This article is about the demographic features of the population of Burkina Faso, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Burkina Faso's 19.8 million people belong to two major West African cultural groups—the Gur and the Mandé. The Voltaic are far more numerous and include the Mossi, who make up about one-half of the population; the Mossi claim descent from warriors who migrated to present-day Burkina Faso and established an empire that lasted more than 800 years. Predominantly farmers, the Mossi are still bound by the traditions of the Mogho Naba, who hold court in Ouagadougou. About 12,000 Europeans reside in the majority of whom are French. Most of Burkina Faso's population is concentrated in the south and center of the country, with a population density sometimes exceeding 48 inhabitants per square kilometer; this population density, high for Africa, causes annual migrations of hundreds of thousands of Burkinabé to Ivory Coast and Ghana for seasonal agricultural work.
About a third of Burkinabé adhere to traditional African religions. The introduction of Islam to Burkina Faso was resisted by the Mossi rulers. Christians, predominantly Roman Catholics, are concentrated among the urban elite. Few Burkinabé have had formal education. Schooling is free but not compulsory, only about 29% of Burkina's primary school-age children receive a basic education; the University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974, was the country's first institution of higher education. The Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995. According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 19,751,466 in 2018, compared to only 4,284,000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 45.3%, 52.4% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.2% was 65 years or older. Registration of vital events is in Burkina Faso not complete; the Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Fertility data as of 2013: Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.
One birth every 42 seconds One death every 3 minutes One net migrant every 21 minutes Net gain of one person every 55 secondsThe following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, putting increasing pressure on the country’s limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of 6 children. If fertility were reduced, today’s large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso’s large working-age population.
20,107,509 Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS.
Calcutta If You Must Exile Me is the best known single poem of the renowned Indian English poet and media personality Pritish Nandy. The poem is anthologised in major Indian English poetry collections and is regarded as a pioneering classic in modern Indian English writing; the poem is remarkable for its breathless tempo, vivid imagery and unsuppressed angst at societal decadence. The poem is addressed to the Indian city of Kolkata. Calcutta if you must exile me wound my lips before I go only words remain and the gentle touch of your fingers on my lips Calcutta burn my eyes before I go into the night the headless corpse in a Dhakuria bylane the battered youth his brains blown out and the silent vigil that takes you to Pataldanga lane where they will gun you down without vengeance or hate*******I will show you the fatigue of that woman who died near Chitpur out of sheer boredom and the cages of Burrabazar where passion hides the wrinkle of virgins who have aged waiting for a sexless war that never came only obscene lust remains in their eyes after time has wintered their exacting thighs and I will show you the hawker who died with Calcutta in his eyes Calcutta if you must exile me destroy my sanity before I go******* The poem was written in the late 1970s or early 1980s.
The poet himself reminiscences in a 2009 interview that the poem describes his feelings of a city he left 27 years ago. The poet was a resident of Calcutta, in the poet's own words, the poem is based on his direct real life experience of the city; the poem evokes the mood of a man bred in Calcutta and living in Calcutta. The poem is notable for its fast tempo, impassioned conversational diction and sharp images depicting the "brutalities of city life; the most unusual feature of the poem is that it does not have a single punctuation mark - no comma, fullstop or hyphen. In fact, the entire poem is composed only of words, without any hyphenation or fancy spacing as a rebellion against regimentation of any poetic structure; such a style was a trendsetter during the period of its composition. In the poem, although Nandy portrays the ruthlessness prevalent in the city, he loves the city so much that he does not want to leave it; the unique style of the poem has inspired many modern Indian poets. The poem was harbinger of a new style of realistic writing on urban life in fast paced tempo.
Although the poem has spawned many imitations, none has equalled the power and majesty of the original. This poem brought a breath of fresh air true in an Indian environment and starkly different from the mainstream Indian writings of the day. Text of Full Poem pritish Nandy - A Short Biography Indian poetry Indian Writing in English Popular Indian Poems
1628 Strobel, provisional designation 1923 OG, is a carbonaceous asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt 55 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 11 September 1923, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany, named after ARI-astronomer Willi Strobel. Strobel orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–3.2 AU once every 5 years and 3 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 19 ° with respect to the ecliptic. Strobel's observation arc begins two nights after its official discovery observation at Heidelberg in 1923. Strobel is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid, it is classified as a P-type by WISE and as a X-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS. American astronomer Richard Binzel obtained the first rotational lightcurve of Strobel in May 1984, it gave a rotation period of 11.80 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.22 magnitude. In May 2005, photometric observations by French amateur astronomer Laurent Bernasconi gave a shorter period of 9.52 hours and a brightness change of 0.20 magnitude.
According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Strobel measures between 51.15 and 59.35 kilometers in diameter, its surface has an albedo between 0.047 and 0.06. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0504 and a diameter of 57.06 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 10.08. This minor planet was named in honor of Willi Strobel, staff member at Astronomisches Rechen-Institut since 1938, author of the 1963-edition of Identifizierungsnachweis der Kleinen Planeten; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 20 February 1976. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1628 Strobel at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1628 Strobel at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Salon Pedal is a color lithograph on paper designed in 1897 by the Catalan artist Alexandre de Riquer. The print's design evokes the decorative style seen in Modernisme art; the artwork is in Barcelona. Els Quatre Gats is a famous cafe and considered as one of the main generators of the cultural movement known as Modernisme, it was the scene of lively conversations between Catalan artists Santiago Rusinol, Ramon Casas, Maurice Utrillo, Pablo Picasso and Isidre Nonell. Casas decorated the cafe with two large paintings: "one, entitled Ramon Casas and Pere Romeu on a Tandem, features the painter with Pere Romeu, the owner of the cafe, on a bicycle; these works represent the beginning of Modernisme, the movement's interest in "mechanical innovations and the fascination of the painters and sculptors of this century for everything that went on around them. This is how sporting events became subjects for their works." Giving the poster its allure, a female cyclist dressed in a black and white dress with hints of red details on her sash and bow, is the main focus.
Framing this central figure in the simplistic composition is a rich border of floral ornamentation. Taking inspiration from English graphic art, "Riquer incorporated elements from many diverse influences; as an example and as others have noted, Salon Pedal, evokes Japanese printmaking." Riquer combined the aesthetics of the Gothic and japonism, which results to an "expressive quality of line enclosing flat surfaces imbued with subtle harmonies of color that gives the composition an antirealist feel in line with idealized, symbolist subject matter." Alexandre de Riquer i Ynglada, 7th Count of Casa Dávalos, was a versatile artistic intellectual and Catalan Spanish designer, painter, engraver and poet. He was one of the leading figures of Modernism in Catalonia. Riquer studied at Béziers, located in France from 1869 to 1871. For his interest in drawing classes, he enrolled in the School of Fine Arts in Toulouse of Languedoc. In the year 1894, he was introduced to the movement of the pre-Raphaelites.
Riquer distinguished himself as a graphic designer with great drawing skills. He created posters, illustrations, postcards, menus, sheet music, business cards, bookplates. Salon Pedal is one of Alexandre de Riquer's notable works which he created during the evolution of his art career as a professional graphic artist in Barcelona, he was known to experiment with many different styles from the beginning of his art training. Examples of his work can be found in many different locations in Barcelona; some of which are the decoration for the chemist shop on the corner of Carrer Nou de la Rambla, the lobby of the Cercle del Liceu, the Great Hall of the Industrial Institute in Terrassa, the interior decoration of the Cafe Català. Art i esport a Catalunya: exposició: pintura, escultura i dibuix, fotografia: Barcelona, Palau Robert, July–September 1992. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, 1992. Homage to Barcelona: the city and its art 1888-1936. London: Arts Council of Great Britain, cop. 1985. Trenc Ballester, Elisu.
Alexandre de Riquer: 1856-1920: the British connection in Catalan modernisme. Sheffield: The Anglo-Catalan Society, 1988. Arteaga y Pereira, Fernando DE. A Spanish Painter: Alijandro de Riquer. En: The Studio: An Illustrated Magazine of Fine and Applied Art, vol. 19, pp. 180–187. Homage to Catalonia, Barcelona art city: 11 April - 17 May 1987, The Hyogo. Prefectural Museum of Modern Art, Kobe.. The Museum of Fine Arts, Gifu Kobe. 1987 Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. MNAC: Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya: guide. Barcelona: MNAC, 2005. ISBN 8480431385 Museum's website El cartell modern a les col·leccions del MNAC
Ignacio Truyol-Turrión is a former professional tennis player from Spain. He was the first tennis player to be suspended for testing positive to a banned drug. Born in Madrid, Truyol had a breakthrough season in 1996 when he came close to breaking into the top 100. Beginning the year ranked 238, by August he had made it to 104 in the world. In his first main draw appearance in an ATP Tour tournament, at the Trofeo Conde de Godó in Barcelona, Truyol reached the third round, with wins over Sándor Noszály and world number 25 Paul Haarhuis. A qualifier, he managed to take eventual finalist Marcelo Ríos to three sets before being eliminated. Soon after he reached the second round of the Oporto Open and won his first Challenger title, in Istanbul, he made his third ATP Tour appearance that season in Indianapolis and had an opening round win over the previous year's runner-up, Bernd Karbacher. In the second round he was beaten in three sets by Àlex Corretja, he made further main draw appearances in Bournemouth and Tel Aviv to close out the year.
It was announced in 1997 that Truyol had tested positive for an anabolic steroid and stimulant during a Challenger tournament the previous year in Ostend, Belgium. Truyol claimed that the drugs and pemoline, were prescribed by a Spanish physician for a chronic back injury, he was banned from all competition for one-year. The first player in history to be given a drugs ban, Truyol told a Spanish newspaper that he felt like a "guinea pig" and believed that if it had been Peter Sampras or Andre Agassi who had tested positive they would not have been suspended. Truyol didn't return to tennis until 1999 and made the semi-finals of Challenger events in Segovia and Budapest in his first year back. Before retiring in 2001 he tried unsuccessfully to qualify for the French Open, Wimbledon and US Open. Ignacio Truyol at the Association of Tennis Professionals Ignacio Truyol at the International Tennis Federation
Active optics is a technology used with reflecting telescopes developed in the 1980s, which shapes a telescope's mirrors to prevent deformation due to external influences such as wind, mechanical stress. Without active optics, the construction of 8 metre class telescopes is not possible, nor would telescopes with segmented mirrors be feasible; this method is used by, among others, the Nordic Optical Telescope, the New Technology Telescope, the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and the Keck telescopes, as well as all of the largest telescopes built since the mid-1990s. Active optics is not to be confused with adaptive optics, which operates at a shorter timescale and corrects atmospheric distortions. Most modern telescopes are reflectors, with the primary element being a large mirror. Primary mirrors were quite thick in order to maintain the correct surface figure in spite of forces tending to deform it, like wind and the mirror's own weight; this limited their maximum diameter such as Palomar Observatory's Hale telescope.
A new generation of telescopes built since the 1980s uses thin, lighter weight mirrors instead. They are too thin to maintain themselves rigidly in the correct shape, so an array of actuators is attached to the rear side of the mirror; the actuators apply variable forces to the mirror body to keep the reflecting surface in the correct shape over repositioning. The telescope may be segmented into multiple smaller mirrors, which reduce the sagging due to weight that occurs for large, monolithic mirrors; the combination of actuators, an image quality detector, a computer to control the actuators to obtain the best possible image, is called active optics. The name active optics means that the system keeps a mirror in its optimal shape against environmental forces such as wind, thermal expansion, telescope axis deformation. Active optics compensate for distorting forces that change slowly on timescales of seconds; the telescope is therefore still, in its optimal shape. Active optics should not be confused with adaptive optics, which operates on a much shorter timescale to compensate for atmospheric effects, rather than for mirror deformation.
The influences that active optics compensate are intrinsically slower and have a larger amplitude in aberration. Adaptive optics on the other hand corrects for atmospheric distortions that affect the image at 100–1000 Hz; these corrections need to be much faster, but have smaller amplitude. Because of this, adaptive optics uses smaller corrective mirrors; this used to be a separate mirror not integrated in the telescope's light path, but nowadays this can be the second, third or fourth mirror in a telescope. Complicated laser set-ups and interferometers can be stabilized. A small part of the beam leaks through beam steering mirrors and a four-quadrant-diode is used to measure the position of a laser beam and another in the focal plane behind a lens is used to measure the direction; the system can be made more noise-immune by using a PID controller. For pulsed lasers the controller should be locked to the repetition rate. A continuous pilot beam can be used to allow for up to 10 kHz bandwidth of stabilization for low repetition rate lasers.
Sometimes Fabry–Pérot interferometers have to be adjusted in length to pass a given wavelength. Therefore, the reflected light is extracted by means of a polarizer. Small changes of the incident wavelength generated by an acousto-optic modulator or interference with a fraction of the incoming radiation delivers the information whether the Fabry Perot is too long or too short. Long optical cavities are sensitive to the mirror alignment. A control circuit can be used to peak power. One possibility is to perform small rotations with one end mirror. If this rotation is about the optimum position, no power oscillation occurs. Any beam pointing oscillation can be removed using the beam steering mechanism mentioned above. X-ray active optics, using deformable grazing incidence mirrors, are being investigated. Adaptive optics – faster technology for smaller aberrations. Telescope Active surface – similar technology for radio telescopes. List of telescope parts and construction An introduction to active & adaptive optics Active optics on ESO's NTT.
Active optics at the Gran Telescopio Canarias