Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands. It is a geographic and ethnic/racial term to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Micronesia and Polynesia; these people speak various Austronesian languages. New Zealand has the largest concentration of Pacific Islanders in the world. However, the majority of its people are not identified as Pacific Islanders—instead during the 20th century and into the 21st century the country saw a steady stream of immigration from Polynesian countries such as Samoa, the Cook Islands and French Polynesia; the Pacific islands consist of three main regions: The islands are scattered across a triangle covering the east-central region of the Pacific Ocean. The triangle is bound by the Hawaiian Islands in the north, New Zealand in the west, Easter Island in the east; the rest of Polynesia includes the Samoan islands, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Niue Island and Tuvalu, Tonga and Futuna, Rotuma Island and Pitcairn Island.
The island of New Guinea, the Bismarck and Louisiade archipelagos, the Admiralty Islands, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, Western New Guinea, Aru Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands, New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands, Fiji, Norfolk Island and various smaller islands. The islands of Kiribati, the Marianas, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. Ethnolinguistically, those Pacific islanders who reside in Oceania are divided into two different ethnic classifications. Austronesian language peoplesAustronesian peoples who speak the Oceanian languages, numbering about 2.3 million, who occupy Polynesia and most of the smaller islands of Melanesia. Papuan language peoplesPapuan peoples, those who speak the Papuan languages, who number about 7 million, reside on the island of New Guinea and a few of the smaller islands of Melanesia located off the northeast coast of New Guinea; the umbrella term Pacific Islands may take on several meanings.
Sometimes it refers to only those islands covered by the continent of Oceania. In some common uses, the term "Pacific Islands" refers to the islands of the Pacific Ocean once colonized by the Portuguese, Dutch, French, United States, Japanese, such as the Pitcairn Islands and Borneo. In other uses it may refer to islands with Austronesian linguistic heritage like Taiwan, Micronesia, Myanmar islands, which found their genesis in the Neolithic cultures of the island of Taiwan. In Australia the term South Sea Islander was used to describe Australian descendants of people from the more than 80 islands in the western Pacific, brought to Australia to work on the sugar fields of Queensland, in the 19th century called Kanakas; the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 was enacted to restrict entry of Pacific Islanders to Australia and to authorise their deportation. In the legislation Pacific Islanders were defined as: "Pacific Island Labourer" includes all natives not of European extraction of any island except the islands of New Zealand situated in the Pacific Ocean beyond the Commonwealth as constituted at the commencement of this Act.
In 2008 a Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme was announced as a three-year pilot scheme. The scheme provides visas for workers from Kiribati, Tonga and Papua New Guinea to work in Australia; the pilot scheme includes one country each from Melanesia and Micronesia, countries which send workers to New Zealand under its seasonal labour scheme. Australia's pilot scheme includes Papua New Guinea. Local usage in New Zealand uses "Pacific islander" to distinguish those who have emigrated from one of these areas in modern times from the indigenous New Zealand Māori, who are Polynesian but arrived in New Zealand centuries earlier. In the 2013 New Zealand census, 7.4 percent of the New Zealand population identified with one or more Pacific ethnic groups, although 62.3 percent of these were born in New Zealand. Those with a Samoan background make up the largest proportion, followed by Cook Islands Maori and Niuean; some smaller island populations such as Niue and Tokelau have the majority of their nationals living in New Zealand.
To celebrate the diverse Pacific island cultures, the Auckland region hosts several Pacific island festivals. Two of the major ones are Polyfest, which showcases performances of the secondary school cultural groups in the Auckland region, Pasifika, a festival that celebrates Pacific island heritage through traditional food, music and entertainment. According to the U. S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, a "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" is "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Samoa, or other Pacific islands, it includes people who indicate their race as'Native Hawaiian','Guamanian or "Chamorro','Samoan', and'Other Pacific Islander' or provide other detailed Pacific Islander responses."According to the Office of Management and Budget, "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. The term Pacific Islands American is used for ethnic Pacific islander residents in U.
S. states, in the territories of the United States in the region. Austronesian-speaking peoples Polynesi
Chalan Pago-Ordot is a municipality in the United States territory of Guam, containing the villages of Chalan-Pago and Ordot. It is part of the Kattan District; the village's population has increased following the island's 2000 census. Pågu is the Chamorro word for the wild tree Hibiscus tiliaceus, while "chalan"' means "road"; the name Chalan Pago is named after the path from Hagåtña to the Spanish village at Pago Bay. Ordot comes from ant. In World War II, the Japanese used the area as a supply depot during their occupation of the island. Ordot is the site of the controversial Ordot Landfill, first constructed by the U. S. Navy, but now full and in violation of United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations; the Guam Public School System serves the island. Ordot/Chalan Pago Elementary School and Agueda Johnston Middle School are located in Chalan-Pago-Ordot. Johnston is located in Ordot. George Washington High School in Mangilao serves the village as a secondary school. St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic High School serves residents of the area.
Francisco L. G. Valenzuela Thomas B. Anderson Francisco C. Carbullido Francisco C. Carbullido Vicente S. San Nicolas Rossanna D. San Miguel Vicente I. Aguon Pedro I. Borja Jessy C. Gogue Villages of Guam Ordot map from PDN Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1
Koreans are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria. Koreans live in the two Korean states, South Korea and North Korea, but are an recognized ethnic minority in China, Vietnam and the Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have emerged in Oceania and North America; as of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside the Korean Peninsula. South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in, or Hanguk-saram, both of which mean "Korean nation people." When referring to members of the Korean diaspora, Koreans use the term Han-in. North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in or Joseon-saram, both of which mean "Joseon people"; the term is derived from the Joseon dynasty, a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for five centuries from 1392 to 1910. Using similar words, Koreans in China refer to themselves as Chaoxianzu in Chinese or Joseonjok, Joseonsaram in Korean, which are cognates that mean "Joseon ethnic group".
Zainichi Koreans refer to themselves as Zainichi Chousenjin, Chousenjin in Japanese or Jaeil Joseonin, Joseonin in Korean In the chorus of Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, the Koreans are referred to as Daehan-saram. Ethnic Koreans living in Russia and Central Asia refer to themselves as Koryo-saram, alluding to Goryeo, a Korean dynasty spanning from 918 to 1392. Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula said to be Siberian or paleo-Asian. Archaeological evidence suggests that proto-Koreans were migrants from Manchuria during the Bronze Age, it is noteworthy to mention that there were people living on the Korean peninsula from the Paleolithic age and Neolithic age, thus it is logical to assume that there was intermingling between these populations. Linguistic evidence indicates speakers of proto-Korean languages were established in southeastern Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula by the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, migrated from there to southern Korea during this period.
The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000-100,000 dolmen, Korea accounts for nearly 70% of the world's total. Similar dolmens can be found in Manchuria, the Shandong Peninsula and the Kyushu island, yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean Peninsula and its surroundings compared to the bigger remainder of Northeastern Asia. Stephen Pheasant, who taught anatomy and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, said that Far Eastern people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than Europeans and Black Africans. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of Far Eastern people is a difference, most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, the least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people. In a craniometric study, Pietrusewsky found that the Japanese series, a series that spanned from the Yayoi period to modern times, formed a single branch with Korea.
Pietrusewsky found, that Korean and Yayoi people were highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people. Park Dae-kyoon et al. said that distance analysis based on thirty-nine non-metric cranial traits showed that Koreans are closer craniometrically to Kazakhs and Mongols than Koreans are close craniometrically to the populations in China and Japan. Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups; the reference population for Koreans used in Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 94% Eastern Asia and 5% Southeast Asia & Oceania. Korea Foundation Associate Professor of History, Eugene Y. Park said that many Koreans seem to have a genealogical memory blackout before the twentieth century. Park said.
Park said that, through "inventing tradition" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, families devised a kind of master narrative story that purports to explain a surname-ancestral seat combination's history to the extent where it is next to impossible to look beyond these master narrative stories. Park gave an example of what "inventing tradition" was like from his own family's genealogy where a document from 1873 recorded three children in a particular family and a 1920 document recorded an extra son in that same family. Park said that these master narratives connect the same surname and ancestral seat to a single, common ancestor. Park said that this trend became universal in the nineteenth century, but genealogies which were published in the seventeenth century admit that they did not know how the different lines of the same surname or ancestral seat are related at all. Park said that on
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China through ancestry, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China. A number of ethnic groups within China, as well as people elsewhere with ancestry in the region, may be referred to as Chinese people. Han Chinese people, the largest ethnic group in China, are referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English; the ethnic Chinese form a majority or notable minority in other countries, may comprise as much as 19% of the global human population. Other ethnic groups in China include the related Hui people or "Chinese Muslims", the Zhuang, Manchu and Miao, who make up the five largest ethnic minorities in mainland China with populations exceeding 10 million. In addition, the Yi, Tujia and Mongols each number populations between six and nine million.
The People's Republic of China recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, many of whom live in the special administrative regions of the country. However, there exists several smaller ethnicities who are "unrecognized" or subsumed as part another ethnic group; the Republic of China recognizes 14 tribes of Taiwanese aborigines, who together with unrecognized tribes comprise about 2% of the country's population. During the Qing dynasty the term "Chinese people" was used by the Qing government to refer to all subjects of the empire, including Han and Mongols. Zhonghua minzu, the "Chinese nation", is a supra-ethnic concept which includes all 56 ethnic groups living in China that are recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China, it includes established ethnic groups who have lived within the borders of China since at least the Qing Dynasty. The term zhonghua minzu was used during the Republic of China from 1911–1949 to refer to a subset of five ethnic groups in China; the term zhongguo renmin, "Chinese people", was the government's preferred term during the life of Mao Zedong.
The Nationality law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality within the PRC. A person obtains nationality either by birth when at least one parent is of Chinese nationality or by naturalization. All people holding nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the Republic; the Resident Identity Card is the official form of identification for residents of the People's Republic of China. Within the People's Republic of China, a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport or Macao Special Administrative Region passport may be issued to permanent residents of Hong Kong or Macao, respectively; the Nationality law of the Republic of China regulates nationality within the Republic of China. A person obtains nationality either by naturalization. A person with at least one parent, a national of the Republic of China, or born in the ROC to stateless parents qualifies for nationality by birth; the National Identification Card is an identity document issued to people who have household registration in Taiwan.
The Resident Certificate is an identification card issued to residents of the Republic of China who do not hold a National Identification Card. The relationship between Taiwanese nationality and Chinese nationality is disputed. Overseas Chinese refers to people of Chinese ethnicity or national heritage who live outside the People's Republic of China or Taiwan as the result of the continuing diaspora. People with one or more Chinese ancestors may consider themselves overseas Chinese; such people vary in terms of cultural assimilation. In some areas throughout the world ethnic enclaves known as Chinatowns are home to populations of Chinese ancestry. In Southeast Asia, Chinese people call themselves 華人, distinguished from or the citizens of the People's Republic of China or the Republic of China; this is so in the Chinese communities of Southeast Asia. The term Zhongguoren has a more ideological aspect in its use. Chinese Ethnic Minorities The Ranking of Ethnic Chinese Population, Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, Republic of China, archived from the original on 23 November 2013, retrieved 2008-11-02
Cocos Island (Guam)
Cocos Island is an island 1 mile off the southern tip of the United States territory of Guam, located within the Merizo Barrier Reef, part of the municipality of Merizo. The island is uninhabited, 1,600 meters long in a southwest-northeast direction, between 200 m and 300 m wide, has an area of 386,303 m2, it sits atop the southwestern coral reef rim of Cocos Lagoon. The east coast of the island is a day resort with a pool, volleyball court, ice cream parlor and bar, water sports equipment rentals. Visitors to the resort can snorkel, kayak, dolphin watch, jet ski and bike; the west side is part of the Territorial Park System. Ferries run to Guam. During the Spanish times, the island was owned by Don Ignacio Mendiola Dela Cruz. In the late 1920s, the US Government acquired ⅔ of the island via Eminent Domain. In the mid-1930s Don Ignacio sold the remaining ⅓ to a Businessman named Gottwald. A Coast Guard long-range navigation station was built and operated on Cocos Island from 1944-1963. In the late 80s to early 90s, the US Govt. returned the larger portion of the island to the Guam Government, who turned it into a Park.
Military tests on soil from Cocos Island in late 2005 showed levels of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination 4,900 times higher than the federally recommended level. Tests on twelve species of fish in the lagoon showed all but one of those species had high levels of PCBs. One had 265 times the acceptable level; the contamination most originated from transformers and other electrical equipment at the Coast Guard station, but was not tested for earlier. Officials from the Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services, the Coast Guard announced their findings on 20 February 2006 and warned people not to eat fish caught in the lagoon. Cocos Island is one of the few locations to have had the endangered Guam rail reintroduced to it. Health effects of PCBs Pacific Daily News article Bendure, G. & Friary, N. Micronesia:A travel survival kit. South Yarra, VIC: Lonely Planet
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University