.
In the United States, the flag of the City of New York has an orange stripe, to remember the Dutch colonists who founded the city. William of Orange is remembered as the founder of the College of William & Mary, Nassau County in New York is named after the House of Orange-Nassau. In the 18th century orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie; the French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of "inspiration" dressed in orange. In 1797 a French scientist Louis Vauquelin discovered the mineral crocoite, or lead chromate, which led in 1809 to the invention of the synthetic pigment chrome orange. Other synthetic pigments, cobalt red, cobalt yellow, cobalt orange, the last made from cadmium sulfide plus cadmium selenide, soon followed; these new pigments, plus the invention of the
2007 Polish parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Poland on 21 October 2007, after the Sejm voted for its own dissolution on 7 September. The election took place two years before the maximum tenure of four years, with the previous elections having been in September 2005; the early elections were a result of serious allegations of massive corruption on the part of Andrzej Lepper, leader of the Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland, whose party served as a junior coalition partner to the government of Prime Minister Jarosław Kaczyński. All 460 seats in the Sejm and all 100 seats in the Senate were up for election; the election was won by the largest opposition group, Civic Platform, which soundly defeated the ruling Law and Justice party and its allies. Throughout the campaign, polls showed conflicting results as to which of the two parties had the greater support, yet by the closing week the polls had swung in favour of Civic Platform. Three other political groups won election into the Sejm, the centre-left Left and Democrats coalition, the agrarian Polish People's Party, the tiny German Minority group.
Both of Law and Justice's former minor coalition partners, the League of Polish Families and the Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland suffered an enormous voter backlash, failing to cross the 5% electoral threshold in order to enter the Sejm. Both parties lost all of their seats. Prime Minister and PiS leader Jarosław Kaczyński stepped down from office on 15 November, with Civic Platform leader Donald Tusk sworn in as Poland's Prime Minister on the following day. Civic Platform formed a coalition majority government with the Polish People's Party; the turnout for the elections was 53.8%, an increase of 13.2% from the 2005 elections, seeing the highest voter turnout in a Polish parliamentary election since the semi-free elections of 1989. Only seven parties contested all 41 electoral districts for the Sejm nationwide, they included: Law and Justice Civic Platform Left and Democrats Polish People's Party League of Polish Families Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland Polish Labour Party Three other parties managed to register in at least one district: Women's Party — 7 districts.
Although only the ten parties mentioned above contested elections to the lower house Sejm, there were other groups which entered the race for the Sejm. It is common practice in Polish elections for many smaller parties to register their candidates on the electoral committee lists of the larger parties contesting the election; these included: LPR's lists include members of the League of Polish Families, Real Politics Union and Right of the Republic. The Greens registered in one district to the Senate. Consecutive postponements of the electoral silence's termination by the National Electoral Committee was criticized; the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Election Assessment Mission stated that the elections demonstrate a democratic and pluralistic process, but challenges remain in oversight of the public media. Prime Minister and PiS leader Jarosław Kaczyński stepped down from office on 15 November, PO leader, Donald Tusk, was sworn in as Poland's Prime Minister the following day.
The Civic Platform formed a coalition majority government with the agrarian centrist Polish People's Party. 2007 election National Election Commission Electoral leaflets and posters Tractotheque
Elections in Poland
Elections in Poland refers to the election process as well as the election results in Poland. Poland has a multi-party political system. On the national level, Poland elects the head of state – the president – and a legislature. There are various local elections and elections to the European Parliament. Poland has a long history of public elections dating back several centuries, beginning with the elections to Sejm in Łęczyca in 1182. Notably, since the Sejm of 1493, Polish kings were obliged to call regular Sejms and regional elections every two years. From 1573 until 1795 the state system of elective monarchy in Poland required the royal elections of monarchs as well during the Sejm proceedings; the first modern and free elections in 20th-century-Poland were held in 1919, two months after Poland regained independence in 1918 from over more than a century of foreign partitions and colonization efforts by Austria and the Russian Empire. After the Second World War, Poland fell into the Soviet sphere of influence as a satellite state and became controlled by the communists, who rigged the elections of 1947 to ensure they controlled the entire Polish government.
There were regular elections in Poland from that time on. The Polish communists secured a majority of the lower house seats in 1989, but for the first time in the Eastern Bloc history, allowed opposition parties to gain representation. All subsequent elections, beginning with the 1991 election are considered free; the first Polish Sejm was called in 1182. Since the Sejm of 1493, called by king John I Olbracht in 1493, Sejms were to be held every 2 years. There were special Sejms when needed, for example the coronation sejms; the most famous Sejms included the Sejm Niemy or the Silent Sejm of 1717 which marked the beginning of Russian control over Polish internal affairs. Since the death of Sigismund II Augustus, last of the Jagiellonian dynasty, following a brief period of interregnum, the entire nobility of the Commonwealth could take part in the elections of the monarchs. Last elected king was Stanisław August Poniatowski in 1764, he abdicated in 1795 after the partitions of Poland ended the existence of sovereign state of Poland for 123 years.
It is disputed. Polish presidents were elected by the Senate, not in a popular vote. Before 1922, the Polish Chief of State was called Naczelnik Państwa. Only the 1947 and 1989 elections can be considered as free. All others were controlled. There were no presidential elections during the rest of this period, with President Bolesław Bierut's nomination by the Sejm and the abolition of the office by the 1952 constitution. 1st Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1573 2nd Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1576 3rd Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1587 4th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1632 5th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1648 6th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1669 7th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1674 8th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1697 9th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1704 10th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1733 11th Polish–Lithuanian royal election, 1764 1st Polish election, 1922 2nd Polish election, 1922 3rd Polish election, 1926 4th Polish election, 1926 5th Polish election, 1933 6th Polish election, 1947 1st Polish election, 1919 2nd Polish election, 1922 2rd Polish election, 1928 4th Polish election, 1930 5th Polish election, 1935 6th Polish election, 1938 7th Polish election, 1947 8th Polish election, 1952 9th Polish election, 1957 10th Polish election, 1961 11th Polish election, 1965 12th Polish election, 1969 13th Polish election, 1972 14th Polish election, 1976 15th Polish election, 1980 16th Polish election, 1985 Since 1991, Polish elections operate according to a typical representative democracy.
Poland has a multi-party political system, with numerous parties in which no one party has a chance of gaining power alone, parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. Poland elects on national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature; the president is elected for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly has two chambers; the parliament has 460 members, elected for a four-year term by party lists in multi-seat constituencies with a 5% threshold for single parties and 8% threshold for coalitions. The Senate has 100 members elected for a four-year term via the first past-the-post system, with 100 single member constituencies. Prior to the 2011 parliamentary elections, elections to the Senate were conducted through plurality bloc voting in 40 multi-seat constituencies. Since 1991 elections are supervised by National Electoral Commission, whose administrative division is called the National Electoral Office. 1989 Parliamentary Elections: the Polish Round Table Agreement produced a open parliamentary elections.
The June election produced a Sejm, in which one-third of the seats went to communists and one-third went to the two parties which had hitherto been their coalition partners. The remaining one-third of the seats in the Se
Tadeusz Mazowiecki. Tadeusz Mazowiecki was born in Płock, Poland on 18 April 1927 to a Polish noble family, which uses the Dołęga coat of arms. Both his parents worked at the local Holy Trinity Hospital: his father was a doctor there while his mother ran a charity for the poor, his education was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. During the war he worked as a runner in the hospital his parents worked for. After the German forces had been expelled from Płock, Tadeusz Mazowiecki resumed his education and in 1946 he graduated from "Marshal Stanisław Małachowski" Lyceum, the oldest high school in Poland and one of the oldest continuously-operating school in Europe, he moved to Łódź and to Warsaw, where he joined the Law Faculty of the Warsaw University. However, he never graduated and instead devoted himself to activity in various Catholic associations and publishing houses. During his brief stay at the Warsaw University Mazowiecki joined the Caritas Academica charity organisation, he briefly headed the University Printing Cooperative between 1947 and 1948.
In 1946 he joined Karol Popiel's Labour Party. However that year the party was outlawed by the new Stalinist authorities of Soviet-controlled Poland. All other non-communist organisations soon became a target of state-sponsored repressions. One of the exceptions was the PAX Association, the only large Catholic organisation supported by the Communist authorities - and supporting the authorities in their conflict with the Catholic clergy. Mazowiecki joined PAX in 1948 as one of the leaders of the youth circles, he criticised Bolesław Piasecki's vision of the association and his allegiance to the Communists. He rose through the ranks of various journals published by the association. A journalist in the Dziś i Jutro weekly, in 1950 he became the deputy editor-in-chief of Słowo Powszechne daily newspaper. In 1952 the conflict between Piasecki and the opposition within the PAX led to Mazowiecki being expelled from the daily and relegated to a less prominent role of an editor of newly created Wrocławski Tygodnik Katolików.
Until 1955 he served as the editor-in-chief of that journal, he remained one of the leaders of the opposition within the association, criticising Piasecki and his associates for their conflicts with the Catholic hierarchy, loyalty to the communist authorities, lack of democratic procedures within PAX. For that he was dismissed from the WTK and in 1955 expelled from the association altogether. Despite criticizing Piasecki, Mazowiecki offered his own support to the Communist authorities, expressed in press articles and other publications. In 1952, he published a pamphlet titled The enemy remains the same imputing an alliance between Polish anti-communist resistance movement and Nazi war criminals. In a press article published in WTK in 1953, Mazowiecki fiercely condemned Czesław Kaczmarek Bishop of Kielce. Kaczmarek, groundlessly accused by the Communists of being an American and Vatican spy, was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Having left PAX, together with a group of his former colleagues Tadeusz Mazowiecki started cooperation with the Tygodnik Powszechny weekly, Po prostu journal and the Klub Krzywego Koła.
While these journals were formally dependent on PAX, they were liberal and independent. During the Polish October of 1956 Tadeusz Mazowiecki became one of the founders of the All-Polish Club of Progressive Catholic Intelligentsia, the predecessor of Club of Catholic Intelligentsia, the first all-national Catholic organisation independent of the Communist authorities in post-war Poland; until 1963 he served as a board member of KIK. He was a founding member of the Więź Catholic monthly in 1958 and served as its first editor-in-chief. While independent from the Communist authorities, the monthly was independent from the Catholic hierarchy, which led to conflicts with both. In his texts published in Więź Mazowiecki, inspired by Emmanuel Mounier's personalist ideas, sought intellectual dialogue with members of left-leaning lay intelligentsia. Mazowiecki was a friend and confidant of Pope John Paul II. One of the lasting effects of Władysław Gomułka's rise to power during the Polish October 1956 was the dissolution of PAX.
A group of former PAX dissenters, the "Fronda", along with some of the professors of the Catholic University of Lublin approached Gomułka in 1956. In exchange for their support, Gomułka accepted the creation of Znak Association along with its publishing house, the only such venture independent from the communist government in contemporary Poland. Moreover, a small group of 12 Catholics associated with the Znak were allowed to run in the Polish legislative election of 1957, among them Tadeusz Mazowiecki. While the 12 members of parliament elected that year were formally independent, they formed the first form of opposition to the rule of the Polish United Workers' Party within the Polish Sejm, dubbed the "MP circle of Znak". Mazowiecki remained a member of the Sejm until 1971, serving his second and fourth terms as a member of the Catholic "party". During his parliamentary career, he was an active member of the Commission on Education and the Commission on Work and Social Matters; as Poland was a one-party s
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they support limited government, individual rights, democracy, gender equality, racial equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to replace the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and the rule of law. Liberals ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free markets. Philosopher John Locke is credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract.
While the British liberal tradition has emphasised expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasised rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building. Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny. Liberalism started to spread especially after the French Revolution; the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States. In Victorian Britain, it was used to critique the political establishment, appealing to science and reason on behalf of the people. During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism; these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day, leading to Islamic revivalism.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism. However, during the 20th century liberal ideas spread further—especially in Western Europe—as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield influence throughout the world. However, liberalism still has challenges to overcome in Asia; the fundamental elements of contemporary society have liberal roots. The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority. Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association. Waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were influenced by the need to expand civil rights.
Liberals have advocated gender and racial equality in their drive to promote civil rights and a global civil rights movement in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals. Continental European liberalism is divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalisation of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man; the word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.
Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530 and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, William Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word "liberalism" appeared in English. In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution. From 1820 to 1823 during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide.
Over time, the meaning of the word liberalism began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "In the United States, liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal programme of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, where
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
2004 European Parliament election in Poland
Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on 13 June 2004. 20.87% of eligible citizens voted. The elections resulted in a heavy defeat for the governing Alliance of the Democratic Left and Labor Union parties, although the low turnout makes a direct comparison with national election results difficult; as expected the most successful party was the Civic Platform. Second place was taken by the anti-EU League of Polish Families; the radical populist Self-Defense of the Polish Republic, which some opinion polls had predicted would come second, came fourth after the Law and Justice party. The election results were a success for Social Democracy of Poland, which managed to cross the required 5% threshold, the Freedom Union, which got over twice the expected percentage of votes. Registered voters: 29,986,109 Votes cast: 6,265,062 Invalid votes: 173,531 Valid votes: 6,091,531 9. Union of Real Politics – 1,87 proc. 10. National Electoral Committee of Electors – 1,56 proc. 11. Initiative for Poland – 1,45 proc.
12. Country Pensioners Party – People's Democratic Party – 0,8 proc. 13. Confederation Movement for Unemployed Protection – 0,61 proc. 14. All-Poland Citizen Committee "OKO" – 0,58 proc. 15. Polish Labour Party – 0,54 proc. 16. Anti-Clerical Party of Progress "Reason" – 0,3 proc. 17. Democratic Party of the Left – 0,09 proc. 18. "Together for Future" – 0,05 proc. 19. National Renaissance of Poland – 0,04 proc. 20. Polish National Party – 0,04 proc. 21. Greens 2004 – 0,27 proc. Jerzy Buzek, ex-prime minister, professor of technical sciences Zdzisław Chmielewski, rector of Szczecin University Małgorzata Handzlik and journalist Stanisław Jałowiecki and politician Filip Kaczmarek and journalist Bogdan Klich, expert on international politics Barbara Kudrycka, professor of law Janusz Lewandowski, economist, ex-minister of privatisation Jan Olbrycht, politician, ex-mayor of Cieszyn Jacek Saryusz-Wolski, former Poland-EU negotiator Jacek Protasiewicz and politician Bogusław Sonik and politician Zbigniew Zaleski, professor of psychology Tadeusz Zwiefka, journalist Filip Adwent and author Sylwester Chruszcz and politician Maciej Giertych and publicist Dariusz Grabowski, economist and businessman Urszula Krupa, doctor of medicine, journalist Mirosław Piotrowski, professor of history Bogdan Pęk, zootechnologist and politician Bogusław Rogalski, historian and political activist Witold Tomczak and politician Wojciech Wierzejski and sociologist Adam Bielan, politician Anna Fotyga, international trade expert, vice-mayor of Gdańsk Mieczysław Janowski, doctor of technical sciences, local activist Michał Kamiński and politician Marcin Libicki, arts historian and politician Wojciech Roszkowski, professor of politics Konrad Szymanski, lawyer and politician Marek Czarnecki, lawyer and politician Ryszard Czarnecki, historian and politician Bogdan Golik, animal doctor and business adviser Wiesław Kuc and agriculture expert Jan Masiel and business adviser Leopold Rutowicz and businessman Adam Gierek, son of Edward Gierek, communist leader of Poland in the 1970s Lidia Geringer d'Oedenberg and journalist Bogusław Liberadzki, economist, ex-minister of transport Marek Siwiec, politician, president's advisor Andrzej Szejna, politician Bronisław Geremek and politician, ex-minister of foreign affairs Jan Kulakowski, journalist, ex Poland-EU negotiator Janusz Onyszkiewicz and politician, ex-minister of defence Grazyna Staniszewska, senator Zbigniew Kuzmiuk, chairman of PSL parliamentary caucus Zdzisław Podkański and politician, vicechairman of PSL, ex-viceminister of culture Czesław Siekierski, agriculture aconomist, ex-viceminister of agriculture Janusz Wojciechowski and politician, chairman of PSL since March 2004 Genowefa Grabowska, professor of international law, senator Józef Pinior, lawyer and politician Dariusz Rosati, professor of economics, ex-minister of foreign affairs Paweł Piskorski, politician, ex-mayor of Warsaw Politics of Poland Poland Obwieszczenie PKW z dnia 15 VI 2004 r.
Dz. U. Nr 137, poz. 1460. European Election News by European Election Law Association