Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
4,763 delegate votes to the Democratic National Convention
2,382 delegate votes needed to win
First place by first-instance vote
First place finishes by convention roll call
The 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select the 4,051 delegates to the Democratic National Convention held July 25–28 and determine the nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The elections took place within all fifty U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories and occurred between February 1 and June 14, 2016. An extra 716 unpledged delegates (712 votes) or "superdelegates", including party leaders and elected officials, were appointed by the party leadership independently of the primaries' electoral process. The convention also approved the party's platform and vice-presidential nominee, the Democratic nominee challenged other presidential candidates in national elections to succeed President Barack Obama at noon on January 20, 2017, following his two terms in office.
A total of six major candidates entered the race starting April 12, 2015, when former Secretary of State and New York Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton formally announced her second bid for the presidency. She was followed by Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, former Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley, former Governor of Rhode Island Lincoln Chafee, former Virginia Senator Jim Webb and Harvard Law Professor Lawrence Lessig. Incumbent Vice President Joe Biden heavily considered a third run, but eventually chose against it. A draft movement was started to encourage Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren to seek the presidency, but Warren declined to run. Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Webb and Chafee both withdrew after consistently polling below 2%. Lessig withdrew after the rules of a debate were changed so that he would no longer qualify to participate.
Clinton won Iowa by the closest margin in the history of the state's Democratic caucus. O'Malley suspended[b] his campaign after a distant third-place finish, leaving Clinton and Sanders the only two candidates, the electoral battle turned out to be more competitive than expected, with Sanders winning the New Hampshire primary while Clinton scored victories in the Nevada caucuses and South Carolina primary. On four different Super Tuesdays, Clinton secured numerous important wins in each of the nine most populous states including California, New York, Florida, and Texas, while Sanders scored various victories in between, but he was mathematically eliminated after New York and Clinton's multi-state sweep on April 26.
On June 6, 2016, the Associated Press and NBC News stated that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including both pledged and unpledged delegates (superdelegates), to secure the nomination. In doing so, she had become the first woman to ever be the presumptive nominee of any major political party in the United States. On June 7, Clinton officially secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning in the California and New Jersey primaries. President Barack Obama, Vice President Joe Biden and Senator Elizabeth Warren formally endorsed Clinton on June 9, 2016. Sanders confirmed on June 24 that he would vote for Clinton over Donald Trump in the general election and, on July 12, 2016, formally endorsed Clinton in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
On July 22, the Democratic National Committee email leak was published by WikiLeaks, in what Clinton operatives have attested was part of an operation by the Russian government to boost Republican nominee Donald Trump and undermine Hillary Clinton. The leak cast doubt on the DNC's neutrality and according to Sanders operatives and multiple media commentators portrayed an organization invested in promoting the Clinton candidacy and sabotaging that of Bernie Sanders; in further emails from Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta, leaked online in early October, Clinton campaign officials are shown planning ahead the primary schedule to set some important disputes, such as New York and New Jersey, earlier than in 2008 so as to benefit Clinton. Setting a small number of debates, as well as starting them "as late as possible", was also agreed upon between the DNC and the Clinton campaign as a boost to Hillary Clinton, the debate schedule had already been criticized as far back as 2015, including by aspiring candidate Martin O'Malley, as biased in Clinton's favor. Democratic Party Chairwoman Donna Brazile, who succeeded Debbie Wasserman Schultz as DNC chair after the first batch of leaks, is shown in the e-mails leaking primary debate questions to the Clinton campaign before the debates were held.
On July 26, 2016, the Democratic National Convention officially nominated Clinton for president and Virginia Senator Tim Kaine for vice president, on November 8, 2016, Republican nominee Donald Trump, despite losing the popular vote by approximately 3 million votes, defeated Clinton in the electoral tally, and became President Elect.
- 1 Candidates
- 2 Timeline
- 3 Graphical summary of polling since 2013
- 4 Campaign finance
- 5 Process
- 6 Schedule and results
- 7 Superdelegate endorsements
- 8 Maps
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
2016 U.S. presidential election
U.S. Secretary of State
U.S. Senator from New York
First Lady of the United States
U.S. Senator from Vermont
U.S. Representative for Vermont's At-large
Mayor of Burlington
|Candidate||Most recent position||Candidacy||Total pledged delegates||Contests won[c]|
U.S. Secretary of State
(Campaign • Positions)
|2205 / 4051 (54%)||34
AL, AR, AS, AZ,
CA, CT, DC, DE, FL,
GA, GU, IA, IL, KY,
LA, MA, MD, MO,
MP, MS, NC, NJ,
NM, NV, NY, OH,
PA, PR, SC, SD,[d]
TN, TX, VA, VI
Withdrew at the convention
|Candidate||Most recent position||Candidacy||Total pledged delegates||Contests won[c]|
|U.S. Senator from Vermont
(Campaign • Positions)
|1846 / 4051 (46%)||23
AK, CO, DA, HI,
ID, IN, KS, ME,
MI, MN, MT, NE,[e]
NH, ND, OK, OR,
RI, UT, VT, WA,[f]
WI, WV, WY[d]
Withdrew during the primaries
|Candidate||Born||Most recent position||Announced||Withdrew||Candidacy||Ref|
|January 18, 1963
|61st Governor of Maryland
|May 31, 2015||February 1, 2016
(endorsed Hillary Clinton after she became presumptive nominee)
(Campaign • Website)
Withdrew before the primaries
|Candidate||Born||Most recent position||Announced||Withdrew||Candidacy||Ref|
|March 26, 1953 (age 63)
Providence, Rhode Island
|74th Governor of Rhode Island (2011–15)||June 3, 2015||October 23, 2015||
(Campaign • Website)
|February 9, 1946 (age 70)
Saint Joseph, Missouri
|U.S. Senator from Virginia (2007–13)||July 7, 2015||October 20, 2015||
(Campaign • Website)
|June 3, 1961 (age 55)
Rapid City, South Dakota
|Professor at Harvard Law School (2009–16)||September 9, 2015||November 2, 2015||
(Campaign • Website)
Other candidates' results
The following candidates were frequently interviewed by news channels and were invited to forums and candidate debates, for reference, Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primaries.
|Candidates in this section are sorted by amount of votes received|
|Martin O'Malley||Lawrence Lessig||Jim Webb||Lincoln Chafee|
Governor of Maryland
Governor of Rhode Island
4 write-in votes in New Hampshire
2 write-in votes in New Hampshire
Other candidates participated in one or more state primaries without receiving major coverage or substantial vote counts.
In the weeks following the re-election of President Obama in the 2012 election, media speculation regarding potential candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election began to circulate, the speculation centered on the prospects of Clinton, then-Secretary of State, making a second presidential bid in the 2016 election. Clinton had previously served as a U.S. Senator for New York (2001–09) and was the First Lady of the U.S. (1993–2001). A January 2013 Washington Post–ABC News poll indicated that she had high popularity among the American public, this polling information prompted numerous political pundits and observers to anticipate that Clinton would mount a second presidential bid in 2016, entering the race as the early front-runner for the Democratic nomination. From the party's liberal left wing came calls for a more progressive candidate to challenge what was perceived by many within this segment as the party's establishment. Warren quickly became a highly touted figure within this movement as well as the object of a draft movement to run in the primaries, despite her repeated denials of interest in doing so, the MoveOn.org campaign 'Run Warren Run' announced that it would disband on June 8, 2015, opting to focus its efforts toward progressive issues. The draft campaign's New Hampshire staffer, Kurt Ehrenberg, had joined Sanders' team and most of the remaining staffers were expected to follow suit. Given the historical tendency for sitting vice presidents to seek the presidency in election cycles in which the incumbent president is not a candidate, there was also considerable speculation regarding a potential presidential run by incumbent Vice President Joe Biden, who had previously campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in the election cycles of 1988 and 2008. This speculation was further fueled by Biden's own expressions of interest in a possible run in 2016. However, on October 21, 2015, speaking from a podium in the Rose Garden with his wife and President Obama by his side, Biden announced his decision not to enter the race, as he was still dealing with the loss of his son, Beau, who died weeks earlier at the age of 47.
On May 26, 2015, Sanders officially announced his run as a presidential candidate for the Democratic nomination, after an informal announcement on April 30 and speculation since early 2014. Sanders has previously served as Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–89), Vermont's sole U.S. Representative (1991–2007) and Vermont's junior Senator (2007–present), he emerged as the biggest rival to Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primaries, backed by a strong grassroots campaign and a social media following. In November 2014, Jim Webb, a former U.S. Senator who had once served as the U.S. Secretary of the Navy during the Reagan administration, announced the formation of an exploratory committee in preparation for a possible run for the Democratic presidential nomination. This made Webb the first major potential candidate to take a formal action toward seeking the party's 2016 nomination. Martin O'Malley, former Governor of Maryland as well as a former Mayor of Baltimore, made formal steps toward a campaign for the party's nomination in January 2015 with the hiring and retaining of personnel who had served the previous year as political operatives in Iowa – the first presidential nominating state in the primary elections cycle – as staff for his political action committee (PAC). O'Malley had started the "O’ Say Can You See" PAC in 2012 which had, prior to 2015, functioned primarily as fundraising vehicles for various Democratic candidates, as well as for two 2014 ballot measures in Maryland, with the 2015 staffing moves, the PAC ostensibly became a vehicle for O'Malley – who had for several months openly contemplated a presidential bid – to lay the groundwork for a potential campaign for the party's presidential nomination. In August 2015, Lawrence Lessig unexpectedly announced his intention to enter the race, promising to run if his exploratory committee raised $1 million by Labor Day, after accomplishing this, Lessig formally announced his campaign. He described his candidacy as a referendum on electoral reform legislation, prioritizing a single issue: the Citizen Equality Act of 2017, a proposal that couples campaign finance reform with other laws aimed at curbing gerrymandering and ensuring voting access.
February 2016: Early primaries
|February 9||New Hampshire||38.0%||60.4%|
|February 27||South Carolina||73.5%||26.0%|
Despite a late challenge, Clinton was able to defeat Sanders in the first-in-the-nation Iowa Caucus by the closest margin in the history of the contest: 49.8% to 49.6% (Clinton collected 700.47 state delegate equivalents to Sanders' 696.92, a difference of one quarter of a percentage point). The victory, which was projected to award her 23 pledged national convention delegates (two more than Sanders), made Clinton the first woman to win the Caucus and marked a clear difference from 2008, where she finished in third place behind Obama and John Edwards. Martin O'Malley suspended[b] his campaign after a disappointing third-place finish with only 0.5% of the state delegate equivalents awarded, leaving Clinton and Sanders the only two major candidates in the race. A week later, Sanders won the New Hampshire primary, receiving 60.4% of the popular vote to Clinton's 38%, putting him ahead of Clinton in the overall pledged delegate count by four, and making him the first Jewish candidate of a major party to win a primary. Clinton's loss in New Hampshire was a regression from 2008, when she defeated Obama, Edwards, and a handful of other candidates including Joe Biden with 39% of the popular vote.
Sanders' narrow loss in Iowa and convincing victory in New Hampshire generated speculation about a possible loss for Clinton in Nevada, the next state to hold its caucuses on February 20, for her part, Clinton, who had won the state eight years prior in the 2008 Nevada Democratic caucuses, hoped that a victory would allay concerns about a possible repetition of 2008, when she ultimately lost to Obama despite entering the primary season as the favorite for the nomination. Ultimately, Clinton emerged victorious with 52.6% of the county delegates, a margin of victory similar to her performance in 2008. Sanders, who attained 47.3% of the vote, was projected to receive five fewer pledged delegates than Clinton and the result was not promising for the following weekend's primary in South Carolina, more demographically favorable to Clinton than the prior contests. On February 27, Clinton won the South Carolina primary with 73.5% of the vote, receiving a larger percentage of the African American vote than Barack Obama had eight years earlier – 90% to Obama's 80%.
March 1, 2016: Super Tuesday
The 2016 primary schedule was significantly different than that of 2008, during that election cycle, many states moved their primaries or caucuses to earlier in the calendar to have greater influence over the race. In 2008, February 5 was the earliest date allowed by the Democratic National Committee, leading 23 states and territories to move their elections to that date, the biggest Super Tuesday to ever take place, for 2016, the calendar was more disparate than it was in 2008, with several groups of states voting on different dates, the most important being March 1, March 15, April 26 and June 7. The day with the most contests was March 1, 2016, in which primaries or caucuses were held in 11 states (including six in the Southern United States) and American Samoa. A total of 865 pledged delegates were at stake.
Clinton secured victories in all of the southern contests except Oklahoma, her biggest victory of the day came in Alabama, where she won 77.8% of the vote against Sanders' 19.2%, although her most significant delegate prize came from Texas, where she received 65.2% of the vote with strong support from non-white as well as white voters. Collectively, the southern states gave Clinton a net gain of 165 pledged delegates. Apart from the South, Clinton also narrowly defeated Sanders in Massachusetts, as well as winning in the territory of American Samoa. Sanders scored comfortable wins in the Minnesota and Colorado caucuses and Oklahoma primary and won an 86.1%–13.6% landslide in his home state of Vermont - one of only two times either of the two main candidates missed the 15% threshold in a state or territory, with the U.S. Virgin Islands, where Clinton received over 87% of the vote, being the other one. Although the results overall were unfavorable for Sanders, his four wins and narrow loss allowed him to remain in the race in anticipation of more favorable territory in New England, the Great Plains, Mountain States and the Pacific Northwest. At the end of the day, Clinton collected 518 pledged delegates to Sanders' 347, taking her lead to roughly 200 pledged delegates.
|N. Mariana Islands||54.0%||34.4%|
Sanders found more hospitable ground on the weekend of March 5, 2016, winning caucuses in Kansas, Maine and Nebraska by significant margins. Clinton answered with an even larger win in Louisiana's primary, limiting Sanders' net gain for the weekend to only four delegates. Clinton would also win the Northern Mariana Islands caucus, held the following weekend on March 12. Two states had held nominating contests on March 8 – Michigan and Mississippi – with Clinton heavily favored to win both. Mississippi went for Clinton, as expected, by a landslide margin. The Mississippi primary was the highest vote share Clinton won in any state. However, Sanders stunned by scoring a narrow win in Michigan. Analysts floated a number of theories to explain the failure of the Michigan polling, with most centering on pollsters' erroneous assumptions about the composition of the electorate stemming from the 2008 primary in Michigan not having been contested due to an impasse between the state party and DNC. Although Clinton expanded her delegate lead, some journalists suggested Sanders' upset might presage her defeat in other delegate-rich Midwestern states, such as Missouri, Ohio and Illinois, who voted a week later on March 15, along with North Carolina and Florida, where Clinton was more clearly favored. Clinton was able to sweep all five primaries, extending her pledged delegate lead by around 100 delegates, although Sanders was able to hold Clinton to narrow margins in her birth-state of Illinois and especially Missouri, where Clinton won by a mere 0.2 points. Missouri state law allowed for a possible recount had any of the candidates requested it; however, Sanders forwent the opportunity on the basis that it would not significantly affect the delegate allocation. By the end of the evening, Clinton had expanded her pledged delegate lead to more than 320, several times larger than her greatest deficit in the 2008 primary.
Late March and early April
Following the March 15 primaries, the race moved to a series of contests more favorable for Sanders, on March 21, the results of the Democrats Abroad primary (held March 1–8) were announced. Sanders was victorious and picked up nine delegates to Clinton's four, closing his delegate deficit by five. Arizona, Idaho and Utah held primaries on March 22, dubbed "Western Tuesday" by media. Despite continued efforts by Sanders to close the gap in Arizona after his surprise win in Michigan, Clinton won the primary with 56.3% of the vote. However, Clinton lost both Idaho and Utah by roughly 60 points, allowing Sanders to close his delegate deficit by 25.
The next states to vote were Alaska, Hawaii and Washington on March 26, 2016. All three states were considered as favorable for Sanders, and most political analysts expected him to win them all, given the demographics and Sanders' strong performance in previous caucuses. Sanders finished the day with a net gain of roughly 66 delegates over Clinton, his largest win was in Alaska, where he defeated Clinton with 64% of the vote, although the majority of his delegate gain came from the considerably more populous state of Washington, which he won by a 46% margin, outperforming then-Senator Obama's 2008 results, when he defeated Clinton 68%–31%. The Clinton and Sanders campaigns reached an agreement on April 4 for a ninth debate to take place on April 14 (five days before the New York primary) in Brooklyn, New York, which would air on CNN and NY1, on April 5, Sanders won the Wisconsin primary by 14 points, closing his delegate deficit by 10 more. The Wyoming caucuses were held on April 9, which Sanders won with 55.7% of the state convention delegates choosing him; however, Clinton had a stronger showing than expected, given her demographic disadvantage and that she did not campaign personally in the state. Each candidate was estimated to have earned 7 of Wyoming's 14 pledged delegates.
Late April and May
On April 19, Clinton won New York by 16 points. While Sanders performed well in Upstate New York and with younger voters, Clinton performed well among all other age groups and non-whites, and she won a majority in all boroughs of New York City.
Five Northeastern states held primaries a week later on April 26, the day was dubbed the "Super Tuesday III" or the "Acela Primary" after Amtrak's Acela Express train service that connects these states. Clinton won in Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Connecticut while Sanders won the Rhode Island primary.
On May 3, Sanders pulled off a surprise victory in the Indiana primary, winning over Clinton by a five-point margin despite trailing in all the state's polls. Clinton then won the Guam caucus on May 7 and, on May 10, she won the non-binding Nebraska primary while Sanders won in West Virginia.
Clinton narrowly won Kentucky on May 17 by half a percentage point and gained one delegate, after heavily campaigning in the state, on the same day, Sanders won his second closed primary in Oregon where he gained nine delegates, a net gain of eight on the day. Clinton then went on to win the non-binding Washington primary on May 24.
|District of Columbia||78.7%||21.1%|
June contained the final contests of the Democratic primaries, and both Sanders and Clinton invested heavily into winning the California primary. Clinton led the polls in California but some predicted a narrow race, on June 4 and 5, Clinton won two decisive victories in the Virgin Islands caucus and Puerto Rico primary. On June 6, both the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had sufficient support from pledged and unpledged delegates to become the presumptive Democratic nominee. Clinton's campaign seemed reluctant to accept the mantle of "presumptive nominee" before all the voting was concluded, while Sanders' campaign stated it would continue to run and accused the media of a "rush to judgement." Six states held their primaries on June 7. Clinton won in California, New Jersey, New Mexico and South Dakota. Sanders won Montana and North Dakota, the latter being the only caucus contest held on that day. Clinton finally declared victory on the evening of June 7, as the results ensured that she had won a majority of the pledged delegates and the popular vote. Sanders stated he would continue to run for the Democratic Party's nomination in the final primary in the District of Columbia on June 14, which Clinton won. Both campaigns met at a downtown Washington D.C. hotel after the primary. The Sanders campaign said that they would release a video statement on June 16 to clarify the future of Sanders' campaign; the video announced that Sanders looked forward to help Clinton defeat Trump. On July 12, 2016, Sanders endorsed Clinton in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
July 2016: E-mail leaks and National Convention
On July 22, 2016, Wikileaks released online tens of thousands of messages hacked from the e-mail accounts of seven key DNC staff, the e-mails demonstrate how, even during the late stage of the campaign, when Hillary Clinton's lead had been crystallized, the DNC still appeared committed to undermine the Sanders campaign. The e-mails show DNC staff discussing the possibility of coordinating negative stories about the Sanders campaign with the press. DNC CFO Brad Marshall suggested using the media to attack Sanders from a religious angle, portraying him as an atheist, ahead of the Kentucky and West Virginia primaries. DNC CEO Amy K. Dacey responded approvingly with, "Amen." Then DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz appears attacking Sanders staffers as liars, the e-mails also show that the DNC exchanged messages with the Clinton campaign on strategies to attack the Sanders campaign. The e-mails provoked Wasserman Schultz's resignation ahead of the convention, and that of Marshals, Dacey, and Communications Director Luis Miranda afterwards.
The 2016 Democratic National Convention was held from July 25–28 at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, with some events at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, the delegates selected the Democratic presidential and vice presidential nominees and wrote the party platform. A simple majority of 2,383 delegates was needed to win the presidential nomination. While most of the delegates were bound on the first ballot according to the results of the primaries, a progressively larger number of pledged delegates would have become unbound if the nomination required more than one ballot. Clinton was nominated on the first ballot by acclamation, although all states were allowed to announce how they would have voted under a typical roll call vote, on July 12, 2016, the Vermont delegates had supported Clinton in Sanders' request; asking for party unity, he dropped out on July 26, 2016 and announced he'd return to the Senate as an Independent.
Graphical summary of polling since 2013
This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released on April 27, 2016, outside groups are independent expenditure only committees—also called PACs and SuperPACs. Several such groups normally support each candidate, but the numbers in the table are a total of all of them, this means that a group of committees can be shown as technically insolvent (shown in red) even though it is not the case of all of them. The Campaign Committee's debt are shown in red if the campaign is technically insolvent, the source of all the numbers is Center for Responsive Politics. Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline.
|Campaign committee (as of April 30)||Outside groups (as of May 16)||Total spent||Campaign
|Money raised||Money spent||Cash on hand||Debt||Money raised||Money spent||Cash on hand|
|Bernie Sanders||$227,678,274||$219,695,969||$8,015,274||$898,879||$869,412||$1,069,765||$-200,353||$220,765,734||July 26|
|Martin O'Malley||$6,073,767||$5,965,205||$108,562||$19,423||$1,105,138||$1,298,967||$-193,829||$7,264,172||February 1|
|Lawrence Lessig||$1,196,753||N/A||N/A||N/A||$0||$0||$0||N/A||November 2|
|Jim Webb||$764,992||$558,151||$206,842||$0||$27,092||$31,930||$-4,838||$590,081||October 20|
|Lincoln Chafee||$418,136||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||October 23|
The Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses are indirect elections in which voters elect delegates to the 2016 Democratic National Convention; these delegates in turn directly elect the Democratic Party's presidential nominee. In some states, the party may disregard voters' selection of delegates or selected delegates may vote for any candidate at the state or national convention (non-binding primary or caucus); in other states, state laws and party rules require the party to select delegates according to votes, and delegates must vote for a particular candidate (binding primary or caucus). There are 4,051 pledged delegates and 714 superdelegates in the 2016 cycle. Under the party's delegate selection rules, the number of pledged delegates allocated to each of the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. is determined using a formula based on three main factors:
- The proportion of votes each state gave to the Democratic candidate in the last three presidential elections (2004, 2008, and 2012)
- The number of electoral votes each state has in the United States Electoral College.
- The stage of the primary season when they held their contest. States and territories that held their contests later are given bonus seats.
A candidate must win 2,383 delegates at the national convention, in order to win the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, for the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands and for Democrats Abroad, fixed numbers of pledged delegates are allocated. All states and territories then must have used a proportional representation system, where their pledged delegates were awarded proportionally to the election results. A candidate must receive at least 15% of the popular vote to win pledged delegates in a state, the current 714 unpledged superdelegates (or "soft" delegates) will include members of the United States House of Representatives and Senate, state and territorial governors, members of the Democratic National Committee, and other party leaders. Because of possible deaths, resignations, or the results of intervening or special elections, the final number of these superdelegates may be reduced before the convention, the Democratic National Committee also imposed rules for states that wished to hold early contests in 2016. No state was be permitted to hold a primary or caucus in January and only Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina and Nevada were entitled to February contests. Any state that violated these rules were penalized half its pledged delegates and all its superdelegates to the 2016 convention.
Schedule and results
The following are the results of candidates that won at least one state, these candidates were on the ballots for every state, territory and federal district contest. The results of caucuses did not always have attached preference polls and attendance was extremely limited, the unpledged delegate count did not always reflect the latest declared preferences.
|Date||State/territory||Calculated delegates||Type[g]||Popular vote or equivalent[h]||Estimated delegates[i]|
|Feb 1||Iowa||44||7||51||Semi-open caucus||700 SDE (49.8%)||697 SDE (49.6%)||23||6||29||21||0||21||0||1||1|
|Feb 9||New Hampshire||24||8||32||Semi-closed primary||95,355 (37.7%)||152,193 (60.1%)||9||6||15||15||1||16||0||1||1|
|Feb 20||Nevada||35||8||43||Closed caucus||6,316 CD (52.6%)||5,678 CD (47.3%)||20||7||27||15||1||16||0||0||0|
|Feb 27||South Carolina||53||6||59||Open primary||272,379 (73.4%)||96,498 (26.0%)||39||5||44||14||0||14||0||1||1|
|Mar 1||Alabama||53||7||60||Open primary||309,926 (77.8%)||76,401 (19.2%)||44||6||50||9||0||9||0||1||1|
|American Samoa||6||5||11||Closed caucus||162 (68.4%)||61 (25.7%)||4||4||8||2||1||3||0||0||0|
|Arkansas||32||5||37||Open primary||146,057 (66.1%)||66,236 (30.0%)||22||5||27||10||0||10||0||0||0|
|Colorado||66||12||78||Closed caucus||49,789 (40.3%)||72,846 (59.0%)||25||9||34||41||0||41||0||3||3|
|Georgia||102||15||117||Open primary||543,008 (71.3%)||214,332 (28.2%)||73||11||84||29||0||29||0||4||4|
|Massachusetts||91||24||115||Semi-closed primary||606,822 (49.7%)||589,803 (48.3%)||46||21||67||45||1||46||0||2||2|
|Minnesota||77||16||93||Open caucus||73,510 (38.4%)||118,135 (61.6%)||31||12||43||46||2||48||0||2||2|
|Oklahoma||38||4||42||Semi-closed primary||139,443 (41.5%)||174,228 (51.9%)||17||1||18||21||1||22||0||2||2|
|Tennessee||67||8||75||Open primary||245,930 (66.1%)||120,800 (32.5%)||44||8||52||23||0||23||0||0||0|
|Texas||222||29||251||Open primary||936,004 (65.2%)||476,547 (33.2%)||147||21||168||75||0||75||0||8||8|
|Vermont||16||10||26||Open primary||18,338 (13.6%)||115,900 (85.7%)||0||5||5||16||5||21||0||0||0|
|Virginia||95||13||108||Open primary||504,741 (64.3%)||276,370 (35.2%)||62||12||74||33||0||33||0||1||1|
|Mar 5||Kansas||33||4||37||Closed caucus||12,593 (32.3%)||26,450 (67.7%)||10||4||14||23||0||23||0||0||0|
|Louisiana||51||8||59||Closed primary||221,733 (71.1%)||72,276 (23.2%)||37||6||43||14||0||14||0||2||2|
|Nebraska||25||5||30||Closed caucus||14,340 (42.9%)||19,120 (57.1%)||10||3||13||15||1||16||0||1||1|
|Mar 6||Maine||25||5||30||Closed caucus||1,232 SCD (35.5%)||2,231 SCD (64.3%)||8||4||12||17||1||18||0||0||0|
|Mar 1–8||Democrats Abroad||13||4[k]||17||Closed primary||10,689 (30.9%)||23,779 (68.9%)||4||2½||6½||9||½||9½||0||1||1|
|Mar 8||Michigan||130||17||147||Open primary||581,775 (48.3%)||598,943 (49.7%)||63||13||76||67||0||67||0||4||4|
|Mississippi||36||5||41||Open primary||187,334 (82.5%)||37,748 (16.6%)||31||3||34||5||2||7||0||0||0|
|Mar 12||Northern Marianas||6||5||11||Closed caucus||102 (54.0%)||65 (34.4%)||4||5||9||2||0||2||0||0||0|
|Mar 15||Florida||214||32||246||Closed primary||1,101,414 (64.4%)||568,839 (33.3%)||141||24||165||73||2||75||0||6||6|
|Illinois||156||27||183||Open primary||1,039,555 (50.6%)||999,494 (48.6%)||79||24||103||77||1||78||0||1[j]||1[j]|
|Missouri||71||13||84||Open primary||312,285 (49.6%)||310,711 (49.4%)||36||11||47||35||0||35||0||2||2|
|North Carolina||107||14||121||Semi-closed primary||622,915 (54.5%)||467,018 (40.9%)||60||9||69||47||2||49||0||3||3|
|Ohio||143||17||160||Semi-open primary||696,681 (56.1%)||535,395 (43.1%)||81||16||97||62||1||63||0||0||0|
|Mar 22||Arizona||75||10||85||Closed primary||262,459 (56.3%)||192,962 (41.4%)||42||6||48||33||1||34||0||3||3|
|Idaho||23||4||27||Open caucus||5,065 (21.2%)||18,640 (78.0%)||5||1||6||18||2||20||0||1||1|
|Utah||33||4||37||Semi-open caucus||15,666 (20.3%)||61,333 (79.3%)||6||2||8||27||2||29||0||0||0|
|Mar 26||Alaska||16||4||20||Closed caucus||2,146 (20.2%)||8,447 (79.6%)||3||1||4||13||1||14||0||2||2|
|Hawaii||25||9||34||Semi-closed caucus||10,125 (30.0%)||23,530 (69.8%)||8||5||13||17||2||19||0||2||2|
|Washington||101||17||118||Open caucus||7,140 LDD (27.1%)||19,159 LDD (72.7%)||27||11||38||74||0||74||0||6||6|
|Apr 5||Wisconsin||86||10||96||Open primary||433,739 (43.1%)||570,192 (56.6%)||38||9||47||48||1||49||0||0||0|
|Apr 9||Wyoming||14||4||18||Closed caucus||124 SCD (44.3%)||156 SCD (55.7%)||7||4||11||7||0||7||0||0||0|
|Apr 19||New York||247||44||291||Closed primary||1,133,980 (57.5%)||820,256 (41.6%)||139||41||180||108||0||108||0||3||3|
|Apr 26||Connecticut||55||16||71||Closed primary||170,045 (51.8%)||152,379 (46.4%)||28||15||43||27||0||27||0||1||1|
|Delaware||21||11||32||Closed primary||55,954 (59.8%)||36,662 (39.2%)||12||11||23||9||0||9||0||0||0|
|Maryland||95||24||119||Closed primary||573,242 (62.5%)||309,990 (33.8%)||60||17||77||35||1||36||0||6||6|
|Pennsylvania||189||19||208||Closed primary||935,107 (55.6%)||731,881 (43.5%)||106||19||125||83||0||83||0||1||1|
|Rhode Island||24||9||33||Semi-closed primary||52,749 (43.1%)||66,993 (54.7%)||11||9||20||13||0||13||0||0||0|
|May 3||Indiana||83||9||92||Open primary||303,705 (47.5%)||335,074 (52.5%)||39||7||46||44||0||44||0||2||2|
|May 7||Guam||7||5||12||Closed caucus||777 (59.5%)||528 (40.5%)||4||5||9||3||0||3||0||0||0|
|May 10||Nebraska||N/A||Closed primary||42,692 (53.1%)||37,744 (46.9%)||Non-binding primary with no delegates allocated.|
|West Virginia||29||8||37||Semi-closed primary||86,914 (35.8%)||124,700 (51.4%)||11||6||17||18||2||20||0||0||0|
|May 17||Kentucky||55||5||60||Closed primary||212,534 (46.8%)||210,623 (46.3%)||28||2||30||27||0||27||0||3||3|
|Oregon||61||13||74||Closed primary||269,846 (42.1%)||360,829 (56.2%)||25||7||32||36||3||39||0||3||3|
|May 24||Washington||N/A||Open primary[l]||420,461 (52.4%)||382,293 (47.6%)||Non-binding primary with no delegates allocated.|
|Jun 4||Virgin Islands||7||5||12||Closed caucus||1,326 (87.12%)||196 (12.88%)||7||5||12||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Jun 5||Puerto Rico||60||7||67||Open primary||52,658 (59.7%)||33,368 (37.9%)||37||6||43||23||0||23||0||1||1|
|Jun 7||California||475||76||551||Semi-closed primary||2,745,302 (53.1%)||2,381,722 (46.0%)||254||66||320||221||0||221||0||10||10|
|Montana||21||6||27||Open primary||55,805 (44.2%)||65,156 (51.6%)||10||5||15||11||1||12||0||0||0|
|New Jersey||126||16||142||Semi-closed primary||566,247 (63.3%)||328,058 (36.7%)||79||12||91||47||2||49||0||2||2|
|New Mexico||34||9||43||Closed primary||111,334 (51.5%)||104,741 (48.5%)||18||9||27||16||0||16||0||0||0|
|North Dakota||18||5||23||Open caucus[m]||106 SCD (25.6%)||258 SCD (64.2%)||5||1||6||13||1||14||0||3||3|
|South Dakota||20||5||25||Semi-closed primary||27,047 (51.0%)||25,959 (49.0%)||10||2||12||10||0||10||0||3||3|
|Jun 14||District of Columbia||20||25||45||Closed primary||76,704 (78.0%)||20,361 (20.7%)||16||23||39||4||2||6||0||0||0|
|Calculated delegates||Popular vote or equivalent||Clinton delegates||Sanders delegates||Available delegates|
Superdelegates are elected officials and members of the Democratic National Committee who will vote at the Democratic National Convention for their preferred candidate. Also known as unpledged delegates, they comprise 15% of the convention (712 votes out of 4,763) and they may change their preference at any time, the table below reflects current public endorsements of candidates by superdelegates, as detailed and sourced in the full list above. Because commonly referenced estimates of superdelegate support, including those by CNN and the AP, do not identify individual delegates as supporting a given candidate, their published tallies may differ from the totals computed here.
|Distinguished party leaders||Governors||Senators||Representatives||DNC members||Totals|
Note: Democrats Abroad Superdelegates are assigned half-votes; each of them accounts for ½ rather than 1 in the table above.
Voter suppression and electoral fraud
Widespread efforts to rework the voting system in Hillary Clinton's favor occurred throughout the primary contests. Regarding the Iowa caucus on February 1st, the Des Moines Register reported numerous instances of missing voter registrations, poorly run polling locations, and other problems, then called for an audit of the contest's results.  Problems like these kept appearing as the primaries went on, with former senate minority leader Harry Reid having directed a back room deal to get Clinton more votes than Bernie Sanders in the Nevada caucus and former president Bill Clinton having blocked a polling place in the Massachusetts primary.
Voter suppression occurred in Arizona, where polling locations were drastically reduced before the state's primary and voting hours were made inconvenient for many people, it also happened in New York, where the New York Times reported major voter roll purges leading up to the primary and election irregularities on the voting day. As well as in California, where Election Justice USA reported 75% of registered independents received invalid ballots, voter rolls were purged leading up to the voting, and independents were largely excluded on voting day through the at-the-time undisclosed requirement that they must say "I want a crossover ballot." Voter suppression was most blatant in the Illinois contest, where college students were refused voter registrations before the voting day and threatened with arrest for trying to vote at the polls.
Additional irregularities included the documented disappearance of thousands of Sanders votes in the Kentucky and Oregon contests, and the closing of polling locations leading up to the contests in Rhode Island and Indiana.  This was followed by drastically reduced polling places and suppression of Sanders campaign volunteers in the Puerto Rico primary. There were also major inconsistencies between exit polls and the reported results in many contests, and reported vote models in those contests that followed shapes which were statistically impossible for how authentic vote models are formed, near the end of the primaries, two researchers from Stanford University published a paper which concluded there was a 1 in 77 billion chance that the reported results could have fit these exit polls.
Democratic Party articles
- Results of the Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
- Nationwide opinion polling for the Democratic Party 2016 presidential primaries
- Statewide opinion polling for the Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
- Democratic Party presidential candidates, 2016
- Democratic Party presidential debates, 2016
- Democratic Party presidential primaries
- Green Party presidential primaries, 2016
- Libertarian Party presidential primaries, 2016
- Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016
- 2016 Constitution Party National Convention
- 2016 Democratic National Convention
- 2016 Green National Convention
- 2016 Libertarian National Convention
- 2016 Republican National Convention
- Does not include popular vote totals from Iowa, Maine, Nevada, North Dakota, Washington, Wyoming, or non-binding primaries
- In US elections, suspending a campaign allows candidates to cease active campaigning while still legally raising funds to pay off their debts.
- According to popular vote or pledged delegate count (not counting superdelegates); see below for detail.
- Pledged delegates split evenly between Sanders and Clinton.
- Hillary Clinton won the non-binding Nebraska Democratic Primary.
- Hillary Clinton won the non-binding Washington Democratic Primary.
- Differences between types:
- Open: Anyone can participate regardless of their registered party affiliation.
- Semi-open: Anyone can participate except registered Republicans.
- Semi-closed: Only registered Democrats or undeclared can participate.
- Closed: Only registered Democrats can participate.
- Differences between types:
- CD: 'Popular vote' tallies the county delegates.
- LDD: 'Popular vote' tallies the legislative district delegates.
- SCD: 'Popular vote' tallies the state convention delegates.
- SDE: 'Popular vote' tallies the state delegate equivalents.
- Pledged delegates are elected with the understanding that they will support a specific candidate.
Unpledged delegates (superdelegates) are not required to voice support for a specific candidate.
- One Illinois superdelegate is still committed to O'Malley. Therefore, the total number of available delegates is one less than expected.
- There are 8 unpledged delegates from Democrats Abroad that each cast half a vote at the national convention.
- Open to all voters excluding those who caucused with the Republicans on February 20.
- Open to all voters, though those who attend must state they will identify as a Democrat for the 2016 election.
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- See the timeline in 2008 Democratic primaries.
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