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Demographics of Gibraltar

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Gibraltar, including ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. One of the main features of Gibraltar’s population is the diversity of their ethnic origins; the demographics of Gibraltar reflects Gibraltarians' racial and cultural fusion of the many European and non-European immigrants who came to the Rock over three hundred years. They are the descendants of economic migrants that came to Gibraltar after the majority of the Spanish population left in 1704; the majority of the Spanish population in Gibraltar, with few exceptions, left Gibraltar when the Dutch and English took the village in 1704. The few Spaniards who remained in Gibraltar in August 1704 were augmented by others who arrived in the fleet with Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt some two hundred in all Catalans. Menorcans began migrating to Gibraltar at the beginning of the common British rule in 1713, thanks to the links between both British possessions during the 18th century.

Menorcans came to Gibraltar looking for work in several trades when Gibraltar was rebuilt after the 1783 Grand Siege. Immigration continued after Menorca was returned to Spain in 1802 by the Treaty of Amiens. Immigration from Spain and intermarriage with Spaniards from the surrounding Spanish towns was a constant feature of Gibraltar's history until the Spanish dictator, General Francisco Franco, closed the border with Gibraltar in 1969, cutting off many Gibraltarians from their relatives on the Spanish side of the frontier. Together, Gibraltarians of Spanish origin are one of the bigger groups. Britons have gone since the first days of the conquest. One group of Britons have had temporary residence in Gibraltar; this group, who represented a larger proportion in the beginning of the British period, are nowadays only about 3% of the total population. A larger group is settled down; some of them, since the beginning, moved to Gibraltar to earn a living as workers. Others moved to Gibraltar on a temporary assignment and married with local women.

Major construction projects, such as the dockyard in the late 1890s and early 20th century brought large numbers of workers from Great Britain. 13% of Gibraltarian residents are from the United Kingdom proper and the electoral roll shows that 27% of Gibraltar's population has British surnames. Genoese came during the 18th and 19th centuries from the poorer parts of Liguria, some of them annually following fishing shoals, as repairmen for the British navy, or as successful traders and merchants. Genoese formed the larger group of the new population in middle 19th century. Other Italians came from islands like Sicily. Nowadays, people with Genoese/Italian last names represent about 20% of the population. Portuguese were one of the earliest groups to move to Gibraltar from the Algarve region in the far south of Portugal. Most of them went to work as some as traders, their number increased during the 18th century, again when many Spaniards left their jobs in Gibraltar after General Franco closed the border in 1969.

About 10% of last names in Gibraltar have Portuguese origin. Moroccans have always had a significant presence in Gibraltar. However, the modern community has more recent origins. Moroccans began arriving in Gibraltar soon after the Spanish government imposed the first restrictions on Spanish workers in Gibraltar in 1964. By the end of 1968 there were at least 1,300 Moroccan workers resident in Gibraltar and this more than doubled following the final closure of the frontier with Spain in June 1969. There is a significant amount of Moroccan Jews in Gibraltar, representing Jews of both Sephardic origin and Arabic speaking Jews of Morocco. Most notably the Hassan family which runs Gibraltar's largest law firm Hassans International Law Firm and the late Sir Joshua Hassan who served four terms as Chief Minister for a total of 17 years. Other groups include: Malta was in the same imperial route to the east as Gibraltar. Maltese people came to escape the law in Malta. Jews, most of them of Sephardi origin, were able to re-establish their rites, forbidden in Catholic Spain, right after the British occupation in 1704.

A significant number of Jews from London settled in Gibraltar since the Great Siege. Indians, came as merchants after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1870. French, many of whom came after the French Revolution in 1789, set up commerce; the composition of the population by nationality at the 2012 census was as follows: The composition of the population by nationality at the 2001 census was as follows: The population of Gibraltar was 29,752 in 2011. 1During World War II a large part of the civilian population was evacuated. The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook. 0-14 years: 17.2% 15-64 years: 66.3% 65 years and over: 16.5% (male 2,090.

Polaris Music Prize

The Polaris Music Prize is a music award annually given to the best full-length Canadian album based on artistic merit, regardless of genre, sales, or record label. The award was established in 2006 with a $20,000 cash prize. In May 2015, the Polaris Music Prize was increased to $50,000, an additional $20,000, sponsored by Slaight Music. Additionally, second place prizes for the nine other acts on the Short List increased from $2,000 to $3,000. Polaris officials announced The Slaight Family Polaris Heritage Prize, an award that "will annually honour five albums from the five decades before Polaris launched in 2006." Details about the selection process for this prize are still to be revealed. The Polaris Music Prize is modeled after the United Kingdom/Ireland's Mercury Prize and in turn, inspired the Atlantis Music Prize/Borealis Music Prize for Newfoundland and Labrador; the 2018 Polaris sponsors include the CBC, the Government of Canada, FACTOR, Ontario Media Development Corporation, Slaight Communications, Radio Starmaker Fund, SiriusXM, Stingray Music/Galaxie, The Carlu, Shure Canada, Toronto radio station Indie88, SOCAN, Re-Sound20.

Past sponsors have included Scion. The Polaris Music Prize gala is video streamed live on CBC Music and AUX. There is no submission entry fee for the Polaris Music Prize. Jurors select; the ballots are tabulated with each number one pick awarded five points, a number two pick awarded four points and so on. A long list of 40 titles is released in mid-June and promoted to the public; the long list is sent back to the jury. The jurors re-submit five top picks from this long list; these ballots are re-tabulated and the top ten titles form the Polaris short list. This list is promoted to the public. A smaller group of 11 jury members who convene in Toronto at the Polaris Music Prize gala in late September decide the ultimate winner; the decision is finalized during the gala. Grand jurors are selected so that each shortlisted album has one person in the jury room to advocate for it. Polaris Music Prize board of directors selects the jurors; the jury list includes more than 200 Canadian music journalists and broadcasters.

To ensure an impartial outcome, no one with direct financial relationships with artists is eligible to become a jury member. The organization itself is a not-for-profit corporation. Another key benefit of enlisting music journalists and bloggers as judges is that increased media coverage draws attention to quality music in a cluttered commercial landscape and an fractured music scene. Notable jurors have included former MuchMusic VJs Hannah Sung and Hannah Simone, Toronto Star music columnist Ben Rayner; some of the 2018 judges include Lana Gay, Mike Bell, Stuart Derdeyn, Stephen Cooke, Brad Wheeler, Alan Ranta, Alan Cross, CBC Radio personalities Sandra Sperounes, Melody Lau, Lisa Christiansen and Raina Douris and Mitch Pollock, Voir music journalists Patrick Baillargeon and Olivier Boisvert-Magnen, Kimberly Cleave and Carl Wilson. On November 3, 2014, Jian Ghomeshi, the disgraced former CBC Q host and host of the first Polaris Gala, was dropped from the Polaris juror pool. Polaris officials have made no official announcement on the subject.

In 2015, the Polaris jury launched the Polaris Heritage Prize now known as the Slaight Family Polaris Heritage Prize, an annual award program to honour classic Canadian albums released prior to the creation of the Polaris Prize. Since its inception, the voting categories for Heritage Prize-nominated albums as well as the number of designated albums declared each year have changed multiple times. In the first year, the Heritage Prizes were awarded in the categories 1960s-70s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000-2005, selected by public vote from a shortlist of five nominees put forward by a Heritage Prize jury. In the second year, the process and categories were revised with the initial shortlists increased to 10, the categories shifted to 1960-75, 1976–85, 1986-1995 and 1996-2005, the addition of a second prize to be selected by a critical jury alongside the winner of the public vote; the purpose of the jury award is to ensure that albums which were artistically important, but not as commercially popular, still have a fair shot at being selected as winners.

Between 2015-18, non-winning nominees in a Heritage Prize category were renominated again, reincorporating all of the non-winning nominees from the previous year, with only the winning albums replaced by new titles. In 2019 Polaris chose to do away with the four time period format, reducing the total number of nominated albums from 40 to 12 and putting those 12 albums in one single category with no separation by time period. There was one public vote album winner and one jury vote winner in 2019; the Polaris Music Prize can be the subject of intense scrutiny from fans and music industry insiders. A number of recurring debates have emerged throughout Polaris' history; some of these include: perception the prize is either too "indie" or too "mainstream," concern about gender balance amongst nom

O holder Tag, erw├╝nschte Zeit, BWV 210

O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit, BWV 210.2, BWV 210, is a secular cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He wrote the solo cantata for soprano in Leipzig for a wedding and first performed it between 1738 and 1746. Bach used material from a "Huldigungskantate", O angenehme Melodei, first performed in January 1729. Bach wrote the cantata for a wedding. Werner Neumann mentions the wedding of Anna Regina Bose and Friedrich Heinrich Graf and of Christina Sibylla Bose and Johann Zacharias Richter, Herrmann von Hase suggests the wedding of Johanna Catharina Amalie Schatz and Friedrich Gottlob Zoller. According to Michael Maul, the cantata celebrated the wedding of the Prussian Court Counsellor Georg E. Stahl; the cantata text of an unknown poet suggests an influential man. The parts for soprano and continuo are written in exquisite calligraphy as a gift for the couple; the words center on the relationship of music and marital love, ending in praise of the bridegroom as a supporter of music. The cantata may have been performed at least twice.

Bach titled the work Cantata a Voce sola. The cantata is scored for soprano, flauto traverso, oboe d'amore, two violins, viola and harpsichord continuo. Recitative: O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit Aria: Spielet, ihr beseelten Lieder Recitative: Doch, haltet ein, ihr muntern Saiten Aria: Ruhet hie, matte Töne Recitative: So glaubt man denn, dass die Musik verführe Aria: Schweigt, ihr Flöten, ihr Töne Recitative: Was Luft? was Grab? Aria: Großer Gönner, dein Vergnügen Recitative: Hochteurer Mann, so fahre ferner fort Aria: Seid beglückt Bach used material from a "Huldigungskantate", O angenehme Melodei, BWV 210.1, for all the arias, the first recitative and part of the last recitative. Alexander Ferdinand Grychtolik edited a reconstruction of the lost homage cantata based on the wedding cantata, published by Edition Güntersberg. Bach's music is demanding for the soprano and the flutist; the movements show different instrumentation. The arias show a "decrescendo", a diminishing of the number of instruments, towards the central Schweigt, ihr Flöten, ihr Töne, in which the voice corresponds with the flute as in a duet.

The following arias are scored "crescendo" until the final festive movement. While all other recitatives are secco, the last one is accompanied by figuration in the flute and the oboe d'amore, long chords in the strings. J. S. Bach: Cantata No. 210, Hermann Scherchen, Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera, Magda László, Westminster 1950 J. S. Bach: Cantata BWV 210, Aria for Soprano, Helmut Winschermann, Deutsche Bachsolisten, Ursula Buckel, Cantate 1963 Bach made in Germany Vol. VII – Secular Cantatas III, Peter Schreier, Kammerorchester Berlin, Lucia Popp, Eterna 1981 Bach: Wedding Cantatas, Christopher Hogwood, The Academy of Ancient Music, Emma Kirkby, Decca 1996 J. S. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. 5, Ton Koopman, Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra, Lisa Larsson, Antoine Marchand 1996 Die Bach Kantate Vol. 66, Helmuth Rilling, Sibylla Rubens, Hänssler 1998 J. S. Bach: Wedding Cantatas, Reinhard Goebel, Musica Antiqua Köln, Christine Schäfer, Deutsche Grammophon 1999 J. S. Bach: Cantatas Vol. 30, Masaaki Suzuki, Bach Collegium Japan, Carolyn Sampson, BIS 2003 O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit, BWV 210: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Cantata BWV 210 O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit, BWV 210 on bach-cantatas.com German text and English translation, Emmanuel Music BWV 210 O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit on uvm.edu O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit Simon Crouch, 1999, classical.net Cantata No.

210, "O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit," BWV 210 allmusic.com Johann Sebastian Bach / Secular Cantatas Johan van Veen, 2005, musicweb-international.com Entries for BWV 210 on WorldCat

Siege of Namur (1695)

The 1695 Siege of Namur or Second Siege of Namur took place during the Nine Years' War between 2 July and 4 September 1695. Its capture by the French in the 1692 and recapture by the Grand Alliance in 1695 are viewed as the defining events of the war. After 1693, Louis XIV assumed a defensive posture in Flanders. French victories at Steinkirk and Landen and the capture of Namur, Mons and Charleroi failed to force the Dutch Republic out of the war; the cost had exhausted the French economy with crop failures in 1693 and 1694 causing widespread famine in France and Northern Italy. The Dutch Republic remained intact and the Alliance held together under William through four years of war, their losses were damaging but not critical. However, the Allies had reached the limit of their resources; the 1690s marked the lowest point of the so-called Little Ice Age, a period of cold and wet weather affecting Europe in the second half of the 17th century. Spain and Scotland in particular experienced famine.

While this theatre is referred to as Flanders, most campaigning took place in the Spanish Netherlands, a compact area 160 kilometres wide, the highest point only 100 metres above sea level, dominated by canals and rivers. In the 17th century and supplies were transported by water and the war was fought for control of rivers such as the Lys and Meuse. Retaking Namur became the key objective for 1695 as its location between the Sambre and Meuse made it a vital part of the "Barrier" system; this was a chain of fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands the Dutch viewed as essential for defence against French invasion and possession would be advantageous in any peace negotiations. The French commander in Flanders, Marshall Luxembourg, died in January 1695 and was replaced by the less talented Villeroi. French strategy for 1695 was to remain on the defensive and Boufflers spent April constructing entrenchments between the rivers Scheldt and Lys, from Coutrai/Kortrijk to Avelgem. William marched on these in June with the bulk of the Allied force but secretly detached Frederick of Prussia to Namur.

Once Frederick was in place on 2 July, William joined him. Namur was divided into the'City,' with the residential and commercial areas, the Citadel that controlled access to the Sambre and Meuse rivers. In 1692, the Dutch military engineer Menno van Coehoorn made the Citadel one of the strongest defensive points in Flanders, but the garrison was less than 5,000, many of them poorly-trained Spanish troops with low morale. While the outer City fell quickly, capturing the Citadel took the French over a month and they were nearly forced to withdraw by torrential rain and sickness; this was due to the terms negotiated for surrendering the City. After its capture, Namur's defences were upgraded by Vauban, while Boufflers had a garrison of 13,000, making it a formidable challenge. During July, the Allies battered their way into the City. On 3 August, Count Guiscard, Governor of Namur, surrendered the City to Maximilian of Bavaria and asked for a truce to allow the French to withdraw to the Citadel; this was accepted and the siege resumed after six days.

Vaudémont's role was to keep his field army between Villeroi and Namur, while Villeroi tried to tempt him out of position by attacking Allied-held towns like Knokke and Beselare, now Zonnebeke. Vaudémont refused to be drawn since both sides knew the longer the siege went on, the more Namur was to fall. Villeroi's attempts to out-manoeuvre Vaudémont were unsuccessful, despite the capture of Diksmuide and Deinze in late July with 6,000 - 7,000 prisoners; the Bombardment of Brussels between 13-15 August failed to divert the Allies, despite destroying large parts of the commercial centre. The Allies were running out of time and Coehoorn and William now agreed a new approach. Boufflers told Louis it was ‘the most prodigious artillery assembled' and by 26 August the Allies were ready to assault the Citadel. At midnight on 27th, Villeroi made contact with Vaudémont but his numerical advantage of 120,000 to 102,000 was offset by their entrenched positions. Having failed to outflank the Allied lines, Villeroi retreated and William gave the order for a general assault.

The assaults by the Allies were bloody, that of 30 August alone costing 3,000 men in less than three hours but the defenders were forced back to their final lines of defence. Count Guiscard, now commanding the key outwork of Fort Orange, told Boufflers on 2 September they could not repulse another attack and th

Hristiana Todorova

Hristiana Todorova is a Bulgarian group rhythmic gymnast. Todorova represents her nation at international competitions, she participated at the 2012 Summer Olympics. She competed at world championships, including at the 2015 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships where she won a silver and bronze medal. Todorova was member of the Bulgarian group that competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, they won the Group All-around bronze medal. They dedicated their medal to their teammate Tsvetelina Stoyanova, who had attempted to commit suicide and fell from her apartment in Sofia, she completed her career after the Olympic Games. Hristiana TODOROVA at the International Gymnastics Federation RhythmicGymnasticsResults.com

Jagjit Singh Chohan

Dr. Jagjit Singh Chohan was the founder of the Khalistan movement that sought to create an independent Sikh state in the Punjab region of South Asia. Jagjit Singh grew up in Tanda about 180 km from Chandigarh, he was a dentist. Chohan was first elected to the Punjab Assembly from the Tanda as a candidate of the Republican Party of India in 1967, he became Deputy Speaker. When Lachhman Singh Gill became Chief Minister, Chohan was made Finance Minister. In 1969, he lost the Assembly election. Two years after losing the Punjab Assembly elections in 1969, Chohan moved to the United Kingdom to start his campaign for creation of Khalistan. In 1971, he went to Nankana Sahib in Pakistan to attempt to set up a Sikh government. Chohan was proclaimed as a Sikh leader. Certain Sikh relics that were in Pakistan were handed down to him and taken to UK; the relics had helped Chohan to gather Sikh followers. He visited the United States at the invitation of his supporters among the Sikh diaspora. On 13 October 1971, he placed an advertisement in the New York Times proclaiming an Independent Sikh state.

Advertisement of Khalistan enabled him to collect millions of dollars from the Sikh diaspora. He was charged with sedition and other crimes in connection with his separatist activities in India. In part of 1970s, Chohan was in touch with the Pakistani diplomatic mission in Pakistan with objective of encouraging Sikh youths to travel to Pakistan for pilgrimage and indoctrination for separatist propaganda. On 12 April 1980, he declared the formation of a "National Council of Khalistan", at Anandpur Sahib, he declared himself the President of the Balbir Singh Sandhu as its Secretary General. In 1977, he returned to India. Chohan travelled to Britain in 1979, established the Khalistan National Council. In May 1980, Jagjit Singh Chohan announced the formation of Khalistan. A similar announcement was made by Balbir Singh Sandhu, in Amritsar, who released stamps and currency of Khalistan. Operating from a building termed "Khalistan House", he remained in contact with the Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, campaigning for a Sikh theocratic homeland.

Chohan maintained contacts among various groups in Canada, the USA, Germany. He visited Pakistan as a guest of leaders like Chaudhuri Zahoor Elahi. Chohan declared himself president of the "Republic of Khalistan", named a Cabinet, issued symbolic Khalistan "passports", "postage stamps", "Khalistan dollars". Embassies in Britain and other European countries were opened by Chohan, it is reported that with the assistance of a wealthy Californian supporter, a peach magnate, he opened an Ecuadorian bank account to support his operation. In June 1983, Bhindranwale was asked: "If Jagjit Singh Chohan attacks India with assistance from England and Canada, whom will you help?" Bhindranwale did not indicate his support. On 12 June 1984, in London Chohan was interviewed by BBC; the interviewer asked: "Do you want to see the downfall of Mrs Gandhi's Government?" Chohan answered: "..within a few days you will have the news that Mrs Gandhi and her family have been beheaded. That is what Sikhs will do..". After this interview, the Thatcher government curtailed Chohan's activities.

The British government instructed him to confine his activities within the bounds of democracy and laws of the land. On 13 June 1984, Chohan announced a government in exile. On 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated. Chohan hoisted the flag of Khalistan at a gurdwara in Anandpur Sahib. Chohan's Indian passport was cancelled on 24 April 1989. India protested. Vancouver fundamentalists Talwinder Singh Parmar and Surjan Singh Gill were at one time aligned with Chohan; the Khalistan movement lost the popular support. By the early 1990s the Sikhs' separatist campaign was crushed. Chohan softened his stance, he supported India's attempts to defuse the tension by accepting surrenders by the militants. Other organizations in UK and North America, continue to work for a Khalistan. Indian government first permitted his wife to return, he was pardoned by the Atal Bihari government, was allowed to return to India in June 2001, after an exile of 21 years. The government decided to overlook his past activities.

After his return, in an interview Chohan said he would keep the Khalistan movement alive democratically and pointed out that he has always been against violence. After Chohan returned to India, he started a political party in 2002 named the Khalsa Raj Party and became its president; the stated aim of the political party was to continue his campaign for Khalistan. Chohan could not attract the support from the new generation of Sikhs; the Pioneer stated that his party was a'Letterhead organization'. The office of the “Khalsa Raj Party” was located in the premises of the Chohan Charitable Hospital being run by him in Tanda. On 9 March 2006, the police booked Chohan in a case of creating lawlessness and pulled down'controversial flag' hoisted on the building; the police sealed the office and took into possession some objectionable documents, certain flags, some pamphlets and a computer into possession. Chohan's wife disclosed that the currency notes and other documents related to Khalistan were stored in England.

Police claimed that Chohan was booked for creating lawlessness by making anti-national statements on Khalistan. A case under Sections 121, 124-A and 505 of the Indian Penal Code was registered against Chohan. Police investigated Chohan's links with other Khalistani