The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv
Gamprin is a municipality of Liechtenstein with 1,657 inhabitants. It contains the village Bendern, among the most historic of Liechtenstein's communities. Lower Country men swore allegiance to the Prince in 1699 at Bendern; the community of Bendern had ecclesiastical relevance going back to in least the fifteenth century. They have a church dedicated to Mother Mary, built in 1481, but with antecedents dating back to 1045; the municipality contains the Liechtenstein LGT Group. Until 1950 the municipality Gamprin neither had a coat of an official flag. In this year on the national day the municipalities of Liechtenstein should present themselves; this caused a discussion about the flag of Gamprin, so the council of Gamprin decided to assign a committee in order to create a flag and a coat of arms for the municipality in 1957. The product was the new coat of arms of Gamprin; the yellow ribbon symolises the Rhein, located in the west of Gamprin. The roses were from the coat of arms of the knight "Rüdiger von Limbach", who had his resident in Gamprin in medieval ages.
In 1958 the new flag and the new coat of arms were adopted by the municipality Gamprin. Tina Weirather, alpine skier. Media related to Gamprin at Wikimedia Commons Official website Liechtenstein Portal on Gamprin/Bendern
Schaan is the largest municipality of Liechtenstein by population. It is located to the north of the capital, in the central part of the country; as of 2015 it has a population of 5,983 making it the most populous administrative district in Liechtenstein, covers an area of 26.8 km2, including mountains and forest. First mentioned c. 850, Schaan has over 4,000 enterprises, making it a large economic center in the country. Schaan is the location of the world headquarters of Ivoclar Vivadent AG, the world's largest manufacturer of false teeth, Hilti Aktiengesellschaft, one of the world's largest makers of anchors and power tools. Schaan borders the town of Buchs in Switzerland; the municipality includes the Naafkopf, one of the two tripoints between Liechtenstein and Austria. There are four kindergarten sites: Malarsch, Pardiel and Werkof; the Gemeinschaftszentrum Resch, Primarschule provides primary school services. Realschule Schaan and Sportschule Liechtenstein are in Schaan, while Realschule Vaduz and Oberschule Vaduz are in the Schulzentrum Mühleholz II in Vaduz.
Liecht. Gymnasium is in Vaduz. There is a private Waldorf school that has students from, in addition to Liechtenstein and Switzerland, it was established in 1985. Maria Linden a German bacteriologist and zoologist Gerta Keller Professor of Paleontology and Geology at Princeton University since 1984. Roman Hermann a Liechtensteiner former cyclist Paul Frommelt a former Alpine skier Peter Jehle footballer who plays for Liechtenstein club FC Vaduz as a goalkeeper Ivan Quintans a Liechtensteiner footballer Liechtenstein portal Official website
Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over 160 square kilometres and a population of 37,877. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz, its largest municipality is Schaan, it is the smallest country to border two countries. Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz. 20,000 people commute to work in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, although not a member of the European Union, it participates in both the Schengen Area and the European Economic Area.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland. The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BCE; the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age, from around 450 BCE—possibly under some influence of both the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BCE, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, therefore bringing the region under close control of the Roman Republic. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance, at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450 CE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony, until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 CE, following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein was under the possession of East Francia, it would be reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire, around 1000 CE. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In 1300, an Alemannic population—the Walsers, who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled.
The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in 1699. In 1396 Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri
Mauren is a municipality in Liechtenstein, situated in the north of the country. It has a population of 4,300; the Curta mechanical calculator was produced in Mauren. It was first mentioned as "Muron" in documents from 1178. There is historian Peter Kaiser located in Mauren. Peter Kaiser was a historian and statesman, known as a proponent of the rights of the common people or serfs in his home country Fritz Kaiser a wealth management entrepreneur and philanthropist Dominique Hasler a Liechtensteiner politician, Minister of Home Affairs and Environment since 2017, she grew up in Mauren Jürgen Berginz is a bobsledder who competed for Liechtenstein at the 2010 Winter Olympics Media related to Mauren at Wikimedia Commons Official website Liechtenstein Portal
Switzerland in the Roman era
The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. The Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps to the Rhine and into Gaul, most by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in 58 BC. Under the Pax Romana, the area was smoothly integrated into the prospering Empire, its population assimilated into the wider Gallo-Roman culture by the 2nd century AD, as the Romans enlisted the native aristocracy to engage in local government, built a network of roads connecting their newly established colonial cities and divided up the area among the Roman provinces. Roman civilization began to retreat from Swiss territory when it became a border region again after the Crisis of the Third Century.
Roman control weakened after 401 AD, but did not disappear until the mid-5th century after which the area began to be occupied by Germanic peoples. The Swiss plateau, within the natural borders of the Alps to the South and East, Lake Geneva and the Rhône to the west and the Rhine to the north, was recognized as a contiguous territory by Julius Caesar; this area had been dominated by the La Tène culture since the 5th century BC, settled by a Celtic population, of which the Helvetii were the most numerous, but which included the Rauraci in north-west Switzerland centered on Basel, the Allobroges around Geneva. South of the Swiss plateau were the Nantuates and Veragri in the Valais, the Lepontii in the Ticino, while the Raetians controlled the Grisons as well as large areas around it; the first part of what is now Switzerland to fall to Rome was the southern Ticino, annexed after the Roman victory over the Insubres in 222 BC. The territory of the Allobroges around Geneva came under Roman sway by 121 BC and was incorporated into the province of Gallia Narbonensis prior to the Gallic Wars.
In around 110 BC, two Helvetic tribes under Divico – the Tigurini and the Tougeni, sometimes identified with the Teutons – joined the wandering Germanic Cimbri on a march to the West. In the course of the Cimbrian War they defeated a Roman force under Lucius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Burdigala in 107 BC, but after the Roman victory over the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, the Tigurini returned to settle in the Swiss Plateau. In 61 BC, the Helvetii, led by Orgetorix, decided to leave their lands and move to the West, burning their settlements behind them – twelve oppida, according to Caesar, some 400 villages, they were decisively beaten by Caesar in the Battle of Bibracte in 58 BC. After their surrender, Caesar sent the Helvetii home, according them the status of foederati or Roman allies, but not yet subjugating them to Roman sovereignty. Caesar's policy aimed at controlling the territory west of the Jura and Rhine, as well as at blocking the potential incursion routes from the East along the Jura.
The Raetians, described as savage warriors by Strabo, continued to launch incursions into the Swiss Plateau and had to be contained. To that end, Caesar charged the Helvetii and the Rauraci with defending their territory and established two colonies of veterans – one, the Colonia Julia Equestris on the shores of Lake Geneva and the other through Lucius Munatius Plancus in northwestern Switzerland, preceding the larger Augusta Raurica founded by Augustus in around 6 AD. Caesar's attempt to open the Great St Bernard Pass for Roman traffic failed in 57 BC due to strong opposition by the local Veragri. Concerted and successful efforts to gain control over the Alpine region were undertaken by his successor, Augustus, as the rapid development of Lugdunum made the establishment of a safe and direct route from Gaul to Italy a priority. In 25 BC, an army under Aulus Terentius Varro Murena wiped out the Salassi in the Aosta Valley. At some time between 25 and 7 BC – either following the Aosta campaign or, more in the course of the conquest of Raetia in 15 BC – a campaign subjugated the Celtic tribes of the Valais and opened the Great St Bernard Pass.
That conquest was a consequence of the Augustan imperative of securing the Imperial borders. To control the Alps as the shield of northern Italy, Rome needed to control both flanks of the mountain range, thus it had to extend its power to the Rhine and Danube, thereby opening a direct route to Germania and all of Central Europe. The last obstacle in this path were the Raetians. After a first expedition against them by Publius Silius Nerva in 16 BC, a more thorough campaign by Drusus and the emperor Tiberius brought Raetia – and thereby all of Switzerland – under Roman control; the tropaeum alpium, built by Augustus in 7 BC to celebrate his conquest of the Alps, lists among the defeated peoples the tribes of Raetia and of the Valais, but not the Helvetii. It appears that they were absorbed peacefully into the Empire during the first century AD, except for their part in the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69; the history of Switzerland under Roman rule was, from the Augustan period up until 260 AD, a time of exceptional peace and prosperity.
The Pax Romana was made possible by the protection of well-defended and distant Imperial borders and a peaceful and smooth Romanization of the local population. The Romans urbanized the territory with numerous settlements and built a network of high-quality Roman roads connecting them, allowing for the integration of Helvetia into the imperial economy. While the Roman presence was always strong in the Alps
Triesen is the third largest of Liechtenstein's municipalities. It contains several historic churches dating from the fifteenth century, it has a weaving mill from 1863, considered a historical monument. The population is around 5,120; the municipality includes the highest point of Liechtenstein, the Grauspitz, at 2,599 metres above sea level. It is located between Vaduz and Balzers; the settlements of Triesen, as the state archaeologists have found during excavations, were destroyed in natural disasters. The detailed picture of the place Triesen shows that all settlement phases were terminated by the forces of nature, it has been demonstrated that the settlements of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were destroyed by floods and landslides. The coat of arms of the municipality Triesen consists of a shield with three superimposed silver scythes on a blue background. Attractions in the Triesen area include: Die Pfarrkirche St. Gallus, built in 1455 and rebuilt in 1994, a square hall church Die St.-Mamerta-Kapelle, the oldest chapel in the country, built in the 9th or early 10th century Die Marienkapelle, a Romanesque building from the early 13th century Das Kosthaus, an 1873-built working-class house Kulturzentrum Gasometer, the Cultural Centre, with art exhibitions and other events The Lawena Museum of electricity at Lawena Power Station Franz Burgmeier retired footballer, who last played as a midfielder for FC Vaduz Ursula Konzett a former Alpine skier Official website Liechtenstein Tourism