Kanton Island, alternatively known as "Mary Island", "Mary Balcout's Island" or "Swallow Island", is the largest, as of 2007, the sole inhabited island of the Phoenix Islands, in the Republic of Kiribati. It is an atoll located in the South Pacific Ocean halfway between Hawaii and Fiji at 2°50′S 171°40′W; the island is a narrow ribbon of land around a lagoon. Kanton's closest neighbor is the uninhabited island of 63 km to the south; the capital of Kiribati, South Tarawa, lies 1,765 km to the west. As of 2005, the population was 41, down from 61 in 2000. In May 2010 the population was 24, with 14 adults and 10 children; the island's sole village is called Tebaronga. Kiribati declared the Phoenix Islands Protected Area in 2006, with the park being expanded in 2008; the 425,300 square-kilometer marine reserve contains eight coral atolls including Kanton. The first recorded sighting by Europeans was in September 1595 by the second Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Mendaña. More it was sighted by Lorenzo Barreto while in command of one of the smaller vessels on a local voyage round the called Santa Cruz, today's Nendo Island.
Visits were again reported on 5 August 1824, by two London whaling ships: Phoenix, Capt. John Palmer; the atoll was named "Mary Ballcout's Island" after the Mary Boulcott, the wife of W. Hill and the sister of T. E. Boulcott, who as Hill, Boulcott & Co. were part-owners of Mary. Kanton got its permanent name from the New Bedford whaler Canton, which ran aground on the atoll on 4 March 1854, while under the command of Capt. Andrew Wing; the crew managed to escape on whaleboats and after an open-water voyage of 49 days, reached Tinian Island in the Marianas, without the loss of a man. Three of the survivors, including Capt. Wing and Thomas E. Braley settled in Acushnet, Massachusetts. Kanton has been described as being shaped like a large pork chop. From its northwest to southeast points is a distance of 14.5 km, while the land rim varies in width from 50–600 m and 1.5–7 m in elevation. The southeast corner of the island is known as "Pyramid Point." The sole entrances to the lagoon are on the west side, with the main channel exhibiting currents of 6–8 knots.
The lagoon itself is filled with marine life, holding 153 different species of fish, including tuna, sharks and eels. An unpaved road runs around the island. Canton Island Airport lies at the northwest corner of the island, but it lacks any commercial scheduled service; the World Port Index number of Kanton Island is 56025. Much of Kanton's land surface is bare coral, sparsely covered with low bunch grass. According to Edwin H. Bryan's American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain, Kanton possessed in 1941 a total of twelve native species of vegetation, including low herbs and bunch grass, a thick stand of Scaevola shrubs on the island's south side, some Suriana maritima shrubs near the lagoon entrance and kou trees, coconut palms. In 1937, the New Zealand eclipse expedition reported 23 bird species on Kanton, together with Polynesian Rats, hermit crabs and turtles. Two species of spiders were found on the island. There is no freshwater on Kanton, a problem for settlers. Rainwater is caught in cisterns.
Rainfall is sparse, averaging 8.71–35.97 in between 1938 and 1953, though reports suggest a wetter climate in recent years. The British laid claim to Kanton Island during the 1850s; the official British claim was formally reasserted on 6 August 1936, an order in council issued in March 1937 including Kanton and other Phoenix Islands in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, with the British making several visits to the island culminating in the placement of two radio operators on Kanton on 31 August 1937. On 8 June 1937, Kanton was the site of a total solar eclipse and the island was occupied by American and New Zealand scientists, members of an expedition organized by the National Geographic Society, led by the astronomer Samuel Alfred Mitchell. During this time, the American party claimed the island for the United States, erecting a small monument with two American flags. According to one account, the British warship HMS Wellington fired a shot across the bow of the USS Avocet, when the latter refused to cede the choicest anchorage spot to the British vessel.
The American ship responded in kind, following which both captains agreed to "cease fire" until instructions could be received from their respective governments. Washington and London ordered no further escalation, both parties observed the solar eclipse together, "though a bit cool."In response to the British reoccupation of Kanton in August 1937, seven Americans from the American Equatorial Islands Colonization Project landed on the island on 7 March 1938. Although the British ambassador to the United States requested removal of markers claiming U. S. sovereignty, President Franklin Roosevelt formally placed the island under control of the U. S. Interior department on 3 March 1938. Both parties continued to press their competing claims until 6 April 1939, when the U. S. and Britain agreed to hold Kanton under joint control for the next fifty years as the Canton and Enderbury Islands condominium. The U. S./U. K. Tenure proved cordial and cooperative thereafter, with each party enjoying t
Kuria is the name of a pair of islets in the Central Gilbert Islands in Kiribati, northwest of Aranuka. The two islets and Oneeke, are separated by a 20 metre wide channel on a shallow water platform, crossed by a bridge of the connecting road; the islands are surrounded by fringing reef, broadest on the eastern side of Kuria. The population of Kuria was 980 in 2010. Kuria is made up of two islets; the main islet, has five villages. These villages are connected to the smaller islet of Oneeke by a ten-metre bridge replacing the old causeway that ran across the former reef passage between the two islets; the two islets are wide as compared to most islands in the Gilbert group. The widest portion measures 4.26 km from lagoon to the ocean side and the length from north to south is 8.94 km. There are two natural brackish-water ponds at east-southern tip of the main islet; the total land area of Kuria is of 15.48 km2, close to the average size for an island of Kiribati, but the population in 2010 was only 980 people, making Kuria one of the least densely populated islands in Kiribati.
The main administration center is located at Buariki, the airport, police headquarters, guest house and Junior Secondary School are located here. Kuria means'almost seen on the horizon'. Thomas Gilbert and John Marshall, sailing in the merchant ships Charlotte and Scarborough, were the first Europeans to describe visiting Kuria, in June 1788; the islands were surveyed in 1841 by the US Exploring Expedition. In the 1840s, the islands of Kuria and Aranuka were conquered by Tenkoruti or Karotu, the paramount chief or the Uea of Abemama, when a former ruler of Kuria and Aranuka gave up these two islands to King Karotu from Abemama and left for Maiana, another of the Gilbert group. In 1878 Tenkoruti's nephew, Tembinok' or Tem Binoka became the Uea, he acquired firearms and manufactured goods from traders and he purchased a ship. To pay for his acquisitions he tightened his control over the 3 islands in order to increase his supply of coconuts and other produce, which he sold to the traders. Tembinok' was immortalised by Robert Louis Stevenson's description of him in his book In the South Seas.
Robert Louis Stevenson spent two months on Abemama in 1889. Stevenson described Tembinok' as the "one great personage in the Gilberts … and the last tyrant". In early European times, animals in Kuria were not considered a welcome addition to the ecosystem; as a result, introduced animals were considered a subject of supernatural fears and were slaughtered and thrown into the lagoon. Kuria Post Office opened around 1912. Air Kiribati operates two flights per week from South Tarawa, linking with neighbouring Aranuka Airport. Boat charters are available; the Island Council operates a guest house, where tourists are welcome, although it is advisable to be prepared as the island is isolated. Dress code is restricted on Kuria. Casual wear is preferable and women are not allowed to walk around with bikinis, mini skirts or shorts. A skirt/short covered down to your knees or wrapped around lava-lava and T-shirts are preferable. Exhibit: The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 from the Navy Art Gallery
The Bahá'í Faith is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, the unity and equality of all people. Established by Bahá'u'lláh in 1863, it grew in Persia and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception, it is estimated to have between 5 and 8 million adherents, known as Bahá'ís, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories. It grew from the mid-19th-century Bábí religion, whose founder taught that God would soon send a prophet in the same way of Jesus or Muhammad. In 1863, after being banished from his native Iran, Bahá ` u ` lláh announced, he was further exiled. Following Bahá'u'lláh's death in 1892, leadership of the religion fell to his son `Abdu'l-Bahá, his great-grandson Shoghi Effendi. Bahá'ís around the world annually elect local and national Spiritual Assemblies that govern the affairs of the religion, every five years the members of all National Spiritual Assemblies elect the Universal House of Justice, the nine-member supreme governing institution of the worldwide Bahá'í community, which sits in Haifa, near the Shrine of the Báb.
Bahá'í teachings are in some ways similar to other monotheistic faiths: God is considered single and all-powerful. However, Bahá'u'lláh taught that religion is orderly and progressively revealed by one God through Manifestations of God who are the founders of major world religions throughout history. Bahá'ís regard the major religions as fundamentally unified in purpose, though varied in social practices and interpretations. There is a similar emphasis on the unity of all people rejecting notions of racism and nationalism. At the heart of Bahá'í teachings is the goal of a unified world order that ensures the prosperity of all nations, races and classes. Letters written by Bahá'u'lláh to various individuals, including some heads of state, have been collected and assembled into a canon of Bahá'í scripture that includes works by his son `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Báb, regarded as Bahá'u'lláh's forerunner. Prominent among Bahá'í literature are the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Kitáb-i-Íqán, Some Answered Questions, The Dawn-Breakers.
In English-language use, the word Bahá'í is used either as an adjective to refer to the Bahá'í Faith or as a term for a follower of Bahá'u'lláh. The word is not a noun meaning the religion as a whole, it is derived from the Arabic Bahá‘, meaning "glory" or "splendor". The term "Bahaism" is still used in a pejorative sense, though the U. S. Library of Congress uses "Bahaism" as a variant term for Baha'i Faith; the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, form the foundation for Bahá'í belief. Three principles are central to these teachings: the unity of God, the unity of religion, the unity of humanity. Baha'is believe that God periodically reveals his will through divine messengers, whose purpose is to transform the character of humankind and to develop, within those who respond and spiritual qualities. Religion is thus seen as orderly and progressive from age to age; the Bahá'í writings describe a single, inaccessible, omnipresent and almighty God, the creator of all things in the universe.
The existence of God and the universe is thought to be eternal, without a end. Though inaccessible directly, God is seen as conscious of creation, with a will and purpose, expressed through messengers termed Manifestations of God. Bahá'í teachings state that God is too great for humans to comprehend, or to create a complete and accurate image of by themselves. Therefore, human understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his Manifestations. In the Bahá'í religion, God is referred to by titles and attributes, there is a substantial emphasis on monotheism; the Bahá'í teachings state that the attributes which are applied to God are used to translate Godliness into human terms and to help individuals concentrate on their own attributes in worshipping God to develop their potentialities on their spiritual path. According to the Bahá'í teachings the human purpose is to learn to know and love God through such methods as prayer and being of service to others. Bahá'í notions of progressive religious revelation result in their accepting the validity of the well known religions of the world, whose founders and central figures are seen as Manifestations of God.
Religious history is interpreted as a series of dispensations, where each manifestation brings a somewhat broader and more advanced revelation, rendered as a text of scripture and passed on through history with greater or lesser reliability but at least true in substance, suited for the time and place in which it was expressed. Specific religious social teachings may be revoked by a subsequent manifestation so that a more appropriate requirement for the time and place may be established. Conversely, certain general principles are seen to be consistent. In Bahá'í belief, this process of progressive revelation will not end. Bahá'ís do not expect a new manifestation of God to appear within 1000 years of Bahá'u'lláh's revelation. Bahá'í beliefs are sometimes described as syncretic combinations of earlier religious beliefs. Bahá'ís, assert that their religion is a distinct tradition with its own
Onotoa is an atoll and district of Kiribati. It is situated in the Gilbert Islands in the Pacific Ocean, 65 km from Tamana, the smallest island in the Gilberts; the population of Onotoa in the 2010 census was 1,519. The atoll is similar to many other atolls in the Gilbert Islands with its continuous line of islets and islands on the eastern side; the western side consists of a submerged reef. Onotoa is a low lying atoll with a land area of 15.62 square kilometres. It has 7 villages with Tabuarorae, an islet, located at the southernmost end of the island followed by Aiaki, Temao, Buariki and Tekawa at the northernmost end of the island; the villages are located along the lagoon coastal area throughout the island. The combined islets of Otoae and Aiaki are now accessible after the construction of a causeway from Temao to Aiaki. Tabuarorae is still not connected to the rest of the mainland. Facilities are spread right across the island, with the airport close to the northernmost village of Tekawa, the boat channel and wharf at the southern islet of Tabuarorae, the Junior Secondary School located between Otowae and Aiaki, the main Council offices located between Temao and Buariki.
The construction of causeways have resulted to a significant reduction in the flushing of the lagoon that has resulted in low levels of oxygen in the lagoon, which has resulted in a lowering in the water quality. The erosion and accretion that are occurring along the shoreline is identified as being linked to aggregate mining, land reclamation and the construction of causeways, thought to change the currents along the shoreline; the name Onotoa means'six giants'. The legend is told that a hunchback woman from Tarawa, living in a village of Nuatabu, had six sons who made fun of her deformity, she ran away to Onotoa. The sons followed her and built her a home by piling up huge coral boulders - the remnants of which can be seen today. In 1826 Captain Clark of the British whaling ship John Palmer was the first European to sight Onotoa, followed by Captain Chase of the American whaling ship, Japan. Onotoa Post Office opened around 1912. Exhibit: The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 from the Navy Art Gallery
Maiana is an atoll in Kiribati and is one of the Central Gilbert Islands. Maiana is 44 kilometres south of the capital island of South Tarawa and has a population of 2,027 as of 2010; the northern and eastern sides of the atoll are a single island, whilst the western edge consists of submerged reefs and many uninhabited islets, all surrounding a lagoon. The atoll is 14 kilometres long and is narrow, with an average width of less than 1 kilometre and a total land area of 16.72 square kilometres. Most of the 2,027 people who live on Maiana live on the main island; the population of Maiana is stable and has been around 2,000 people since 1985. Many parts of Maiana suffer from coastal erosion, with the villages of Tekaranga and Tematantongo being affected. Drought is another serious concern as the island's limited freshwater supply comes from the shallow freshwater lens, which becomes salty close to the coast during drought periods. Like all of the atolls of Kiribati, Maiana is at serious risk from sea level rise, as small changes in sea level can cause accelerated erosion and threaten infrastructure and water supplies.
Maiana is administered by an Island Council based in Tebangetua village. The Maiana constituency elects two representatives to the national House of Assembly in the capital of South Tarawa. At present, the MPs for Maiana are Teiwaki Areieta. Dr. Tong is the current President of Kiribati. Apart from that, the local people of Maiana have their ruling system that survive from the past. Unimwane Ruling System. All villages from Tebikerai to Bubutei have their unimwane represent their villages to the Unimwane Council Body; this body called Tebau-ni-Maiana. Among all Te Unimwane, they will choose the most aging one as their Baatua, they execute rules of the Island. This rules and regulations based on the culture and religious belief of Maiana. For example, Uriam Kauongo was a Baatu. There are different stories told as to the other islands in the Gilberts. An important legend in the culture of Maiana is that spirits who lived in a tree in Samoa migrated northward carrying branches from the tree, Te Kaintikuaba, which translates as the tree of life.
It was these spirits, together with Nareau the Wise. The island was surveyed in 1841 by the US Exploring Expedition. Maiana Post Office opened around 1925. On 13 July 2009, the vessel Uean Te Raoi II, owned by the Catholic Parish of Maiana and travelling from Bwairiki in Tarawa and foundered off Maiana with the loss of 35 lives. Exhibit: The Alfred Agate Collection: The United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 from the Navy Art Gallery
The World Factbook
The World Factbook known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition; the Factbook is available in the form of a website, updated every week. It is available for download for use off-line, it provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, communications, government and military of each of 267 international entities including U. S.-recognized countries and other areas in the world. The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U. S. government officials, its style, format and content are designed to meet their requirements. However, it is used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles; as a work of the U. S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States. In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below.
Other public and private sources are consulted. Antarctic Information Program Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center Bureau of the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy Department of State Fish and Wildlife Service Maritime Administration National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Naval Facilities Engineering Command Office of Insular Affairs Office of Naval Intelligence Oil & Gas Journal United States Board on Geographic Names United States Transportation Command Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA. However, the CIA requests. Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U. S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly. Information available as of January 1 of the current year is used in preparing the Factbook.
The first, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, the first unclassified version in June 1971. The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975. In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office; this happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition. The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994; the web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month. The official printed version is sold by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, floppy disk. Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook. Several publishers, including Grand River Books, Potomac Books, Skyhorse Publishing have re-published the Factbook in recent years; as of July 2011, The World Factbook comprises 267 entities, which can be divided into the following categories: Independent countries The CIA defines these as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory."
In this category, there are 195 entities. Others Places set apart from the list of independent countries. There are two: Taiwan and the European Union. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty Places affiliated with another country, they may be subcategorized by affiliated country: Australia: six entities China: two entities Denmark: two entities France: eight entities Netherlands: three entities New Zealand: three entities Norway: three entities United Kingdom: seventeen entities United States: fourteen entitiesMiscellaneous Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six such entities. Other entities The World and the oceans. There are the World. Areas not covered Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered, but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries. Subnational areas of countries are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.
This criterion was invoked in the 2007 and 2011 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, an integral part of France. Kashmir Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus, which the U. S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U. S. Government maps."Taiwan/Republic of China The name
Bonriki is a settlement on Tarawa atoll and part of the municipality of South Tarawa. Bonriki International Airport, one of two international airports in Kiribati is located here. Bonriki International Airport