This article is about the demographic features of the population of Cambodia, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Between 1874 and 1921, the total population of Cambodia increased from about 946,000 to 2.4 million. By 1950, it had increased to between 3,710,107 and 4,073,967, in 1962 it had reached 5.7 million. From the 1960s until 1975, the population of Cambodia increased by about 2.2% yearly, the lowest increase in Southeast Asia. By 1975 when the Khmer Rouge took power, it was estimated at 7.3 million. Of this total an estimated one to two million died between 1975 and 1978. In 1981, the PRK gave the official population figure as nearly 6.7 million, although 6.3 million to 6.4 million is more accurate. The average annual rate of population growth from 1978 to 1985 was 2.3%. A post-Khmer Rouge baby boom pushed the population above 10 million, although growth has slowed in recent years.
In 1959, about 45% of the population was under 15 years of age. By 1962, this had increased to 46%. In 1962, an estimated 52% of the population was between 15 and 64 years of age, while 2% were older than 65; the percentage of males and females in the three groups was the same. Structure of the population: Births and deaths The total fertility rate in Cambodia was 3.0 children per woman in 2010. The fertility rate was 4.0 children in 2000. Women in urban areas have 2.2 children on average, compared with 3.3 children per woman in rural areas. Fertility is highest in Mondol Kiri and Rattanak Kiri Provinces, where women have an average of 4.5 children, lowest in Phnom Penh where women have an average of 2.0 children. Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Total fertility rate and other related statistics by province, as of 2014: Childhood mortality rates are decreasing in Cambodia; the infant mortality rate is 45 deaths per 1,000 live births for the five-year period before the survey compared with 66 deaths reported in the 2005 CDHS and 95 in the 2000 CDHS.
Under-five mortality rates have decreased from 124 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2000, 83 deaths in 2005 to 54 deaths per 1,000 in 2010. Childhood mortality decreases markedly with mother's wealth. Infant mortality, for example, is twice as high among children whose mothers have no schooling compared to those with secondary or higher education; the association with wealth is stronger. There are 77 deaths per 1,000 live births among infants from the poorest households compared to only 23 deaths per 1,000 live births among infants from the richest households. Mortality rates are much higher in rural than urban areas. Infant mortality, for example, is 64 deaths per 1,000 live births in rural areas compared to only 22 in urban areas. Mortality differs by province. Infant mortality ranges from only 13 deaths per 1,000 live births in Phnom Penh to 78 deaths per 1,000 live births in Kampong Chhnang and Svay Rieng. In 1959, life expectancy at birth was 43.3 years for females. By 1970, life expectancy had increased by about 2.5 years since 1945.
The greater longevity for females reflected improved health practices during maternity and childbirth. Source: UN World Population Prospects The largest of the ethnic groups in Cambodia are the Khmer, who comprise 90% of the total population and inhabit the lowland Mekong subregion and the central plains; the Khmer have lived near the lower Mekong River in a contiguous arc that runs from the southern Khorat Plateau where modern-day Thailand and Cambodia meet in the northeast, stretching southwest through the lands surrounding Tonle Sap lake to the Cardamom Mountains continues back southeast to the mouth of the Mekong River in southeastern Vietnam. Ethnic groups in Cambodia other than the politically and dominant Khmer are classified as either "indigenous ethnic minorities" or "non-indigenous ethnic minorities"; the indigenous ethnic minorities, more collectively referred to as the Khmer Loeu, constitute the majority in the remote mountainous provinces of Ratanakiri and Stung Treng and are present in substantial numbers in Kratie Province.
17-21 separate ethnic groups, most of whom speak Austroasiatic languages related to Khmer, are included in the Khmer Loeu designation, including the Kuy and Tampuan people. These peoples are considered by the Khmer to be the aboriginal inhabitants of the land. Two of these highland groups, the Rade and the Jarai, are Chamic peoples who speak Austronesian languages descended from ancient Cham; these indigenous ethnic minorities haven't integrated into Khmer culture and follow their traditional animist beliefs. The non-indigenous ethnic minorities include immigrants and their descendants who live among the Khmer and have adopted, at least nominally, Khmer culture and language; the three groups most included are the Chinese Cambodians and Cham peoples. The Chinese have immigrated to Cambodia from different regions of China throughout Cambodia's history, integrating into Cambodian society and today Chinese Cambodians or Cambodians of mixed Sino-Khmer ancestry dominate the business community and the media.
The Cham are descendants of refugees from the various wars of the historical kingdom of Champa. The Cham live amongst the Khmer in the central plains but in contrast to the Khmer who are Theravada Buddhists, the vast majority of Cham follow Islam. There are small numbers of other minority
The Trilogie – Three Journeyes Through the Norwegian Netherworlde, sometimes shortened to The Trilogie, is a box set of albums by Norwegian black metal band Ulver, issued in 1997 via Century Media. Limited to 1000 copies, the set collects together Ulver's first three full-length albums, Bergtatt and Nattens madrigal in LP Picture Disc format, housed in a cardboard box, with a booklet & bonus posters; the set commemorates Ulver's black metal phase, before shifting styles into more ambient and experimental music. All tracks are written by Ulver. All tracks are written by Garm. All lyrics are written by Garm
Leuthen was the given name to a wolfpack of German U-boats that operated during the World War II Battle of the Atlantic in 1943 from 15 September 1943 to 24 September 1943 Leuthen was formed in September 1943 and was established to renew the attack on the North Atlantic route. Following the defeats of May 1943, the devastating losses incurred by the U- boat Arm Admiral Dönitz had withdrawn from attacks on the North Atlantic route while awaiting tactical and technical improvements. By September 1943 these were ready. Leuthen operated against convoys ONS ON 202, which were travelling together. Leuthen was disbanded at the end of September; the name "Leuthen" was a reference to the battle of Leuthen fought by Frederick the Great during the Seven Years' War. Showell, Jak P M. U-Boat Warfare: The Evolution of the Wolf-Pack. ISBN 0-7110-2887-7
The Accentor-class minesweeper, sometimes called the Accentor/Acme-class minesweeper, was a small minesweeper used by the United States Navy during World War II. The Accentor-class minesweeper was designed for the sweeping of mines in harbors and other littoral waters; the ships of the class were wooden-hulled with a draft between 8 feet 11 inches and 10 feet 8 inches. The Accentor-class minesweepers were armed with a pair of.50 caliber machine guns for protection. Rather than creating new minesweeping vessels, forty-five wooden-hulled fishing boats were converted into Accentor-class minesweepers. Since these converted fishing boats were not all the same, their specifications varied slightly; the converted fishing boats had a displacement from 165 to 270 long tons. They had speeds from 8.5 knots up to 14 knots and crews from as small as fifteen up to 50. In World War II, the Accentor-class minesweepers were used to sweep mines in harbors and other littoral waters, due to their small size; the minesweepers were used to remove mines placed defensively in harbors and coastal waters by the United States Navy.
After World War II ended and most postwar minesweeping tasks had been completed, the Accentor-class minesweepers were declared surplus to naval needs. By the end of 1946, all 70 of the Accentor class were decommissioned, they were transferred to the United States Maritime Commission for disposal. The two.50 caliber machine guns and minesweeping equipment were removed by MARCOM, after which the vessels were sold to various American marine towing companies and fisheries to be used as civilian vessels. Ships of the U. S. Navy, 1940–1945 Minecraft
David Smith was a British professional wrestler. Born in Golborne, Smith is best known for his appearances in the United States with the World Wrestling Federation under the ring names Davey Boy Smith and The British Bulldog, he was trained by Ted Betley in Winwick, England before relocating to Calgary, Canada to further his training under Stu Hart. While training with Hart, Smith met Stu and Helen Hart's youngest daughter Diana, whom he married on 7 October 1984. One of their two children, Harry, is a professional wrestler. Smith won titles within the WWF from the 1980s to the 2000s, he headlined multiple pay-per-view events in the WWF and WCW, in which he challenged for the WWF and WCW world heavyweight championships, defeated his real-life brother-in-law Bret Hart for the WWF Intercontinental Championship in the main event of SummerSlam 1992 at London's Wembley Stadium, in front of 80,355 people. He was the inaugural WWF European Champion and holds the records for longest single reign and total days as champion.
Prior to finding singles success, Smith achieved stardom as one half of The British Bulldogs tag team, alongside his cousin Dynamite Kid. Smith was born in Golborne, where he grew up with his father Sid, mother Joyce, his brother and sisters, Joanne and Tracy. Joyce was the sister of Bill Billington, the father of Tom Billington known as the Dynamite Kid, Smith's frequent tag-team partner. Smith had partial Italian ancestry. Smith started competing on ITV's World of Sport when he was only 15, wrestling under the name Young David with his older cousin the Dynamite Kid Tom Billington. Mentored by Billington's friend Alan Dennison, in 1979 Smith appeared to have won the British Welterweight championship from Jim Breaks only for the win to be disallowed due to Dennison distracting Breaks. Smith held Breaks to a 1-1 draw, as a result of which Dennison himself challenged and defeated Breaks for the belt. Smith was spotted by Bruce Hart, scouting talent in the UK, both he and Billington travelled to Canada to wrestle for Stu Hart.
Hart and Roy Wood trained Smith further in his "Dungeon" and Smith became a key wrestler in Hart's promotion, Stampede Wrestling. During his time in Stampede, Smith began a feud with the Dynamite Kid, on 9 July 1982, he won his first title when he defeated the Dynamite Kid for the Stampede British Commonwealth Mid-Heavyweight title. In 1983, Smith debuted in New Japan Pro Wrestling where he became involved in a three-way feud with Dynamite Kid and The Cobra over the NWA Junior Heavyweight Title. On 7 February 1984, a three-way, one-night tournament was held, Dynamite Kid won the tournament by defeating Smith via count-out, the Cobra by pinfall. After the tournament and Dynamite Kid formed a tag team in both New Japan and in Stampede Wrestling known as the British Bulldogs. In 1984, the Bulldogs made a shocking move by jumping to New Japan's rival, All Japan Pro Wrestling just before the start of All Japan's annual Tag Team tournament; the Bulldogs made a nice showing in the tournament, which drew the interest of the World Wrestling Federation.
The Bulldogs, along with Smith's brothers-in-law Bret Hart and Jim Neidhart were brought in to the World Wrestling Federation after Vince McMahon bought out Stampede Wrestling. At first, the Bulldogs were able to tour both WWF and All Japan, but McMahon gained exclusive rights to the Bulldogs. While in the WWF, the Bulldogs began a long running feud with Hart and Neidhart, who were now known as The Hart Foundation; the Bulldogs feuded with the Dream Team. At WrestleMania 2, with Lou Albano and Ozzy Osbourne in their corner, the Bulldogs defeated the Dream Team for the Tag Team Championship; the Bulldogs held the titles for nearly nine months, feuding with the Dream Team and Nikolai Volkoff and The Iron Sheik. On 26 January 1987 episode of Superstars, the Bulldogs lost the titles to the Hart Foundation due to a severe back injury to the Dynamite Kid. After losing the titles, the Bulldogs gained a mascot, an actual bulldog who went by the name Matilda, feuded with the likes of The Islanders and the Rougeau Brothers.
The Bulldogs left the WWF in 1988, in part due to backstage problems between the Bulldogs the Dynamite Kid, the Rougeau Brothers over a prank pulled by Curt Hennig. The Bulldogs, noted ribbers in their own right, were blamed: this led to a series of confrontations that culminated in Jacques Rougeau knocking out four of Dynamite Kid's teeth with a fist filled with a roll of quarters. Though there are various accounts of this situation, many suggest that Billington drew first blood by bullying Rougeau in Miami. No disciplinary action was taken against Jacques. Billington shortly afterwards quit the WWF over a dispute with WWF management over the issuance of complimentary plane tickets, over which he resigned from the company, Smith followed suit. After leaving the World Wrestling Federation, the Bulldogs returned to Stampede Wrestling, to All Japan Pro Wrestling. Stampede officials were hopeful that the return of the Bulldogs would revive a struggling promotion, but they were unsuccessful. In May 1989, the decision was made to split up the Bulldogs, which caused some problems with All Japan owner Shohei Baba, still promoting the Bulldogs as a tag team.
Summary jurisdiction, in the widest sense of the phrase, in English law includes the power asserted by courts of record to deal brevi manu with contempts of court without the intervention of a jury. The power was exercisable only when the fact was notorious, i.e. done in presence of the court. But it has long been exercised as to extra curial contempts; the term is applied to the special powers given by statute or rules to the High Court of Justice and to county courts for dealing with certain classes of causes or matters by methods more simple and expeditious than the ordinary procedure of an action. But the phrase in modern times is applied exclusively forms of jurisdiction exercised by justices of the peace out of general or quarter sessions, without the assistance. Since the creation of the office of justice of the peace the tendency of English legislation has been to enable them to deal with minor offences without a jury. Legislation was necessary because, as Blackstone says, except in the case of contempts the common law is a stranger to trial without a jury, because when an offence is created by statute the procedure for trying must be by indictment and trial before a jury, unless by the statute creating the offence or some other statute another mode of trial is provided.
In one remarkable instance power is given by an act of 1725 to judges of the superior courts summarily to sentence to transportation a solicitor practising after conviction of barratry, forgery or perjury. In other words all the summary jurisdiction of justices of the peace is the creation of statute; the history of the gradual development of the summary jurisdiction of justices of the peace is stated in Stephen's Hist. Crim. Law, vol. i. ch. 4. The result of legislation is that summary jurisdiction has been conferred by statutes and by-laws as to innumerable petty offences of a criminal or quasi-criminal character, ranging through every letter of the alphabet; the most important are those under the Army, Highway, Merchant Shipping, Post Office, Public Health and Vagrancy Acts. A court of summary jurisdiction is defined in the Interpretation Act 1889 as "any justice or justices of the peace or other magistrate, by whatever name called, to whom jurisdiction is given by, or, authorized to act under, the Summary Jurisdiction Acts, whether in England, Wales or Ireland, whether acting under the Summary Jurisdiction Acts or any of them or any other act or by virtue of his commission or under the common law".
This definition does not apply to justices of the peace sitting to hold a preliminary inquiry as to indictable offences, or in the discharge of their quasi-administrative functions as licensing authority. The expression "Summary Jurisdiction Acts" means as to England and Wales the Summary Jurisdiction Acts of 1848 and 1879 and any act amending these acts or either of them; these acts define the procedure to be followed by justices in those cases in which they are empowered by statute to hear and determine civil or criminal cases without the intervention of a jury or the forms of an action or indictment at law or a suit in equity. Besides these two acts the procedure as to the exercise of summary jurisdiction is regulated by acts of 1857, 1884 and 1899, by the Summary Jurisdiction Process Act 1881; the act of 1848 consolidated the provisions of a large number of earlier acts. The act of 1857 provided a mode of appeal to the High Court by case stated as to questions of law raised in summary proceedings.
The act of 1879 amended the procedure in many details with the view of uniformity, enlarged the powers of justices to deal summarily with certain classes of offences ordinarily punishable on indictment. The act gives power to make rules regulating details of procedure; the rules in force in 1911 have since been amended in certain details. The act of 1884 swept away special forms of procedure contained in a large number of statutes, substituted the procedure of the Summary Jurisdiction Acts; the act of 1899 added the obtaining of property by false pretences to the list of indictable offences that could sub modo be summarily dealt with. The statutes above mentioned form a kind of code as to procedure and to some extent as to jurisdiction; as stated, to enable a justice to deal summarily with an offence, whether created by statute or by-law, some statutory authority must be shown. A large number of petty offences have been created, are annually being created by legislation, or by the by-laws of corporations made under statutory authority, or by departments of state acting under such authority.
The two latter classes differ from the first in the necessity of proving by evidence the existence of the by-law or statutory rule, if need be that it is intra vires. In the case of offences punishable only on summary conviction, the accused, if the maximum punishment is imprisonment for over three months, can choose a jury trial. In the case of offences punishable only on indictment, power to convict summarily is given in the following cases: All indictable offences committed by children over seven and under twelve, if the court thinks it expedient and the parent or guardian does not object. All indictable offences committed by young persons of twelve and under sixteen, if