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Demographics of Eritrea

Eritrea has an estimated population of 3,452,786 as of 2018. No reliable census data is available, the best available estimates being published by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; the population has doubled over the past 30 years, with an accelerating growth rate estimated at close to 3.2% p.a. during 2005–2010. This rate of population growth is sustained despite a high emigration rate; the nation has nine recognized ethnic groups. According to SIL Ethnologue, Tigriniya make up about 60% of the population. Most of the rest of the population belong to other Afro-Asiatic-speaking communities of the Cushitic branch. Additionally, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking ethnic minorities and other smaller groups. A majority of Eritrea's population adheres to Abrahamic religions; the two most followed religions are Christianity and Islam, which have an equal number of followers. Eritrea's population comprises nine recognized ethnic groups, most of whom speak languages from the Ethiopian Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.

The East African Semitic languages spoken in Eritrea are Tigre and the newly recognized Dahlik. Other Afro-Asiatic languages belonging to the Cushitic branch are widely spoken in the country; the latter include Afar, Beja and Saho. In addition, languages belonging to the Nilo-Saharan language family are spoken as a mother tongue by the Kunama and Nara Nilotic ethnic minorities that live in the north and northwestern part of the country; the Rashaida speak Arabic, while there are a number of Italians who speak their native Italian language. The majority of the Tigrinya inhabit the highlands of Eritrea, their language is called Tigrinya. They are the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting about 60% of the population; the predominantly Tigrinya populated urban centers in Eritrea are the capital Asmara, Dekemhare, Adi Keyh, Adi Quala and Senafe, while there is a significant population of Tigrinya in other cities including Keren, Massawa. The Jeberti people in Eritrea trace descent from early Muslim adherents.

The term Jeberti is locally sometimes used to generically refer to all Islamic inhabitants of the highlands. The Jeberti in Eritrea speak Tigrinya, they account for about 4% of the Tigrinya speakers in the nation. The remaining 96% are Christians, so divided: 90% of the Eritrean Orthodox faith, 5%] and Eastern Catholic, 5% belonging to various Protestant and other Christian denominations, the majority of which belong to the Evangelical Church of Eritrea; the Tigre reside in the western lowlands in Eritrea. Many migrated to Sudan at the time of the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict and lived there since, they are a pastoralist people, related to the Tigrinya and to the Beja people. They are a predominantly Muslim nomadic people who inhabit the northern and coastal lowlands of Eritrea, where they constitute 30% of local residents; some inhabit areas in eastern Sudan. 95% of the Tigre people adhere to the Islamic religion Sunni Islam, but there are a small number of Christians among them as well. Their language is called Tigre.

The Rashaida are one of Eritrea's nine recognized ethnic groups. They represent around 2% of the population of Eritrea; the Rashaida reside in the northern coastal lowlands of Eritrea and the northern eastern coasts of Sudan. They are predominantly Muslim and are the only ethnic group in Eritrea to have Arabic as their communal language the Hejazi dialect; the Rashaida first came to Eritrea in the 19th century from the Arabian Coast. According to the CIA, the Afar constitute under 5% of the nation's population, they live in the Debubawi Keyih Bahri Region of Eritrea, as well as the Afar Region in Ethiopia, Djibouti. They speak the Afar language as a mother tongue, are predominantly Muslim. Afars in Eritrea number about 397,000 individuals, the smallest population out of the countries they reside in. In Djibouti, there are about 780,000 group members, in Ethiopia, they number 1,300,000; the Saho represent 4% of Eritrea's population. They principally reside in the Debubawi Keyih Bahri Region and the Northern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.

Their language is called Saho. They are predominantly Muslim, although a few Christians known as the Irob live in the Debub Region of Eritrea and the Tigray region of Ethiopia; the Bilen in Eritrea represent around 2% of the country's population. They are concentrated in the north-central areas, in and around the city of Keren, south towards Asmara, the nation's capital. Many of them entered Eritrea from Kush in the 8th century and settled at Merara, after which they went to Lalibela and Lasta; the Bilen returned to Axum in Ethiopia's Tigray Province, battled with the natives. The Bilen include adherents of both Christianity, they speak the Bilen as a mother tongue. Christian adherents are urban and have intermingled with the Tigrinya who live in the area. Muslim adherents are rural and have interbred with the adjacent Tigre; the Beja in Eritrea, or Hedareb, constitute under 5% of local residents. They live along the north-western border with Sudan. Group members communicate in Hedareb as a first or second language.

The Beja include t

Northern Rivers Vaccination Supporters

The Northern Rivers Vaccination Supporters is a vaccination advocacy group formed in 2013 by people who were concerned about low vaccination rates in the Northern Rivers region of the Australian state of New South Wales. Rachel Heap, one of the group's core administrators, has said the organization's primary goal is to spread the word that people shouldn't be afraid of vaccines, but instead, "you should be amazed at how extraordinary they are as a public health measure". In 2014, the group was presented the Thornett Award for the Promotion of Reason by the Australian Skeptics. In 2016, the World Health Organization endorsed the NRVS website as a reliable source of information about vaccines and vaccine safety; the Northern Rivers region of the Australian state of New South Wales has some of the lowest vaccination rates in Australia. As of 2013, the Northern Rivers town of Mullumbimby had the lowest rate of childhood vaccinations in Australia, with under 50% of one and five year-old children vaccinated.

Rachel Heap has described the Northern Rivers region as a place where "it is not only acceptable to refuse vaccination, but supporting vaccination carries the risk of being ostracised". The NRVS was formed in 2013 by people. Alison Gaylard helped start the group, she says "We're trying to get the correct, factual information out there... And so if people out there are sourcing their information from the correct place, they won't be fed misinformation to make them think they don't have to vaccinate, or that it's scary, or anything like that." And "I would request people check their source of information. Everyone's entitled to their own opinion, but not their own facts, and science is factual" In response to her stance on vaccination, Gaylard has received hateful phone calls, much anti-vaccine material by post and has had her daughter approached by a stranger in a supermarket asking if Gaylard was her mother. Heidi Robertson contracted whooping cough whilst six months pregnant in 2008 and feared she would lose her baby.

The experience motivated her to join with others who shared her concerns about low vaccination rates to found the NRVS. NRVS members have Today on the Nine Network. Heidi Robertson featured on ABC TV discussing the Australian governments new'no jab, no play' policy, which denied certain benefits to families who refuse vaccination. NRVS welcomed the policy. In late 2018 the ABC's 7:30 Report revisited the Northern Rivers to look at the impact of the "no jab, no play" policy; this report noted that enrollments in some pre-schools were showing large drops due to the policy and they would drop further in 2020. Early learning educators said that unintended consequences of the policy would disadvantage young unvaccinated children as they could not attend pre-school. NRVS said that this policy seemed to be one of the few ways vaccination rates were increasing and the NewDaily indicated that this was what the policy was designed to do and not putting children's lives at risk was more important than attending pre-school.

In June 2014 the NRVS presented a poster at the 14th National Immunisation Conference held in Melbourne. In January 2015, Gaylard appeared on The Project TV show discussing calls to ban prominent anti-vaccination activist Dr Sherri Tenpenny from entering Australia, arguing that she poses a danger to public health. Rachel Heap, a specialist in adult Intensive Care Medicine and Dave Hawkes of Stop the AVN, a virologist and science communicator, represented NRVS on a panel'Strategic advocacy to reach vaccine hesitant parents' at an Immunisation Advocacy Workshop held in Sydney April 2015. Gaylard appeared on episode 341 of The Skeptic Zone podcast in May 2015 in which she discussed the workshop; the episode included interviews with Heidi Robertson and Rachel Heap. In August 2015, Heidi Robertson and Alison Gaylard appeared on Inside Story defending vaccinations from claims made by anti-vaccine campaigner Maha Al Musa. In 2018 a photo of a pro-vaccine poster at an Australian doctor's office, inspired by a posting on the NRVS Facebook page by Dr. Rachel Heap went viral.

It reads in part, "And what do you say when he gives influenza to his grandma? How do you explain she won't be coming home from hospital? Not ever.", continues: "Do you tell them you didn't think these diseases were that serious? That you thought that your organic, home cooked food was enough to protect them? Do you say sorry?" The post drew worldwide attention from anti-vaccine groups and others. Heap was asked why she wrote that Facebook post in a 2018 interview on breakfast television show Sunrise, she replied, "I was tired, emotional, frustrated. I had come off a pretty rough run at work looking after people suffering from stuff that should have been avoidable, when I was listening to the conversations we were having about vaccination it seemed that something was missing, and, the voices of their kids; those kids have no choice, if children are left vulnerable to preventable disease and they contract those diseases and the impact, the injury of those diseases, that can have a lifelong impact on them, it seemed somebody needed to speak up for them."

In 2014, the NRVS was awarded the Thornett Award for the Promotion of Reason at The Australian Skeptics 30th annual convention held in Sydney, Australia. The award was collected by Alison Gaylard; the award, known colloquially known as "The Fred," acknowledges "a member of the public or a public figure who has made a significant contribution to educating or informing the public regarding issues of science and reason."In 2016, the World Health Organization endorsed the NRVS.info

Eucalyptus orthostemon

Eucalyptus orthostemon is a species of mallee, endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It has smooth coppery and greyish bark, linear adult leaves, oval to spindle-shaped buds in groups of seven, creamy white flowers and conical to cup-shaped fruit. Eucalyptus orthostemon is an upright, spreading mallee that grows to a height of 5 m and forms a lignotuber, it has smooth greyish to silvery bark. Adult leaves are the same shade of green on both sides, linear, 30–55 mm long and 2–5 mm wide on a petiole 1–4 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of five or seven a flattened, unbranched peduncle 3–10 mm long, the individual buds on pedicels 2–6 mm long. Mature buds are oval to spindle-shaped, 9–14 mm long and 3–5 mm wide with a horn-shaped to conical operculum, two or three times longer than the flower cup. Flowering occurs from January to February and the flowers are creamy white; the fruit is a woody, conical to cup-shaped capsule, 5–8 mm long and 5–7 mm wide with the valves near rim level.

Eucalyptus orthostemon was first formally described in 2012 by Dean Nicolle and Ian Brooker from a specimen they collected between Yealering and Kulin in 2000. This eucalypt grows in saline saltbush flats between Moora and Wongan Hills in the Avon Wheatbelt, Esperance Plains, Jarrah Forest and Mallee biogeographic regions. Eucalyptus orthostemon is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. List of Eucalyptus species

UCK2

Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UCK2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate, respectively; this is the first step in the production of the pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates required for RNA and DNA synthesis. In addition, an allele of this gene may play a role in mediating nonhumoral immunity to Hemophilus influenzae type B. Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 is a tetramer with molecular mass of about 112 kDa. In the UCK2 monomer, the active site is composed of a five-stranded β-sheet, surrounded by five α-helices and a β-hairpin loop; the β-hairpin loop in particular forms a significant portion of a deep binding pocket for the uridine/cytidine substrate to moderate binding and release of substrate and products. Binding specificity for nucleosides is determined by the His-117 and Tyr-112 residues, which hydrogen bond with the 4-amino group or the 6-oxo group of cytidine and uridine, respectively.

A magnesium ion is coordinated in the active site by Glu-135, Ser-34, Asp-62. The Asp-62 residue is responsible for the catalytic activity in the enzyme active site. Structural analyses have shown that the side chain of the catalytic Asp-62 changes conformation before and after the reaction, it has been suggested that this conformational change occurs following phosphorylation, with the negatively charged Asp-62 moving away from the newly attached 5’-phosphate of the UMP/CMP product. Though uridine and cytidine are the physiologically preferred substrates for the enzyme, UCK2 has been shown to phosphorylate other nucleoside analogues. Examples of phosphorylated substrates include 6-azauridine, 5-azacytidine, 4-thiouridine, 5-fluorocytidine, 5-hydroxyuridine. Alternatively to ATP, GTP has been shown to act comparably as a phosphate donor; this promiscuity enables the important role for UCK2 as an in vivo activator of clinically active nucleoside prodrugs, such as cylcopentenylcytidine. Despite flexibility for different nucleoside analogs, UCK is unique among other nucleic acid kinases in its specificity for ribose analogs over 2’-deoxyribose forms.

This unique selectivity can be induced fit mechanisms and structural features that are unique to UCK2 among the NMP kinase family. Studies have shown that the binding of the cytidine/uridine sugar moiety results in the conformational change to reduce the distance between the His-117 and Arg-176 residues. Without the 2’-hydroxyl group on the sugar moiety, hydrogen bonding with Asp-84 and Arg-166 will be reduced, resulting in diminished conformational change and weakened substrate binding. UCK2 is one of two human uridine-cytidine kinases; the other UCK protein is uridine-cytidine kinase 1, which shares about 70% sequence identity with UCK2. While UCK1 is expressed ubiquitously in a variety of healthy tissues including the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, UCK2 has only been detected in placental tissue. UCK2, however, is of particular scientific interest due to its overexpression in tumor cell lines, which makes it a target in anti-cancer treatments. Studies determining the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for these enzymes revealed that UCK2 had a four to sixfold higher binding affinity, faster maximal rates, greater efficiencies for uridine and cytidine substrates than did UCK1.

Both uridine-cytidine kinases, plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides that compose RNA and DNA. Pyrimidine biosynthesis can occur through two pathways: de novo synthesis, which relies on L-glutamine as the pathway precursor, salvage, which recycles cellular uridine and cytidine. UCK2 catalyzes the first step of pyrimidine salvage, is the rate limiting enzyme in the pathway. UCK1 found in low levels in tumor tissues. Conversely, UCK2 has been detected in cancerous cells and healthy placental tissue; the selective expression in target tissues has resulted in the identification of UCK2 as a target in anti-cancer therapies. One strategy for anti-cancer and anti-viral therapies involves using UCK2 to activate anti-tumor prodrugs through phosphorylation; as an example, 1-cytosine and 1-uridine are RNA polymerase inhibitors that are under investigation for use as anticancer drugs. The nucleoside, only gains its clinical activity after three phosphorylations. An alternate strategy involves inhibition of UCK2 to block pyrimidine salvage in cancerous cells.

In certain cancer cell lines, pyrimidine biosynthesis occurs through the salvage pathway. Blocking pyrimidine salvage can prevent DNA and RNA biosynthesis, resulting in reduced cell proliferation. Click on genes and metabolites below to link to respective articles. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9BZX2 at the PDBe-KB

Beanpole (film)

Beanpole is a 2019 Russian historical drama film directed by Kantemir Balagov. It premiered in the Un Certain Regard section of the 2019 Cannes Film Festival. At Cannes, Balagov won the Un Certain Regard Best Director Award and the FIPRESCI Prize for Best Film in the Un Certain Regard section, it was selected as the Russian entry for the Best International Feature Film at the 92nd Academy Awards, making the December shortlist. The film, set in 1945 Leningrad, tells the story of Iya, a young woman returning from World War II with a 3-year old child, her friend and former fellow soldier Masha. In April 2019, it was announced Beanpole would debut in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2019 Cannes Film Festival in May. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 87% based on 45 reviews, with an average rating of 7.95/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Filmed with impressive skill and brought to life by unforgettable performances, Beanpole takes a heartbreakingly empathetic look at lives shattered by war".

On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 84 out of 100 based on 14 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". List of submissions to the 92nd Academy Awards for Best International Feature Film List of Russian submissions for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film Official website Beanpole on IMDb

Arkansas Highway 115 (1926–1935)

State Road 115 is a former state highway in South Arkansas. The route ran north to US 79 in Thornton near Fordyce; the entire highway was supplanted by US 167 in 1935 following creation of US 79. State Road 115 was maintained by the Arkansas Highway Department, now known as the Arkansas Department of Transportation; the route was created during the 1926 Arkansas state highway numbering as an original state highway. When US 79 was created in 1935, it was designated along the former US 167. US 167 was shifted to State Road 115; the 115 designation was given to the former Arkansas Highway 79 in Northeast Arkansas, renumbered to 115 to avoid duplication with the newly-created US 79. United States portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Arkansas Highway 115 at Wikimedia Commons