Demographics of Hungary

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Demographics of Hungary
Hungary historical population.png
1715-2008 Historic estimates and censuses for the total population in the territory of present-day Hungary.
Population 9 798 000 (2017 January)
Growth rate -3.5 births/1,000 population (2016)
Birth rate 9.5 births/1,000 population (2016)
Death rate 12.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016)
Life expectancy 74.79 years (2012)
 • male 72.43 years (2016)
 • female 79.21 years (2016)
Fertility rate 1.49 children born/woman (2016) [1]
Infant mortality rate 4.0 / 1000 births (2016)
Age structure
0–14 years 14.8%
15–64 years 67.7%
65 and over 17.5%
Sex ratio
At birth 1.06 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Under 15 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.96 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.59 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Hungarian(s) adjective: Hungarian
Major ethnic Hungarians
Language
Spoken Hungarian

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hungary, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1784[3] 2,681,595—    
1870 5,011,310+86.9%
1880 5,329,191+6.3%
1890 6,009,351+12.8%
1900 6,854,415+14.1%
1910 7,612,114+11.1%
1920 7,986,875+4.9%
1930 8,685,109+8.7%
1941 9,316,074+7.3%
1949 9,204,799−1.2%
1960 9,961,044+8.2%
1970 10,300,996+3.4%
1980 10,709,463+4.0%
1990 10,374,823−3.1%
2001 10,200,298−1.7%
2011 9,937,628−2.6%
2018 9,778,371−1.6%
Note: Present territory of Hungary[2]

Population[edit]

The population composition at the foundation of Hungary (895) depends on the size of the arriving Hungarian population and the size of the Slavic (and remains of Avar-Slavic) population at the time. One source mentions 200 000 Slavs and 400 000 Hungarians,[4] while other sources often don't give estimates for both, making comparison more difficult. The size of the Hungarian population around 895 is often estimated between 120 000 and 600 000,[5] with a number of estimates in the 400-600 000 range.[4][6][7] Other sources only mention a fighting force of 25 000 Magyar warriors used in the attack,[8][9] while declining to estimate the total population including women and children and warriors not participating in the invasion. In the historical demographics the largest earlier shock was the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, several plagues also took a toll on the country's population.

According to the demographers, about 80 percent of the population was made up of Hungarians before the Battle of Mohács, however the Hungarian ethnic group became a minority in its own country in the 18th century due to the resettlement policies and continuous immigration from neighboring countries. Major territorial changes made Hungary ethnically homogeneous after World War I. Nowadays, more than nine-tenths of the population is ethnically Hungarian and speaks Hungarian as the mother tongue.[10]

900–1910[edit]

Time Population

(estimations)

Percentage rate of Hungarians with and without Kingdom of Croatia

(estimations)

Notes
c. 900 AD 66%[4][7] Size of the country is about 330 thousand square km,[12] a density of 3-4.5 persons per square km,[12] according to others a density of 0.56-1.06 per square km[11]
1000 1,000,000-1,500,000[13]
1060 500,000-550,000[11] a density of 1.51-1.67 per square km[11]
1100 2,000,000[12]
1181 2,600,000[12]
1200 1,000,000-1,100,000[11] a density of 3.03-3.33 per square km, (330 thousand square km)[11]
1222 2,000,000[14] 70–80%[10][15] The time of the Golden Bull. The last estimate before the Tatar invasion.
1242 Population decreased after the Mongol invasion of Hungary (estimations about population loss are between 20% and 50%).[16]
1300
1348 Before the plague (at the time of the Angevin kings.)
1370 c. 2,000,000 60–70%[15] (including Croatia)
1400
1490 Before the Ottoman conquest (about 3.2 million Hungarians).
1600 Populations of Royal Hungary, Transylvania and Ottoman Hungary together.
1699 At the time of Treaty of Karlowitz (not more than 2 million Hungarians).
1711 At the end of the Kuruc War, starting date of the organized resettlement.
1720
1785-87 8,000,000 5% urban citizens[49]
1790 End of the organized resettlement, approximately 800 new German villages were established between 1711 and 1780.[54]
1828 11,495,536
1830
  • 37% (44 percent in central Hungary)[55]
1837
1846 12,033,399
  • 40–45%
  • 41,6%[57]
  • 36,5-40% (with Kingdom of Croatia)[57]
Two years before Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
1850 11,600,000
1857 13,830,870 44.5%[11]
1869 13,508,000 45.2%[59]
1880 13,749,603 46%
1900 16,838,255 51.4%[60]
1910 18,264,533
  • 54.5%[60]
  • 48,1% (with Kingdom of Croatia)[61]
5% Jews (counted according to their mother tongue).

Note: The data refer to the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, not of present-day Hungary.

Total Fertility Rate from 1850 to 1899[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period in the present-day Hungary. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[62]

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[62]
Total Fertility Rate in Hungary 5.18 5.15 5.12 5.09 5.06 5.03 5 4.97 4.94 4.91 4.88
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[62]
Total Fertility Rate in Hungary 4.85 5.11 5.41 5.03 5.11 5.02 4.64 5.09 5.12 5.14
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[62]
Total Fertility Rate in Hungary 5.23 4.96 5.18 5.23 5.55 5.61 5.29 5.23 5.58 5.23
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[62]
Total Fertility Rate in Hungary 5.28 5.4 5.5 5.59 5.48 5.57 5.41 5.36 5.35 4.93
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[62]
Total Fertility Rate in Hungary 5.2 4.96 5.25 5.08 5.48 5.11 4.97 4.95 4.62 4.79
Population of Hungary (1910–2009, with comments)

Vital statistics from 1900[edit]

Unless otherwise indicated, vital statistics are from the Hungarian Statistical Office.[63]

Hungary fertility rate by county (2014)
  1.7 - 1.9
  1.5 - 1.7
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

Births and deaths[edit]

[64][65] [66][67]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1][62][68]
1900 6 854 000 268 019 177 363 90 656 39.7 26.3 13.4 5.28
1901 260 439 166 662 93 777 5.22
1902 270 385 179 260 91 125 5.16
1903 258 209 179 518 78 691 5.1
1904 260 446 172 704 87 742 5.04
1905 252 501 203 516 48 985 4.98
1906 258 296 176 938 81 358 4.91
1907 261 231 180 216 81 015 4.85
1908 268 637 177 872 90 765 4.79
1909 271 177 184 445 86 732 4.73
1910 265 457 168 875 96 582 4.67
1911 261 375 184 009 77 366 4.59
1912 270 804 172 148 98 656 4.5
1913 264 418 174 241 90 177 4.42
1914 270 690 176 574 94 116 4.34
1915 187 734 189 418 -1 684 4.26
1916 135 443 159 810 -24 367 4.17
1917 130 817 163 507 -32 690 4.09
1918 127 894 207 395 -79 501 15.3 25.7 -10.4 4.01
1919 7 860 000 217 431 157 392 60 039 27.6 20.0 7.6 3.93
1920 7 940 000 249 458 169 717 79 741 31.4 21.4 10.0 3.84
1921 8 020 000 255 453 170 059 85 394 31.8 21.2 10.6 3.81
1922 8 080 000 249 279 173 351 75 928 30.8 21.4 9.4 3.6
1923 8 170 000 238 971 159 287 79 684 29.2 19.5 9.7 3.39
1924 8 220 000 221 462 167 668 53 794 26.9 20.4 6.5 3.18
1925 8 300 000 235 480 142 150 93 330 28.3 17.1 11.2 3.36
1926 8 370 000 229 484 139 905 89 579 27.4 16.7 10.7 3.24
1927 8 490 000 218 548 150 675 67 873 25.8 17.8 8.0 3.05
1928 8 510 000 224 693 146 496 78 197 26.4 17.2 9.2 3.08
1929 8 580 000 215 463 152 847 62 976 25.1 17.8 7.3 2.92
1930 8 660 000 219 784 134 341 85 443 25.4 15.5 9.9 2.84
1931 8 730 000 206 925 144 968 61 957 23.7 16.6 7.1 2.84
1932 8 783 000 205 529 157 106 48 423 23.4 17.9 5.5 2.78
1933 8 845 000 193 911 129 913 63 998 21.9 14.7 7.3 2.72
1934 8 915 000 194 279 129 049 65 230 21.8 14.5 7.3 2.57
1935 8 980 000 189 479 136 923 52 556 21.1 15.2 5.9 2.55
1936 9 040 000 183 369 128 333 55 036 20.3 14.2 6.1 2.48
1937 9 100 000 182 449 128 049 54 400 20.0 14.1 6.0 2.42
1938 9 159 000 182 206 130 628 51 578 19.9 14.3 5.6 2.46
1939 9 217 000 178 633 124 591 54 042 19.4 13.5 5.9 2.5
1940 9 280 000 185 562 132 735 52 827 20.0 14.3 5.7 2.48
1941 9 340 000 177 047 123 349 53 698 19.0 13.2 5.7 2.52
1942 9 392 000 187 187 136 844 50 343 19.9 14.6 5.4 2.55
1943 9 440 000 173 295 127 158 46 137 18.4 13.5 4.9 2.55
1944 9 250 000 190 000 144 048 45 952 20.5 15.6 5.0 2.61
1945 9 055 000 169 091 211 323 -42 232 18.7 23.3 -4.7 2.64
1946 9 042 000 169 120 135 486 33 634 18.7 15.0 3.7 2.67
1947 9 093 000 187 316 117 537 69 779 20.6 12.9 7.7 2.7
1948 9 158 000 191 907 105 780 86 127 21.0 11.6 9.4 2.73
1949 9 249 000 190 398 105 718 84 680 20.6 11.4 9.2 2.76
1950 9 338 000 195 567 106 902 88 665 20.9 11.4 9.5 2.77
1951 9 423 000 190 645 109 998 80 647 20.2 11.7 8.6 2.76
1952 9 504 000 185 820 107 443 78 377 19.6 11.3 8.2 2.72
1953 9 595 000 206 926 112 039 94 887 21.6 11.7 9.9 2.67
1954 9 706 000 223 347 106 670 116 677 23.0 11.0 12.0 2.61
1955 9 825 000 210 430 97 848 112 582 21.4 10.0 11.5 2.53
1956 9 911 000 192 810 104 236 88 574 19.5 10.5 8.9 2.44
1957 9 840 000 167 202 103 645 63 557 17.0 10.5 6.5 2.34
1958 9 882 000 158 428 97 866 60 562 16.0 9.9 6.1 2.23
1959 9 937 000 151 194 103 880 47 314 15.2 10.5 4.8 2.12
1960 9 984 000 146 461 101 525 44 936 14.7 10.2 4.5 2.02
1961 10 029 000 140 365 96 410 43 955 14.0 9.6 4.4 1.94
1962 10 072 000 130 053 108 273 21 780 12.9 10.7 2.2 1.79
1963 10 104 000 132 335 99 871 32 464 13.1 9.9 3.2 1.82
1964 10 135 000 132 141 100 830 31 311 13.0 9.9 3.1 1.80
1965 10 160 000 133 009 108 119 24 890 13.1 10.6 2.4 1.81
1966 10 197 000 138 489 101 943 36 546 13.6 10.0 3.6 1.88
1967 10 223 000 148 886 109 530 39 356 14.6 10.7 3.8 2.01
1968 10 275 000 154 419 115 354 39 065 15.0 11.2 3.8 2.06
1969 10 316 000 154 318 116 659 37 659 15.0 11.3 3.7 2.03
1970 10 338 000 151 819 120 197 31 622 14.7 11.6 3.1 1.97
1971 10 368 000 150 640 123 009 27 631 14.5 11.9 2.7 1.92
1972 10 398 000 153 625 118 991 34 634 14.8 11.4 3.3 1.94
1973 10 432 000 156 224 123 366 32 858 15.0 11.8 3.1 1.95
1974 10 479 000 186 288 125 816 60 472 17.8 12.0 5.8 2.30
1975 10 532 000 194 240 131 102 63 138 18.4 12.4 6.0 2.38
1976 10 589 000 185 405 132 240 53 165 17.5 12.5 5.0 2.26
1977 10 637 000 177 574 132 031 45 543 16.7 12.4 4.3 2.17
1978 10 673 000 168 160 140 121 28 039 15.8 13.1 2.6 2.08
1979 10 698 000 160 364 136 829 23 535 15.0 12.8 2.2 2.02
1980 10 707 000 148 673 145 355 3 318 13.9 13.6 0.3 1.92
1981 10 700 000 142 890 144 757 -1 867 13.3 13.5 -0.2 1.88
1982 10 683 000 133 559 144 318 -10 759 12.5 13.5 -1.0 1.78
1983 10 656 000 127 258 148 643 -21 385 11.9 13.9 -2.0 1.73
1984 10 619 000 125 359 146 709 -21 350 11.8 13.8 -2.0 1.73
1985 10 579 000 130 200 147 614 -17 414 12.3 14.0 -1.6 1.83
1986 10 534 000 128 204 147 089 -18 885 12.2 14.0 -1.8 1.83
1987 10 486 000 125 840 142 601 -16 761 12.0 13.6 -1.6 1.79
1988 10 443 000 124 296 140 042 -15 746 11.9 13.4 -1.5 1.78
1989 10 398 000 123 304 144 695 -21 391 11.9 13.9 -2.1 1.78
1990 10 374 000 125 679 145 660 -19 981 12.1 14.0 -1.9 1.84
1991 10 373 000 127 207 144 813 -17 606 12.3 14.0 -1.7 1.85
1992 10 369 000 121 724 148 781 -27 057 11.7 14.3 -2.6 1.76
1993 10 357 000 117 033 150 244 -33 211 11.3 14.5 -3.2 1.68
1994 10 343 000 115 598 146 889 -31 291 11.2 14.2 -3.0 1.64
1995 10 329 000 112 054 145 431 -33 377 10.8 14.1 -3.2 1.57
1996 10 311 000 105 272 143 130 -37 858 10.2 13.9 -3.7 1.45
1997 10 290 000 100 350 139 434 -39 084 9.8 13.6 -3.8 1.37
1998 10 267 000 97 301 140 870 -43 569 9.5 13.7 -4.2 1.33
1999 10 238 000 94 645 143 210 -48 565 9.2 14.0 -4.7 1.29
2000 10 211 000 97 597 135 601 -38 004 9.6 13.3 -3.7 1.32
2001 10 198 000 97 047 132 183 -35 136 9.5 13.0 -3.4 1.31
2002 10 165 000 96 804 132 833 -36 029 9.5 13.1 -3.5 1.30
2003 10 129 000 94 647 135 823 -41 176 9.3 13.4 -4.1 1.27
2004 10 108 000 95 137 132 492 -37 355 9.4 13.1 -3.7 1.27
2005 10 088 000 97 496 135 732 -38 236 9.7 13.5 -3.8 1.30
2006 10 072 000 99 871 131 603 -31 732 9.9 13.1 -3.2 1.34
2007 10 056 000 97 613 132 938 -35 325 9.7 13.2 -3.5 1.31
2008 10 038 000 99 149 130 027 -30 878 9.9 13.0 -3.1 1.35
2009 10 022 000 96 450 130 350 -33 972 9.6 13.0 -3.4 1.32
2010 10 000 000 90 335 130 456 -40 121 9.0 13.0 -4.0 1.25
2011 9 985 000 88 049 128 795 -40 746 8.8 12.9 -4.1 1.23
2012 9 932 000 90 269 129 440 -39 171 9.1 13.0 -3.9 1.34
2013 9 909 000 88 689 126 778 -38 089 9.0 12.8 -3.9 1.34
2014 9 877 000 91 510 126 308 -34 798 9.3 12.8 -3.5 1.41
2015 9 823 000 91 690 131 697 -40 007 9.3 13.3 -4.0 1.44
2016 9 790 000 93 063 127 053 -33 990 9.5 12.9 -3.2 1.49
2017 9 771 000 91 577 131 674 -40 097 9.4 13.5 -4.1 1.49

Current population natural growth[edit]

[69] [70]

  • Number of births from January–June 2017 = Increase 44,109
  • Number of births from January–June 2018 = Decrease 43,069
  • Number of deaths from January–June 2017 = Negative increase 69,506
  • Number of deaths from January–June 2018 = Positive decrease 66,869
  • Natural growth from January-June 2017 = Decrease -25,397
  • Natural growth from January–June 2018 = Increase -23,800

Infant mortality rate[edit]

The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased considerably after WW II. In 1949, the IMR was 91.0. The rate decreased to 47.6 in 1960, 35.9 in 1970, 23.2 in 1980, 14.8 in 1990, 9.2 in 2000 and reached an all-time low in 2009: 5.1 per 1000 live born children.[30]

Total fertility rates[edit]

Historical[edit]

[71][72][73]

Year Total Fertility Rate
1900–1901 5.28
1910–1911 4.67Decrease
1920–1921 3.84Decrease
1930–1931 2.84Decrease
1940–1941 2.48Decrease
1948–1949 2.56Increase
1950–1955 2.73Increase
1956–1960 2.24Decrease
1961–1965 1.83Decrease
1966–1970 1.99Increase
Year Total Fertility Rate
1971–1975 2.10Increase
1976–1980 2.09Decrease
1981–1985 1.79Decrease
1986–1990 1.80Increase
1991–1995 1.70Decrease
1996–2000 1.35Decrease
2001–2005 1.29Decrease
2006–2010 1.31Increase
2011–2015 1.35Increase
2016– 1.49Increase

TFR by county[edit]

Source: 2011 census [74]
County 1980 1990 2001 2011
Baranya 1.70 1.65 1.52 1.47
Bács-Kiskun 1.81 1.73 1.59 1.56
Békés 1.82 1.75 1.62 1.57
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 1.88 1.83 1.72 1.66
Csongrád 1.59 1.55 1.44 1.41
Fejér 1.85 1.79 1.62 1.56
Győr-Moson-Sopron 1.81 1.73 1.56 1.49
Hajdú-Bihar 1.92 1.82 1.65 1.56
Heves 1.79 1.69 1.57 1.53
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 1.90 1.80 1.67 1.62
Komárom-Esztergom 1.80 1.73 1.58 1.53
Nógrád 1.84 1.76 1.64 1.60
Pest 1.76 1.69 1.54 1.48
Somogy 1.74 1.68 1.58 1.53
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 2.21 2.05 1.85 1.75
Tolna 1.83 1.76 1.65 1.60
Vas 1.82 1.72 1.58 1.51
Veszprém 1.88 1.79 1.64 1.58
Zala 1.78 1.73 1.56 1.52
Budapest 1.25 1.27 1.17 1.13
All 1.71 1.65 1.53 1.47

Vital statistics by county[edit]

There are large variations in the birth rates as of 2016: Zala County has the lowest birth rate with 7.5 births per thousand inhabitants, while Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County has the highest birth rate with 11.2 births per thousand inhabitants.

The death rates also differ greatly from as low as 11.3 deaths per thousand inhabitants in Pest County to as high as 15.7 deaths per thousand inhabitants in Békés County.

Vital statistics as of 2016 [75]
County Birth rate (‰) Death rate (‰) Natural increase
Baranya 8.0 13.6 -5.6
Bács-Kiskun 9.3 13.6 -4.3
Békés 8.2 15.7 -7.5
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 11.0 14.2 -3.2
Budapest 9.2 12.0 -2.9
Csongrád 8.4 12.9 -4.5
Fejér 9.4 12.5 -3.1
Győr-Moson-Sopron 8.9 11.4 -2.4
Hajdú-Bihar 10.3 11.6 -1.3
Heves 9.4 14.5 -5.1
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 9.9 14.8 -4.8
Komárom-Esztergom 9.7 13.4 -3.7
Nógrád 9.1 15.1 -6.0
Pest 9.8 11.3 -1.5
Somogy 8.8 14.3 -5.5
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 11.2 12.2 -0.9
Tolna 9.0 13.7 -4.7
Vas 8.3 13.5 -5.2
Veszprém 8.7 13.5 -4.8
Zala 7.9 14.0 -6.1

Demographics stastistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[76]

  • One birth every 6 minutes
  • One death every 4 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 16 minutes
  • One net migrant every 90 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[68]

Population pyramid of Hungary in 2016
Population pyramid of Hungary in 1960
Population
9,850,845 (July 2017 est.)
Age structure
0-14 years: 14.71% (male 746,043/female 702,792) (2017 est.)
15-24 years: 10.96% (male 557,655/female 522,324) (2017 est.)
25-54 years: 41.88% (male 2,075,101/female 2,050,478) (2017 est.)
55-64 years: 13.4% (male 608,734/female 711,602) (2017 est.)
65 years and over: 19.05% (male 708,214/female 1,167,902) (2017 est.)
0–14 years: 15% (male 763,553/female 720,112) (2009 est.)
15–64 years: 69.3% (male 3,384,961/female 3,475,135) (2009 est.)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 566,067/female 995,768) (2009 est.)
Median age
total: 42.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 28th
male: 40.4 years
female: 44.3 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate
1.45 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 204th
Mother's mean age at first birth
28.3 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate
-0.25% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 214th
Birth rate
9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 205th
Death rate
12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate
1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 54th
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 76.1 years Country comparison to the world: 91th
male: 72.4 years
female: 80 years (2017 est.)
Religions

Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, unspecified 27.2% (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate
total: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births Country comparison to the world: 177th
male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Languages

Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2% note: shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 46.9
youth dependency ratio: 21.2
elderly dependency ratio: 25.7
potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 71.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
total: 17.3% Country comparison to the world: 76th
male: 18.3%
female: 16% (2015 est.)
Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[77]
1950–1955 64.01
1955–1960 Increase 66.91
1960–1965 Increase 68.79
1965–1970 Increase 69.45
1970–1975 Decrease 69.41
1975–1980 Increase 69.59
1980–1985 Decrease 69.08
1985–1990 Increase 69.42
1990–1995 Decrease 69.41
1995–2000 Increase 70.88
2000–2005 Increase 72.54
2005–2010 Increase 73.74
2010–2015 Increase 75.40

Ethnic groups and language[edit]

County Hungarian Bulgarian Roma Greek Croat Polish German Armenian Romanian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Slovenian Ukrainian
All 93.5% 0.1% 3.2% 0.0% 0.3% 0.1% 1.9% 0.0 0.4% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.0% 0.1%
Budapest 95.5% 0.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 1.7% 0.1% 0.5% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.1%
Bács-Kiskun 93.7% 0.0% 2.2% 0.0% 0.7% 0.0% 2.4% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.2% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%
Baranya 86.3% 0.1% 4.6% 0.0% 1.9% 0.1% 6.7% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Békés County 91.9% 0.0% 2.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 1.7% 0.0% 0.1% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0%
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén 90.0% 0.0% 8.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.6% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.1%
Csongrád 96.8% 0.0% 1.2% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.5% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0%
Fejér 96.0% 0.0% 1.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 1.7% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1%
Győr-Moson-Sopron 95.0% 0.1% 0.8% 0.0% 0.7% 0.0% 2.7% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%
Hajdú-Bihar 95.4% 0.1% 3.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

0.1%

Heves 92.6% 0.0% 6.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.1%
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok 94.2% 0.0% 4.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Komárom-Esztergom 93.2% 0.1% 1.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 3.6% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 1.2% 0.0% 0.1%
Nógrád 90.0% 0.0% 7.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.7% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0% 0.0%
Pest 94.2% 0.1% 1.7% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 2.5% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.1% 0.6% 0.0% 0.1%
Somogy 92.1% 0.0% 5.3% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 1.7% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg 90.8% 0.0% 8.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.3%
Tolna 90.3% 0.0% 3.9% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 5.2% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0%
Vas 94.5% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 1.2% 0.0% 2.1% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.7% 0.0%
Veszprém 94.8% 0.0% 1.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 3.2% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1%
Zala 94.1% 0.0% 2.6% 0.0% 1.3% 0.0% 1.6% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

[78]

History[edit]

Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon (4 June 1920)[edit]

The Red Map.[79][80] Ethnic map of the Hungary proper publicized by the Hungarian delegation. Regions with population density below 20 persons/km2[81] are left blank and the corresponding population is represented in the nearest region with population density above that limit.
  Rusyns
  Serbs
  Croats
  Spaces with a smaller density than 20 persons/sq km

Hungary lost 64% of its total population in consequence of the Treaty of Trianon, decreasing from 20.9 million to 7.6 million,[82] and 31% (3.3 out of 10.7 million) of its ethnic Hungarians,[60] Hungary lost five of its ten most populous cities.[citation needed]

Difference between the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary within Austria-Hungary and independent Hungary after the Treaty of Trianon. Based on the 1910 census. Administrative Hungary in green, autonomous Croatia-Slavonia grey.

According to the census of 1910, the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary were Hungarians, who were 54.5% of the population of Kingdom of Hungary, excluding Croatia-Slavonia. Although the territories of the former Kingdom of Hungary that were assigned by the treaty to neighbouring states in total had a majority of non-Hungarian population, they also included areas of Hungarian majority and significant Hungarian minorities, numbering 3,318,000 in total.

The number of Hungarians in the different areas based on census data of 1910 (This census was recorded by language, thus amongst Hungarians also others - mainly Jews - were included who declared their primary language as Hungarian). The present day location of each area is given in parenthesis.

Non-Hungarian population in the Kingdom of Hungary, based on 1910 census data[edit]

Slovaks, Romanians, Ruthenians, Serbs, Croats and Germans, who represented the majority of the populations of the above-mentioned territories:

  • In Upper Hungary (mostly Slovakia): 1,687,977 Slovaks and 1,233,454 others (mostly Hungarians - 886,044, Germans, Ruthenians and Roma). However, according to the Czechoslovak census in 1921, there were 2,025,003 (67,5%) Slovaks, 650,597 (21,7%) Hungarians, 145,844 (4,9%) Germans, 88,970 (3,0%) Ruthenians and 90,456 (3,0%) others including Jews.[83]
  • In Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukraine): 330,010 Ruthenians and 275,932 others (mostly Hungarians, Germans, Romanians, and Slovaks)
  • In Transylvania (Romania): 2,831,222 Romanians (53.8%) and 2,431,273 others (mostly Hungarians - 1,662,948 (31.6%) and Germans - 563,087 (10.7%). The 1919 and 1920 Transylvanian censuses indicate a greater percentage of Romanians (57.1%/57.3%) and a smaller Hungarian minority (26.5%/25.5%)[84]
  • In Vojvodina and Croatia-Slavonia (Serbia, Croatia): 2,756,000 Croats and Serbs and 1,366,000 others (mostly Hungarians and Germans)
  • In Prekmurje (Slovenia): 74,199 Slovenes (80%), 14,065 Hungarians (15,2%), 2,540 Germans (2,7%)
  • In Burgenland (Austria): 217,072 Germans and 69,858 others (mainly Croatian and Hungarian)

Post-Trianon Hungary[edit]

Population in the territory of present-day Hungary according to ethnic group 1495–1930[85]
Ethnic
group
estimation 1495 1715 1785 census 1880 census 1900 census 1910 census 1920 census 1930
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Hungarians 990,000 95.6% 1,176,000 79.1% 2,103,000 79.0% 4,402,364 82.4% 5,890,999 85.9% 6,730,299 88.4% 7,155,973 89.6% 8,000,335 92.1%
Germans 17,000 1.6% 136,600 9.2% 291,900 11.0% 606,363 11.3% 604,751 8.8% 553,179 7.3% 550,062 6.9% 477,153 5.5%
Slovaks n.d n.d. 37,700 2.5% 130,400 4.9% 199,788 3.7% 192,227 2.8% 165,317 2.2% 141,877 1.8% 104,786 1.2%
Croats 1,200 0.1% 58,900 4.0% 71,700 2.7% 59,251 1.1% 68,161 1.0% 62,018 0.8% 58,931 0.7% 47,337 0.5%
Others 23,800 2.4% 70,800 4.8% 66,214 2.4% 75,598 1.5% 98,277 1.5% 101,301 1.3% 80,026 1.0% 55,503 0.6%
Total 1,032,000 1,480,000 2,663,214 5,343,364 6,854,415 7,612,114 7,986,875 8,685,109

According to the 1920 census 10.4% of the population spoke one of the minority languages as mother language:

  • 551,212 German (6.9%)
  • 141,882 Slovak (1.8%)
  • 23,760 Romanian (0.3%)
  • 36,858 Croatian (0.5%)
  • 23,228 Bunjevac and Šokci (0.3%)
  • 17,131 Serb (0.2%)
  • 7,000 Slovenes (0,08%)

The number of bilingual people was much higher, for example 1,398,729 people spoke German (17%), 399,176 people spoke Slovak (5%), 179,928 people spoke Croatian (2.2%) and 88,828 people spoke Romanian (1.1%). Hungarian was spoken by 96% of the total population and was the mother language of 89%. The percentage and the absolute number of all non-Hungarian nationalities decreased in the next decades, although the total population of the country increased.

Note: 300.000 Hungarian refugees fled to Hungary from the territory of successor states (Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia) after the WW I.[86]

From 1938 to 1945[edit]

Ethnic map of Hungary in 1941

Hungary expanded its borders and regained territories from Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia at the outset of the war. These annexations were affirmed under the Munich Agreement (1938), two Vienna Awards (1938 and 1940), Carpathian Ruthenia and parts of Yugoslavia were occupied and annexed in 1939 and 1941, respectively. The population of Northern Transylvania, according to the Hungarian census from 1941 counted 53.5% Hungarians and 39.1% Romanians.[87] The territory of Bácska had 789,705 inhabitants, and 45,4% or 47,2% declared themselves to be Hungarian native speakers or ethnic Hungarians.[87] The percentage of Hungarian speakers was 84% in southern Czechoslovakia and 25% in the Sub-Carpathian Rus.[85]

Population of Hungary in 1941[88]
Ethnic
group
census 1941
Number %
Hungarians 11,881,455 80.9%
Romanians 1,051,026 7.2%
Ruthenians 547,770 3.7%
Germans 533,045 3.6%
Serbs 213,585 1.5%
Slovaks 175,550 1.2%
Jewish[Note 1] 139,041 0.9%
Roma 76,209 0.5%
Croats 12,346 0.1%
Slovenes 9,400 0.1%
Others 29,210 0.2%
Total 14,679,573

After WW II: 1949–1990[edit]

After World War II, about 200,000 Germans were deported to Germany according to the decree of the Potsdam Conference. Under the forced exchange of population between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, approximately 73,000 Slovaks left Hungary. After these population movements Hungary became an ethnically almost homogeneous country except the rapidly growing number of Romani people in the second half of the 20th century.

Population of Hungary 1949–1990
Ethnic
group
census 1949 census 1960 census 1970 census 1980 census 1990
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Hungarians 9,076,041 98.6% 9,786,038 98.2% 10,166,237 98.5% 10,638,974 99.3% 10,142,072 97.8%
Roma 21,387 0.2% 25,633 0.3% 34,957 0.3% 6,404 0.1% 142,683 1.4%
Germans 22,455 0.2% 50,765 0.5% 35,594 0.4% 11,310 0.1% 30,824 0.3%
Slovaks 25,988 0.3% 30,630 0.3% 21,176 0.2% 9,101 0.1% 10,459 0.1%
Croats 20,423 0.2% 33,014 0.3% 17,609 0.2% 13,895 0.1% 13,570 0.1%
Romanians 14,713 0.2% 15,787 0.2% 12,624 0.1% 8,874 0.1% 10,740 0.1%
Serbs 5,158 0.1% 4,583 0.1% 12,235 0.1% 2,805 0.0% 2,905 0.0%
Slovenes 4,473 0.1% - 4,205 0.0% 1,731 0.0% 1,930 0.0%
Others 14,161 0.1% 14,534 0.1% 17,462 0.2% 16,369 0.2% 19,640 0.2%
Total 9,204,799 9,961,044 10,322,099 10,709,463 10,374,823

For historical reasons, significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, notably in Ukraine (in Transcarpathia), Slovakia, Romania (in Transylvania), and Serbia (in Vojvodina). Austria (in Burgenland), Croatia, and Slovenia (Prekmurje) are also host to a number of ethnic Hungarians.

2001–2011[edit]

[89] [90]

Population of Hungary 2001–2011
Ethnic
group
census 2001 census 2011
Number % Number %
Hungarians 9,416,045 92.3% 8,504,492 85.6%
Roma 189,984 2.0% 315,583 3.2%
Germans 62,105 0.6% 185,696 1.9%
Romanians 7,995 0.1% 35,641 0.4%
Slovaks 17,693 0.2% 35,208 0.4%
Croats 15,597 0.2% 26,774 0.3%
Serbs 3,816 0.0% 10,038 0.1%
Slovenes 3,025 0.0% 2,820 0.0%
Others 57,059 0.6% 73,399 0.9%
Not stated 570,537 5.6% 1,398,731 14.1%
Total 10,198,315 9,937,628
  • Note: In 2001 570,537, in 2011 1,455,883 people did not give answer for ethnicity. Percentages calculated excluding these people. Moreover, people were able to give more than one answer on the question asking for the minorities (for example, people were allowed to write Hungarian as their nationality and German as a nationality being influenced by), hence the sum of the above exceeds the number of population.
  • Methodology had changed in 2001 and 2011 also, so ethnicity results of the censuses are not comparable very well.
  • Roma people is estimated to be around 9% Roma[91][92]

Historical ethnic groups of Hungary[edit]

Hungarians in Hungary (2011)
Minorities of Hungary

When the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, it was inhabited by West Slavic and Avar peoples. Written sources from the 9th century also suggest that some groups of Onogurs and Bulgars occupied the valley of the river Mureş at the time of the Magyars’ invasion. There is a dispute as to whether Romanian population existed in Transylvania during that time.

The Roma minority[edit]

Population pyramid of Budapest (99.2% non-Romany inhabitants), see: Demographics of Budapest
Population pyramid of Alsószentmárton (100% Romany inhabitants)

The Romani people arrived in Hungary in the fifteenth century from Turkey.[93] Nowadays, the real number of Roma in Hungary is a disputed question.

In the 2001 census only 190 046 (2%) called themselves Roma, but experts and Roma organisations estimate that there are between 450,000 and 1,000,000 Roma living in Hungary.[94][95][96][97][98] Since then, the size of the Roma population has increased rapidly. Today every fifth or sixth newborn child belongs to the Roma minority.[99] Based on current demographic trends, a 2006 estimate by Central European Management Intelligence claims that the proportion of the Roma population will double by 2050, putting the percentage of its Roma community at around 14-15% of the country's population.[99]

There are problems related to the Roma minority in Hungary, and the very subject is a heated and disputed topic.

Objective problems:

  • Slightly more than 80% of Roma children complete primary education, but only one third continue studies into the intermediate (secondary) level. This is far lower than the more than 90% proportion of children of non-Roma families who continue studies at an intermediate level. Less than 1% of Roma hold higher educational certificates.[100]
  • Poverty: most of the Roma people live in significantly worse conditions than others.[101]
  • Bad health conditions: life expectancy is about 10 years less compared to non-Romas
  • Lack of debate regarding the subject: academic researchers and members of the mainstream press disregard any critics and study the subject in the canonical viewpoint. Critics don't have the funds necessary to perform alternative studies.

Kabars[edit]

Three Kabar tribes joined to the Hungarians and participated in the Hungarian conquest of Hungary.[50] They settled mostly in Bihar county.

Böszörménys[edit]

The Muslim Böszörménys migrated to the Carpathian Basin in the course of the 10th-12th centuries and they were composed of various ethnic groups. Most of them must have arrived from Volga Bulgaria and Khwarezm.

Pechenegs[edit]

Communities of Pechenegs (Besenyő in Hungarian) lived in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 11-12th centuries. They were most numerous in the county of Tolna.

Oghuz Turks (Ouzes)[edit]

Smaller groups of Oghuz Turk settlers ('Úzok' or 'Fekete Kunok/Black Cumans' in Hungarian) came to the Carphatian Basin from the middle of the 11th century.[102] They were settled mostly in Barcaság. The city of Ózd got its name after them.

Jassics[edit]

The Jassic (Jász in Hungarian) people were a nomadic tribe which settled -with the Cumans- in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 13th century. Their name is almost certainly related to that of the Iazyges. Béla IV, king of Hungary granted them asylum and they became a privileged community with the right of self-government. During the centuries they were fully assimilated to the Hungarian population, their language disappeared, but they preserved their Jassic identity and their regional autonomy until 1876. Over a dozen settlements in Central Hungary (e.g. Jászberény, Jászárokszállás, Jászfényszaru) still bear their name.[103]

Cumans[edit]

During the Russian campaign, the Mongols drove some 200,000 Cumans, a nomadic tribe who had opposed them, west of the Carpathian Mountains. There, the Cumans appealed to King Béla IV of Hungary for protection.[104] In the Kingdom of Hungary, Cumans created two regions named Cumania (Kunság in Hungarian): Greater Cumania (Nagykunság) and Little Cumania (Kiskunság), both located the Great Hungarian Plain. Here, the Cumans maintained their autonomy, language and some ethnic customs well into the modern era. According to Pálóczi's estimation originally 70-80,000 Cumans settled in Hungary.[14]

Romanians[edit]

The oldest extant documents from Transylvania make reference to Vlachs too. Regardless of the subject of Romanian presence/non-presence in Transylvania prior to the Hungarian conquest, the first written sources about Romanian settlements derive from the 13th century, record was written about Olahteluk village in Bihar County from 1283.[105][106] The 'land of Romanians', Terram Blacorum (1222,1280)[106][107][108][109] showed up in Fogaras and this area was mentioned under different name (Olachi) in 1285.[106] The first appearance of a supposed Romanian name 'Ola' in Hungary derives from a charter (1258).[106]

They were significant population in Transylvania, Banat, Maramureș and Partium. There are different estimations in connection with number of Romanians in Kingdom of Hungary. According to researches based on place-names, 511 villages of Transylvania and Banat appear in documents at the end of the 13th century, however only 3 of them bore Romanian names.[110] Around 1400 AD, Transylvania and Banat consisted of 1757 villages, though only 76 (4.3%) of them were Romanian.[110] The number of Romanians started to increase significantly from the Early modern period.[110] In 1600 the Romanian inhabitants were primarily peasants, comprising more than 60 percent of the population.[111] By 1700, the Romanian ethnic group consisted of 40 percent of the Transylvanian population and their number raised even more in the 18th century.[110] Jean W.Sedlar estimates that Vlachs (Romanians) constituted about two-thirds of Transylvania's population in 1241 on the eve of the Mongol invasion,[112] however according to other researches Hungarian ethnic group was in decent majority in Transylvania before Battle of Mohács and only lost its relative majority by the 17th century.[113]

Slovaks[edit]

The Slovak people lived mainly in Upper Hungary, northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary. Due to post-Ottoman resettlements, the regions of Vojvodina, Banat and Békés county received bigger Slovak communities in the 18th century. After WWII a major population exchange with Czechoslovakia was carried out: about 73,000 Slovaks were transferred to Slovakia, replaced by an incomparable number of Hungarians.[114]

Serbs[edit]

From the 14th century, escaping from the Ottoman threat, a large number of Serbs migrated to the Hungarian Kingdom. After the Battle of Mohács, most of the territory of Hungary got into Ottoman rule. In that time, especially in the 17th century, many Serb, and other Southern Slavic immigrants settled in Hungary. Most of the Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary were South Slavs (the Janissary). After the Turkish withdrawal, Kingdom of Hungary came under Habsburg rule, a new wave of Serb refugees migrated to the area around 1690, as a consequence of the Habsburg-Ottoman war. In the first half of the 18th century, Serbs and South Slavs were ethnic majority in several cities in Hungary.

Germans[edit]

Three waves of German migration can be distinguished in Hungary before the 20th century. The first two waves of settlers arrived to the Hungarian Kingdom in the Middle Ages (11th and 13th centuries) in Upper Hungary and in Southern Transylvania (Transylvanian Saxons).

The third, largest wave of German-speaking immigrants into Hungary occurred after the withdrawal of the Ottoman Empire from Hungarian territory, after the Treaty of Karlowitz. Between 1711 and 1780, German-speaking settlers immigrated to the regions of Southern Hungary, mostly region of Bánát, Bács-Bodrog, Baranya and Tolna counties (as well as into present-day Romania and Yugoslavia), which had been depopulated by the Ottoman wars. At the end of the 18th century, the Kingdom of Hungary contained over one million German-speaking residents (collectively known as Danube Swabians).[115] In 2011, 131,951 people declared to be German in Hungary (1,6%).[116]

Rusyns[edit]

Rusyns had lived mostly in Carpathian Ruthenia, Northeast Hungary, however significant Rusyn population appeared in Vojvodina from the 18th century.

Croats[edit]

Croatia was in personal union with Hungary from 1102. Croat communities were spread mostly in the western and southern part of the country and along the Danube, including Budapest.

Poles[edit]

The Poles lived at the northern borders of Kingdom of Hungary from the arrival of the Hungarians.

Slovenes[edit]

The Slovenes (Vendek in Hungarian) lived in the western part of the Carpathian basin before the Hungarian conquest. In the 11th and 12th century, the current linguistic and ethnic border between the Hungarian and Slovene people was established. Nowadays, they live in Vendvidék (Slovenska krajina in Slovenians) between the Mura and the Rába rivers. In 2001, there were around 5,000 Slovenes in Hungary.

Jews[edit]

The first historical document about Jews of Hungary is the letter written about 960 to King Joseph of the Khazars by Hasdai ibn Shaprut, the Jewish statesman of Córdoba, in which he says Jews living in "the country of Hungarin". There are Jewish inscriptions on tombs and monuments in Pannonia (Roman Hungary) dated to the second or third century CE.[117]

Armenians[edit]

The first Armenians came to Hungary from the Balkans in the 10 - 11th century.

Greeks[edit]

Greeks migrated to Kingdom of Hungary from the 15th and 16th centuries. Mass migrations did not occur until the 17th century,[118] the largest waves being in 1718 and 1760–1770;[119] they were primarily connected to the economic conditions of the period.[118] It is estimated that 10,000 Greeks emigrated to Hungary in the second half of the 18th century.[119] A number of Greeks Communists escaped to Hungary after the Greek Civil War, notably in the 'Greek' village of Beloiannisz.

Bulgarians[edit]

The town of Szentendre and the surrounding villages were inhabited by Bulgarians since the Middle Ages. However, present day Bulgarians are largely descended from gardeners who migrated to Hungary from the 18th century.

Religion[edit]

Religious affiliation in Hungary (2011)[120]
Denominations Population % of total
Catholicism 3,871,922 38.9
Roman Catholics 3,691,389 37.1
Greek Catholics 179,176 1.8
Protestantism 1,368,547 13.8
Calvinists 1,153,454 11.6
Lutherans 215,093 2.2
Orthodox Christianity 13,710 0.1
Judaism 10,968 0.1
Other religions 167,231 1.7
Total religions 5,432,375 54.7
No religion 1,806,409 18.2
Did not wish to answer 2,698,844 27.1
total 9,937,628 100.00
Distribution of religions in Hungary

The majority of Hungarians became Christian in the 11th century. Hungary remained predominantly Catholic until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place and, as a result, first Lutheranism, then soon afterwards Calvinism, became the religion of almost the entire population. In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a successful campaign of counterreformation among the Hungarians, although Protestantism survived as the faith of a significant minority, especially in the far east and northeast of the country. Orthodox Christianity in Hungary has been the religion mainly of some national minorities in the country, notably Romanians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbs.

Faith Church, one of Europe's largest Pentecostal churches, is also located in Hungary. Hungary has historically been home to a significant Jewish community.

According to 2011 census data, Christianity is the largest religion in Hungary, with around 5.2 million adherents (52.9%),[121] while the largest denomination in Hungary is Catholicism (38.9% — Roman Catholicism 37.1%; Greek Catholicism 1.8%).[122] There is a significant Calvinist minority (11.6% of the population) and smaller Lutheran (2.2%), Orthodox (0.1%) and Jewish (0.1%) minorities. However, these census figures are representative of religious affiliation rather than attendance; around 12% of Hungarians attend religious services more than least once a week and around 50% more than once a year, while 30% of Hungarians do not believe in God at all.[123] The census showed a large drop of religious adherents who wish to answer, from 74.6% to 54.7% in ten years' time, replacing them by people either who do not wish answer or people who are not following a religion.

Largest cities[edit]

Name Population (1949) Population (1990) Population (2011) Agglomeration Status
Coa Hungary Town Budapest big.svg Budapest 1,590,316 2,016,681 1,733,685Decrease 2,503,105 (2009) Capital city
Coa Hungary Town Debrecen.svg Debrecen 115,399 212,235 208,016Decrease 237,888 (2005) Regional centre, county seat, urban county
Szeged COA.png Szeged 104,867 169,930 170,285Increase 201,307 (2005) Regional centre, county seat, urban county
HUN Miskolc COA.jpg Miskolc 109,841 196,442 168,275Decrease 216,470 (2005) Regional centre, county seat, urban county
Pecs, COA.jpg Pécs 89,470 170,039 157,721Decrease 179,215 (2005) Regional centre, county seat, urban county
HUN Győr COA.jpg Győr 69,583 129,331 131,267Increase 182,776 (2005) Regional centre, county seat, urban county
HUN Nyíregyháza COA.jpg Nyíregyháza 56,334 114,152 117,852Increase - County seat, urban county
Coa Hungary Town Kecskemét.svg Kecskemét 61,730 102,516 113,275Increase - County seat, urban county
HUN Székesfehérvár COA.jpg Székesfehérvár 42,260 108,958 101,943Decrease - Regional centre, county seat, urban county

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.
  1. ^ Except in the year 1941, Jewish people were not recognized as a minority, but only as a religion — assuredly, many Jews considered themselves as belonging to one of the recognized minorities.

References[edit]

  1. ^ , Hungarian Central Statistical Office [1]
  2. ^ Népesség a település jellege szerint, január 1. (1980–) KSH.hu
  3. ^ Dezső Danyi-Zoltán Dávid: Az első magyarországi népszámlálás (1784–1787)/The first census in Hungary (1784–1787), Hungarian Central Statistical Office, Budapest, 1960, pp. 30
  4. ^ a b c d A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  5. ^ Eurasian studies yearbook , Volume 78 p. 26 [2]
  6. ^ "Eurasian Studies Yearbook". Eurolingua. 6 April 2018 – via Google Books. 
  7. ^ a b Edgar C. Polomé, Essays on Germanic religion, Institute for the Study of Man, 1989, p. 150 [3]
  8. ^ Editors of Kingfisher (2004). The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. Kingfisher. p. 120. ISBN 9780753457849. Retrieved 2015-05-18. 
  9. ^ McDonnald, Alexander Hopkins (6 April 2018). "The Encyclopedia Americana". Americana Corporation – via Google Books. 
  10. ^ a b c d Hungary. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/276730/Hungary
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l József Kovacsics, Population history of Hungary mirrored by the conference-series (896-1870) (Magyarország népességtörténete a konferenciasorozat tükrésben (896-1870)), In: Demographia, 1996 - VOLUME 39, NUMBER 2-3, p. 145-165
  12. ^ a b c d e f Péter Rabb, Natural conditions in the Carpathian Basin of the middle ages, 2007, p. 58
  13. ^ a b Marcell Sebők, The man of many devices, who wandered full many ways--: festschrift in honour of János M. Bak, Central European University Press, 1999, p. 658
  14. ^ a b Nóra Berend, At the gate of Christendom: Jews, Muslims, and "pagans" in medieval Hungary, c. 1000-c. 1300, Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 63-72
  15. ^ a b c d e f Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the Royal Geographical Society. Carthographia, Budapest, Hungary, 2005. ISBN 978-963-352-002-4 CM
  16. ^ Peter Purton, A History of the Late Medieval Siege, 1200-1500, Boydell & Brewer, 2009, p. 15
  17. ^ a b Tore Nyberg, Lars Bisgaard, Medieval spirituality in Scandinavia and Europe: a collection of essays in honour of Tore Nyberg, Odense University Press, 2001, p. 170
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