The Palestinian people referred to as Palestinians or Palestinian Arabs, are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, who today are culturally and linguistically Arab. Despite various wars and exoduses one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel. In this combined area, as of 2005, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants, encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip, the majority of the population of the West Bank and 20.8% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel. Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip, about 750,000 in the West Bank and about 250,000 in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless, lacking citizenship in any country.
Between 2.1 and 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan, over 1 million live between Syria and Lebanon and about 750,000 live in Saudi Arabia, with Chile's half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Middle East. Palestinian Christians and Muslims constituted 90% of the population of Palestine in 1919, just before the third wave of Jewish immigration under the post-WW1 British Mandatory Authority, opposition to which spurred the consolidation of a unified national identity, fragmented as it was by regional, class and family differences; the history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars. Legal historian Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century, when an embryonic desire among Palestinians for self-government in the face of generalized fears that Zionism would lead to a Jewish state and the dispossession of the Arab majority crystallised among most editors and Muslim, of local newspapers.
"Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by Palestinian Arabs in a limited way until World War I. After the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948 and more so after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of origin but the sense of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state. Modern Palestinian identity now encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period. Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization is an umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before international states; the Palestinian National Authority established in 1994 as a result of the Oslo Accords, is an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in Palestinian population centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People. According to Perry Anderson, it is estimated that half of the population in the Palestinian territories are refugees and that they have collectively suffered US$300 billion in property losses due to Israeli confiscations, at 2008–09 prices.
The Greek toponym Palaistínē, with which the Arabic Filastin is cognate, first occurs in the work of the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes the coastal land from Phoenicia down to Egypt. Herodotus employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the'Syrians of Palestine' or'Palestinian-Syrians', an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians. Herodotus makes other inhabitants of Palestine; the Greek word reflects an ancient Eastern Mediterranean-Near Eastern word, used either as a toponym or ethnonym. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati has been conjectured to refer to the "Sea Peoples" the Philistines. Among Semitic languages, Akkadian Palaštu is used of 7th-century Philistia and its, by four city states. Biblical Hebrew's cognate word Plištim, is translated Philistines. Syria Palestina continued to be used by historians and geographers and others to refer to the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, as in the writings of Philo and Pliny the Elder.
After the Romans adopted the term as the official administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, "Palestine" as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in inscriptions and in rabbinic texts. The Arabic word Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers, it appears to have been used as an Arabic adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century CE. The Arabic newspaper Falasteen, published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as "Palestinians". During the Mandatory Palestine period, the term "Palestinian" was used to refer to all people residing there, regardless of religion or ethnicity, those granted citizenship by the British Mandatory authorities were granted "Palestinian citizenship". Other examples include the use of the term Palestine Regiment to refer to the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group of the British Army during World War II, the term "Palestinian Talmud", an alternative nam
An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni
Demographics of Afghanistan
The population of Afghanistan is around 33 million as of 2016, which includes the 3 million Afghan citizens living as refugees in both Pakistan and Iran. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between Central Asia, Southern Asia, Western Asia, its largest ethnic group is the Pashtun, followed by Tajik, Uzbek, Turkmen, Baloch and a few others. 46% of the population is under 15 years of age, 74% of all Afghans live in rural areas. The average woman gives birth to five children during her entire life and 6.8% of all babies die in child-birth or infancy. Life expectancy was reported in 2015 at 60.5 years and only 0.04% of the population has HIV. Pashto and Dari are both the official languages of the country. Dari, known as the Afghan Persian, functions as the lingua franca. Pashto is used in the region south of the Hindu Kush mountains and the Indus River in neighboring Pakistan. Uzbek and Turkmen are smaller languages spoken in parts of the north.
Multilingualism is common throughout the country in the major cities. Islam is the religion of more than 99% of Afghanistan's citizens. 90% of the population practice Sunni Islam and belong to the Hanafi Islamic law school, while 7–15% are followers of Shia Islam. The remaining 1 % or less practice other religions such as Hinduism. Excluding urban populations in the principal cities, most People are organized into tribal and other kinship-based groups, who follow their own traditional customs, for instance Pashtuns Pashtunwali; the majority of the country's population lives in rural areas and is involved in agricultural activities. As of 2016, the total population of Afghanistan is around 33,332,025, which includes the 3 million Afghan nationals living in both Pakistan and Iran. Afghanistan's Central Statistics Organization stated in 2011 that the total number of Afghans living inside Afghanistan was about 26 million and by 2017 it reached 29.2 million. Of this, 15 million are males and 14.2 million are females.
About 22% of the population is urbanite and the remaining 78% live in rural areas. The population was reported in 1979 at about 15.5 million. From 1979 until the end of 1983, some 5 million people left the country to take shelter in neighboring northwestern Pakistan and eastern Iran; this exodus was unchecked by any government. The Afghan government in 1983 reported a population of 15.96 million, which included the exodus. It is assumed that 600,000 to as high as 2 million Afghans may have been killed during the various 1979–2001 wars; these figures are questionable and no attempt has been made to verify them. The country's population is expected to reach 82 million by 2050. Urban areas have experienced rapid population growth in the last decade, due to the return of over 5 million expats; the only city in Afghanistan with over a million residents is Kabul. The other largest cities in the country are shown in the chart below. 0–14 years: 42.3% 15–64 years: 55.3% 65 years and over: 2.4% In 1979, the population was reported to be about 15.5 million.
2.32% country comparison to the world: 39 urbanization population: 24% of the total population rate of urbanization: 5.4% annual rate of change at birth: 1.05 male/female under 15 years: 1.05 male/female 15–64 years: 1.05 male/female 65 years and over: 0.93 male/female total population: 1.05 male/female Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Structure of the population: total population: 60.5 years country comparison to the world: 214 male: 59.3 years female: 61.9 years Source: UN World Population Prospects Definition: People over the age of 15 that can read and write Total population: 38.2% Male: 52% Female: 24.2% total: 11 years male: 13 years female: 8 years 0.04% Up to 6,900 In 2008, health officials in Afghanistan reported 504 cases of people living with HIV but by the end of 2012 the numbers reached 1,327. The nation's healthy ministry stated that most of the HIV patients were among intravenous drug users and that 70% of them were men, 25% women, the remaining 5% children, they belonged to Kabul and Herat, the provinces from where people make the most trips to neighboring and foreign countries.
Regarding Kandahar, 22 cases were reported in 2012. "AIDS Prevention department head Dr Hamayoun Rehman said 1,320 blood samples were examined and 21 were positive. Among the 21 patients, 18 were males and three were females who contracted the deadly virus from their husbands, he said. The main source of the disease was the use of syringes used by drug addicts." There are 23,000 addicts in the country who inject drugs into their bodies using syringescountry comparison to the world: 168 Up to 300 Degree of risk: high Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever Vector-borne diseases: malaria Animal contact diseases: rabiesNote: WH5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country. In August 2017, a nationwide distribution of e-ID cards is scheduled to begin; the ethnicity of each citizen
Syrians known as the Syrian people, are the majority inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry. The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Syrian people is a blend of both indigenous elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years; the Syrian Arab Republic has a population of 19.5 million as of 2018, in addition to 6 million Syrian refugees abroad, which includes minorities such as Kurds and others. The dominant racial group are the Syrian descendants of the old indigenous peoples who mixed with Arabs and identify themselves as such in addition to ethnic Arameans; the Syrian diaspora consists of 15 million people of Syrian ancestry who immigrated to North America, European Union member states, South America, the West Indies and Australia. The name "Syrians" was employed by the Romans to denote the inhabitants of Syria; the ethnic designation "Syrian" is derived from the word "Assyrian" and appeared in the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
Some argue that the discovery of the Çineköy inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria. The Greeks used the terms "Syrian" and "Assyrian" interchangeably to indicate the indigenous Arameans and other inhabitants of the Near East, Herodotus considered "Syria" west of the Euphrates. Starting from the 2nd century BC onwards, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria or King of the Syrians; the Seleucids designated the districts of Seleucis and Coele-Syria explicitly as Syria and ruled the Syrians as indigenous populations residing west of the Euphrates in contrast to Assyrians who had their native homeland in Mesopotamia east of the Euphrates. However, the interchangeability between Assyrians and Syrians persisted during the Hellenistic period. In one instance, the Ptolemies of Egypt reserved the term "Syrian Village" as the name of a settlement in Fayoum; the term "Syrians" is under debate whether it referred to Jews or to Arameans, as the Ptolemies referred to all peoples originating from Modern Syria and Palestine as Syrian.
The term Syrian was imposed upon Arameans of modern Levant by the Romans. Pompey created the province of Syria, which included modern-day Lebanon and Syria west of the Euphrates, framing the province as a regional social category with civic implications. Plutarch described the indigenous people of this newly created Roman province as "Syrians", so did Strabo, who observed that Syrians resided west of the Euphrates in Roman Syria, he explicitly mentions that those Syrians are the Arameans, whom he calls Aramaei, indicating an extant ethnicity. Posidonius noted. In his book The Great Roman-Jewish War, Josephus, a Hebrew native to the Levant, mentioned the Syrians as the non-Hebrew, non-Greek indigenous inhabitants of Syria; the Arabs called the Levant Al-Sham. The national and ethnic designation "Syrian" is one, reused and espoused by the Syrian people since the advent of modern nationalism, which emanated from Europe and began with the culmination of the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s. Syrians emerged from various origins.
Ancient Syria of the first millennium BC was dominated by the Aramaeans. The Seleucids ruled the Syrians as a conquered nation. Outside Greek colonies, the Syrians lived in districts governed by local temples that did not use the Greek civic system of poleis and colonies; the situation changed after the Roman conquest in 64 BC. The idioms Syrian and Greek were used by Rome to denote civic societies instead of separate ethnic groups; the Aramaeans assimilated the earlier populations through their language. Islam and the Arabic language had a similar effect where the Aramaeans themselves became Arabs regardless of their ethnic origin following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. On the eve of the Rashidun Caliphate conquest of the Levant, 634 AD, Syria's population spoke Aramaic. Arabization and Islamization of Syria began in the 7th century, it took several centuries for Islam, the Arab identity, language to spread; the Arabs accommodated many new tribes in isolated areas to avoid conflict with the locals.
Syrians who belonged to Monophysitic denominations welcomed the Arabs as liberators. The Abbasids in the eighth and ninth century sought to integrate the peoples under their authority, the arabization of the administration was one of the tools. Arabization gained momentum with the increasing numbers of Muslim converts.
Thai people or Thais known as Siamese, are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Central Thailand. Part of the larger Tai ethno-linguistic group native to Southeast Asia as well as southern China and Northeast India, Thais speak the Central Thai language, classified as part of the Tai–Kadai family of languages; the majority of Thais are followers of Theravada Buddhism. As a result of government policy during the 1930s and 1940s encouraging the assimilation of all the various ethno-linguistic groups in the country into the dominant Thai language and culture, the term Thai people has come to refer to the population of Thailand in general; this includes other subgroups of the Tai ethno-linguistic group, such as the northern Thai people and the Isan-Lao people, as well as non-Tai groups, the largest of, that of the ethnic Chinese. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2.
Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for the most part by William H. Baxter. Michel Ferlus notes that a rooted belief in Thailand has it that the term ‘Thai’ derives from the last syllables -daya in Sukhodaya/ Sukhothay, the name of the first Thai Kingdom; the spelling emphasizes this prestigious etymology by writing ไทย to designate the Thai/ Siamese people, while the form ไท is used to refer to Tai speaking ethnic groups. Lao writes ໄທ in both cases. There have been many theories proposing the origin of the Tai peoples — of which the Thai are a subgroup — including an association of the Tai people with the Kingdom of Nanzhao, proven to be invalid. Linguistic studies suggested that the origin of the Tai people lies around the Chinese Province of Guangxi, where the Zhuang people are still a majority; the ancient Tai people are theorized to have founded the kingdom of Nanyue, referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state.
The Qin dynasty founded Guangdong in 214 BC, initiating the successive waves of Chinese migrations from the north for hundreds of years to come. With the political and cultural pressures from the north, some Tai peoples migrated south where they met the classical Indianized civilizations of Southeast Asia. According to linguistic and other historical evidence, the southwestward migration of Tai-speaking tribes from Guangxi took place sometime between the 8th-10th centuries; the Tais from the north settled in the Chao Phraya valley from the tenth century onwards, in lands of the Dvaravati culture, assimilating the earlier Austroasiatic Mon and Khmer people, as well as coming into contact with the Khmer Empire. The Tais who came to the area of present-day Thailand were engulfed into the Theravada Buddhism of the Mon and the Hindu-Khmer culture and statecraft. Therefore, the Thai culture is a mixture of Tai traditions with Indic and Khmer influences. Early Thai chiefdoms included Suphan Buri Province.
The Lavo Kingdom, the center of Khmer culture in Chao Phraya valley, was the rallying point for the Thais. The Thai were called "Siam" by the Angkorians and they appeared on the bas relief at Angkor Wat as a part of the army of Lavo Kingdom. Sometimes the Thai chiefdoms in the Chao Phraya valley were put under the Angkorian control under strong monarchs but they were independent. A new city-state known as Ayutthaya, named after the Indian city of Ayodhya, was founded by Ramathibodi and emerged as the center of the growing Thai empire starting in 1350. Inspired by the Hindu-based Khmer Empire, the Ayutthayan empire's continued conquests led to more Thai settlements as the Khmer empire weakened after their defeat at Angkor in 1431. During this period, the Ayutthayans developed a feudal system as various vassal states paid homage to the Ayutthayans kings; as Thai power expanded at the expense of the Mon and Khmer, the Thai Ayutthayans faced setbacks at the hands of the Malays at Malacca and were checked by the Toungoo of Burma.
Other peoples living under Thai rule Mon and Lao, as well as Chinese, Indian or Muslim immigrants continued to be assimilated by Thais, but at the same time they influenced Thai culture, philosophy and politics. In his paper Jek pon Lao, Sujit Wongthet, who describes himself in the paper as a Chinese mixed with Lao, claims that the present-day Thai are Chinese mixed with Lao, he insinuates that the Thai are no longer a well-defined race but an ethnicity composed of many races and cultures. The biggest and most influential group are Thais of Chinese origin. In her paper the positions of non-Thai languages in Thailand, Theraphan Luangthongkum, a Thai linguist of Chinese extraction, states that 40% of the Thai population are descendants of former Chinese immigrants. Though sporadic wars continued with the Burmese and other neighbors, Chinese wars with Burma and European intervention elsewhere in Southeast Asia allowed the Thai to develop an independent course by trading with the Europeans as well as playing the major powers against each other in order to remain independent.
The Chakkri dynasty under Rama I held the Burmese at bay, while Rama II and Rama III helped to shape much of Thai society, but led to Thai setbacks as the Europeans moved into
Icelanders are a North Germanic ethnic group and nation who are native to the island country of Iceland and speak Icelandic. Icelanders established the country of Iceland in 930 A. D. when the Althingi met for the first time. Iceland came under the reign of Norwegian and Danish kings but regained full sovereignty and independence from the Danish monarchy on 1 December 1918, when the Kingdom of Iceland was established. On 17 June 1944, the monarchy was abolished and the Icelandic republic was founded; the language spoken is Icelandic, a North Germanic language, Lutheranism is the predominant religion. Historical and DNA records indicate that around 60 to 80 percent of the male settlers were of Norse origin and a similar percentage of the women were of Gaelic stock from Ireland and peripheral Scotland. Icelanders have had a tumultuous history. Development of the island was slow due to a lack of interest from the countries controlling it for most of its history: Norway, Denmark–Norway, Denmark. Through this time, Iceland had little contact with the outside world.
The island became independent in personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark in 1918. Since 1944, Iceland has been a republic, Icelandic society has undergone a rapid modernisation process in the post-independence era. Iceland is a geologically young land mass, having formed an estimated 20 million years ago due to volcanic eruptions on the Mid-Atlantic ridge. One of the last larger islands to remain uninhabited, the first human settlement date is accepted to be 874 AD, although there is some evidence to suggest human activity prior to the Norse arrival; the first Viking to sight Iceland was Gardar Svavarsson, who went off course due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands. His reports led to the first efforts to settle the island. Flóki Vilgerðarson was the first Norseman to sail to Iceland intentionally, his story is documented in the Landnámabók manuscript, he is said to have named the island Ísland. The first permanent settler in Iceland is considered to have been a Norwegian chieftain named Ingólfur Arnarson.
He settled with his family in around 874, at a place he named "Bay of Smokes", or Reykjavík in Icelandic. Following Ingólfur, in 874, another group of Norwegians set sail across the North Atlantic Ocean with their families, livestock and possessions, escaping the domination of the first King of Norway, Harald Fairhair, they traveled 1,000 km in their Viking longships to the island of Iceland. These people were of Norwegian, Irish or Gaelic Scottish origin; the Irish and the Scottish Gaels were either slaves or servants of the Norse chiefs, according to the Icelandic sagas, or descendants of a "group of Norsemen who had settled in Scotland and Ireland and intermarried with Gaelic-speaking people". Genetic evidence suggests that 62% of the Icelandic maternal gene pool is derived from Ireland and Scotland, much higher than other Scandinavian countries, although comparable to the Faroese, while 37% is of Nordic origin. About 20-25 % of the Icelandic paternal gene pool is with the rest being Nordic.
The Icelandic Age of Settlement is considered to have lasted from 874 to 930, at which point most of the island had been claimed and the Alþingi, the assembly of the Icelandic Commonwealth, was founded at Þingvellir. In 930, on the Þingvellir plain near Reykjavík, the chieftains and their families met and established the Alþingi, Iceland's first national assembly. However, the Alþingi lacked the power to enforce the laws. In 1262, struggles between rival chieftains left Iceland so divided that King Haakon IV of Norway was asked to step in as a final arbitrator for all disputes, as part of the Old Covenant; this is known as the Age of the Sturlungs. Iceland was under Norwegian leadership until 1380. At this point, both Iceland and Norway came under the control of the Danish Crown. With the introduction of absolute monarchy in Denmark, the Icelanders relinquished their autonomy to the crown, including the right to initiate and consent to legislation; this meant a loss of independence for Iceland, which led to nearly 300 years of decline: largely because Denmark and its Crown did not consider Iceland to be a colony to be supported and assisted.
In particular, the lack of help in defense led to constant raids by marauding pirates along the Icelandic coasts. Unlike Norway, Denmark did not need Iceland's homespun wool; this created a dramatic deficit in Iceland's trade, no new ships were built as a result. In 1602 Iceland was forbidden to trade with other countries by order of the Danish Government, in the 18th century climatic conditions had reached an all-time low since Settlement. In 1783–84 Laki, a volcanic fissure in the south of the island, erupted; the eruption produced about 15 km³ of basalt lava, the total volume of tephra emitted was 0.91 km³. The aerosols that built up caused a cooling effect in the Northern Hemisphere; the consequences for Iceland were catastrophic, with 25-33% of the population dying in the famine of 1783 and 1784. Around 80% of sheep, 50% of cattle, 50% of horses died of fluorosis from the 8 million tons of fluorine that were released; this disaster is known as the Mist Hardship. In 1798–99 the Alþingi was discontinued for several decades being restored in 1844.
It was moved to the capital, after being held at Þingvellir for over nine centuries. The 19th century brought significant improvement in the Icelanders' situation. A protest m
Demographics of Iran
Iran's population increased during the half of the 20th century, reaching about 80 million by 2016. In recent years, Iran's birth rate has dropped significantly. Studies project that Iran's rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 100 million by 2050. More than half of Iran's population is under 35 years old. In 2009, the number of households stood at 15.3 million. Families earn some 11.8 million rials per month on average. According to the OECD/World Bank statistics population growth in Iran from 1990 to 2008 was 17.6 million and 32%. The literacy rate was 80% in 2007, 85% in 2008. According to the 2016 population census the population of Iran was 79.9 million, a fourfold increase since 1956. Between 1976 and 1986, an average annual population growth of 4% was reached, but due to decreasing fertility levels the growth decreased to 1.2% between 2011 and 2016. Structure of the population 2006 and 24.10.2011: Table 9 – Population and Average Annual Growth by Provinces: 2006 and 2011 1 The population of the provinces of Alborz and Tehran for 2006 and their average annual growth have been calculated based on the data of 2011.
Unofficial Translation 17 Table 10 – Population Percentages by Province: 2006 and 2011 1 The population of the provinces of Alborz and Tehran for 2006 and their average annual growth have been calculated based on the data of 2011. The largest linguistic group comprises speakers of Iranian languages, like modern Persian, Gilaki, Luri and Balochi. Speakers of Turkic languages, most notably Azerbaijanis, by far the second-most spoken language in the country, but the Turkmen, the Qashqai peoples, comprise a substantial minority; the remainder are speakers of Semitic languages such as Arabic and Assyrian. There are small groups using other Indo-European languages such as Armenian, Georgian, spoken in a large pocket only by those Iranian Georgians that live in Fereydan, Fereydunshahr. Most of those Georgians who live in the north Iranian provinces of Gilan, Isfahan, Tehran Province and the rest of Iran no longer speak the language but keep a Georgian conscience; the Circassians in Iran, a large minority in the past and speakers of the Circassian language, have been assimilated and absorbed within the population in the past few centuries.
However, significant pockets do exist spread over the country, they are the second-largest Caucasus-derived group in the nation after the Georgians. Jews have had a continuous presence in Iran since the time of Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire. In 1948, there were 140,000–150,000 Jews living in Iran. According to the Tehran Jewish Committee, the Jewish population of Iran was estimated at about 25,000 to 35,000, of which 15,000 are in Tehran with the rest residing in Hamadan, Isfahan, Yazd, Rafsanjan, Sanandaj and Urmia. However, the official 2011 state census recorded only 8,756 Jews in Iran; the CIA World Factbook gives the following numbers for the languages spoken in Iran today: Persian, Luri and Mazandarani 66%. Other sources, such as the Library of Congress, the Encyclopedia of Islam give Iran's ethnic groups as following: Persians 65%, Azerbaijanis 16%, Kurds 7%, Lurs 6%, Arabs 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmens 1%, Turkic tribal groups 1%, non-Persian, non-Turkic groups less than 1%. For sources prior to and after 2000, see Languages and ethnicities in Iran.
In addition to its international migration pattern, Iran exhibits one of the steepest urban growth rates in the world according to the UN humanitarian information unit. According to 2015 population estimates 73.4 percent of Iran's population lives in urban areas, up from 27 percent in 1950. Changes in urbanization law and regulations eased the urbanization process of rural areas, which created more than 400 cities only in the period of 1996-2005; the following is a list of the six most populous cities in the country: About 99% of the Iranians are Muslims. Less than 1% non-Muslim minorities include Christians, Jews, Bahá'ís, Yarsan. By far the largest group of Christians in Iran are Armenians under the Armenian Apostolic Church which has between 110,000, 250,000, 300,000, adherents. There are hundreds of Christian churches in Iran; the Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest non-Muslim religious minority with a population around 300,000, is not recognized, has been persecuted during its existence in Iran.
Since the 1979 revolution the persecution of Bahá'ís has increased with executions, the denial of civil rights and liberties, the denial of access to higher education and employment. Unofficial estimates for the Assyrian Christian population range between 20,000, 70,000; the number of Iranian Mandaeans is a matter of dispute. In 2009, there were an estimated 5,000 and 10,000 Mandaeans in Iran, according to the Associated Press. Whereas Alarabiya has put the number of Iranian Mandaeans as high as 60,000 in 2011; the term "Iranian citizens abroad" or " Iranian/Persian diaspora" refers to the Iranian people born in Iran and their children but living outside of Iran. Migrant