Nigeria is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with 200 million people in an area of 920,000 km2, is the country with the largest population in Africa and the seventh largest population in the world. 50% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, with the rate of urbanization being estimated at 4.3%. Nigeria is home to over 250 ethnic groups, with over 500 languages, the variety of customs, traditions among them gives the country great cultural diversity; the three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa 27.4% of the population. The Efik, Ibibio and Ijaw constitute other Southeastern populations; the Urhobo-Isoko and Itsekiri constitute Nigerian's Midwest. Most of the population is a young population, with 42.54% between the ages of 0–14. There is a high dependency ratio of the country at 88.2 dependents per 100 non-dependents. Three of the main religious groups are Muslim at 45%, Christian at 45% and other indigenous beliefs at 10%; the predominantly Christian Igbo are found in the southeast.
Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination in Igboland, but Anglicanism is strong, as are Pentecostal and other Evangelical denominations. Persons of different ethnic backgrounds most communicate in English, although knowledge of two or more Nigerian languages is widespread. Hausa and Yoruba are the most used Nigerian languages. Nigerian Pidgin is used as an unofficial medium of communication in the Nigerian cities of Warri, Ughelli and Port Harcourt. Nigeria's population has been increasing for at least the last 5 decades due to high birth rates, quadrupling its population during this time. Growth was fastest in the 1980s, after child mortality had dropped and has slowed since as the birth rate has declined slightly. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 185,989,640 in 2016, compared to only 37,860,000 in 1950; the proportion of children under the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.0%, 53.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older.
There is a large population momentum, with 3.2 percent growth rate leading to the projected population. Abuja has not implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment among women, improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families; the Nigeria's Chairman of National Population Commission, Eze Duruiheoma, delivering Nigeria's statement in New York on Sustainable Cities, Human Mobility and International Migration in the 51st Session of Commission on Population and Development, said that "Nigeria remains the most populous in Africa, the seventh globally with an estimated population of over 198 million. The recent World Population Prospects predicts that by 2050, Nigeria will become the third most populated country in the world.
Over the last 50 years, the Nigeria's urban population has grown at an average annual growth rate of more than 6.5 per cent without commensurate increase in social amenities and infrastructure." He stated that the population "grew from 17.3 in 1967 to 49.4 per cent in 2017." Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: Fertility data as of 2013: Source: Demographic and Health Surveys ∗ MICS surveys Contraceptive prevalence, any methods ∗ UNICEFs State of the Worlds Children and Childinfo, United Nations Population Divisions World Contraceptive Use, household surveys including Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. The total population in sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase to one billion people, making it the most populated region outside of South-Central Asia. According to the United Nations, the population of Nigeria will reach 411 million by 2050. Nigeria might be the 3rd most populous country in the world. In 2100, the population of Nigeria may reach 794 million.
While the overall population is expected to increase, the growth rate is estimated to decrease from 1.2 percent per year in 2010 to 0.4 percent per year in 2050. The birth rate is projected to decrease from 20.7 to 13.7, while the death rate is projected to increase from 8.5 in 2010 to 9.8 in 2050. Life expectancy is all expected to increase from 67.0 years in 2010 to 75.2 years in 2050. By 2050, 69.6% of the population is estimated to be living in urban areas compared to 50.6% in 2010. Registration of vital events is in Nigeria not complete; the Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015: The following demographic statistics of Nigeria in 2019 are from the World Population Review. One birth every 4 seconds One death every 14 seconds One net migrant every 9 minutes Net gain of one person every 6 secondsThe following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. 203,452,505 178.5 million 174,507,539 Nigeria is Africa's most populous country.
Significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest. 0-14 years: 42.45% 15-24 years: 19.81% 25-54 years: 30.44% 55-64 years: 4.04% 65 years and over: 3.26% (2018
The Draft Bloomberg movement is a political draft movement in the United States that launched in 2007 as an effort to convince New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to run for President of the United States as an independent candidate in the 2008 election. The movement ended for that election cycle on February 28, 2008, when Bloomberg formally announced that he would not run for president; the movement relaunched in late 2010 as an effort to persuade Bloomberg to make a presidential bid and/or lead in the formation of a viable third party in 2012. 8 years he eventualy entered the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries In January 2008, the Independent Greens of Virginia launched the first state petition drive in the nation to put Michael Bloomberg on the ballot for president. The party collected and submitted more than the minimum number of required petition signatures with Bloomberg's name to the Virginia State Board of Elections, prior to the Board's deadline, to put the party on the ballot for president in Virginia.
Despite these efforts, Bloomberg did not appear on the Virginia ballot in the 2008 election as a presidential candidate because, one day prior to the State's deadline for ballot submissions, he requested that the party remove his name. There had been speculation of drafting Bloomberg to run as a presidential candidate on the Unity08 ticket. On January 10, 2008, the organization released a statement announcing that two of its co-founders, Doug Bailey and Gerald Rafshoon, were leaving Unity08 and launching a national draft movement to entice Bloomberg to run as an independent candidate. Support for the movement came from independent voters unhappy with the choices the two major parties were offering. Scott Adams, creator of the comic strip Dilbert, entrepreneur Mark Cuban acknowledged the movement on their respective blogs and made favorable comments regarding a potential Bloomberg presidential campaign. Political consultants Doug Bailey and Gerald Rafshoon quit the Unity08 movement to work to draft Bloomberg.
In October 2010, The Committee to Draft Michael Bloomberg announced it was relaunching the movement in hopes of persuading Bloomberg to lead in bringing together independents, members of the Independence Party of America and Greens to form a viable third party. The Draft Bloomberg Committee choose this approach as polls in October 2010 showed 58% of Americans want a third major party, Bloomberg has stated that he does not intend to seek the presidency in 2012. Michael Bloomberg 2020 presidential campaign Draft Condi movement Draft Ron Paul movement Draft Mark Warner movement DraftMichael.com, official site of the Committee to Draft Michael Bloomberg RunMikeRun.com, support site for Draft Bloomberg efforts UniteforMike.com, archived site of Draft Bloomberg 2008 movement
The Glenn–Fowler expedition to Santa Fe, New Mexico was led by Hugh Glenn and Jacob Fowler to see whether trade with the Spanish in the region would be feasible. The expedition was made up of 21 men, they left their establishment on the Verdigris River in present-day Oklahoma on September 25, 1821, arrived in Santa Fe in January 1822, found that the Spanish authority in the region had been ended by the Mexican War of Independence. The new Mexican government was quite happy to promote trade between the United States; the authorities gave the expedition to trap and hunt in the Spanish lands. The expedition members obtained nearly 1,100 pounds of furs before they left the area on their return trip, they returned home proving that trade with the Santa Fe area was feasible. The profitable trip, along with the earlier trip of William Becknell, led to the establishment of the Santa Fe Trail. Glenn and Fowler were the first white Americans to travel in the region around modern-day Pueblo. While exploring that area, they learned.
The Mexican government had gained control of the former Spanish territory. Colonel Hugh Glenn was an Ohio banker and businessman who came to the Indian Territory, where he opened a trading post near the mouth of the Verdigris River, he had met Jacob Fowler while they both served in the U. S. Army during the War of 1812. In 1821, they had agreed to form an overland expedition that would travel to Santa Fe and try to establish a trading relationship. Fowler left Fort Smith, where he was staying and traveled to Glenn's trading post in September, 1821. After assembling a party of 21 men, the expedition commenced on September 21, 1821, they followed the Verdigris north to the confluence with the Caney River, where they camped near the present site of Bartlesville. They continued north into Kansas Territory proceeded to the Arkansas River, near present-day Wichita, they followed the river into Colorado Territory. On October 27, the expedition crossed to the south bank of the Arkansas River and entered Spanish Territory.
They first saw the Spanish Peaks in what is now southeastern Colorado on November 13. They began to encounter Kiowas in large numbers during the following week, but the meetings were tense and establishing trade was nearly impossible. Moving on, the party met Spanish troops in Taos who informed them that the area now belonged to Mexico, which had defeated Spain in the Mexican Revolution; the Glenn–Fowler expedition was considered successful. It not only met the original objective of proving feasibility of trade between the United States and Spanish North America, but confirmed the route that would be followed by the Santa Fe Trail; the new Mexican government was quite happy to promote trade between the United States. The authorities gave the expedition to trap and hunt in the Spanish lands; the expedition members obtained nearly 1,100 pounds of furs before they left the area on their return trip on June 1, 1822. Hugh Glenn returned to Cincinnati, where he died on May 28, 1833, at the age of 45.
His expedition's success had not gotten him out of financial difficulties. Jacob Fowler went to Covington, where he lived to age 85 and died October 15, 1849. Glenn–Fowler expedition – Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture
Jonathan Hoefler is an American typeface designer. Hoefler founded the Hoefler Type Foundry in a type foundry in New York. Jonathan Hoefler was born on August 22, 1970 in New York City to Doreen Benjamin and Charles Hoefler, a theatrical set designer and producer. Growing up, it was the Gill Sans text on boxes of custard, he is self-taught, worked with magazine art director Roger Black prior to forming the Hoefler Type Foundry in 1989. Hoefler's Champion Gothic was inspired by 19th century wood type, it was commissioned for Sports Illustrated shortly after founding the company in 1989. In 1997, his path crossed with type designer Tobias Frere-Jones when both were trying to purchase German type foundry catalogs. In 1999, Hoefler began working with Frere-Jones, from 2005–2014 the company operated under the name Hoefler & Frere-Jones as a partnership. In 2000, the firm, under Frere-Jones' direction, designed its ubiquitous Gotham typeface for GQ magazine and received wide recognition for their work and in the last 20 years is one of the most successful typefaces.
Hoefler's process when designing typefaces begins with research into historical records and utilize the programming language Python to automate repetitive tasks. Their typefaces are systematic and logical and incorporate specific features based on their research. Hoefler has designed original typefaces for Rolling Stone, Harper’s Bazaar, The New York Times Magazine, Sports Illustrated, Esquire and several institutional clients, including the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum and alternative band They Might Be Giants, his best-known work is the Hoefler Text family of typefaces, designed for Apple Computer and now appearing as part of the Macintosh operating system. He designed the current wordmark of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. In January 2014, Frere-Jones sued Hoefler for $20 million in the New York Supreme Court accusing him of scamming Frere-Jones. Frere-Jones claimed that in 1999, Hoefler agreed to a verbal 50-50 partnership, binding. In light of the lawsuit, Hoefler changed the name back to Hoefler & Co claiming Frere-Jones had only been an employee, citing an agreement that they weren't partners but “independent entities" and asked the court to dismiss the case.
Fans of the foundry were shocked by the news of the lawsuit. They settled in September of 2014. In 1995, Hoefler was named one of the forty most influential designers in America by I. D. magazine, in 2002, the Association Typographique Internationale presented him with its most prestigious award, the Prix Charles Peignot for outstanding contributions to type design. Hoefler's work is part of National Design Museum's permanent collection. In 2011, the Museum of Modern Art acquired two of Hoeflers typefaces: Mercury, HTF Didot. In 2013, Hoefler was awarded an AIGA Medal along with Frere-Jones for "their contributions to the typographic landscape through impeccable craftsmanship, skilled historical reference and insightful vernacular considerations." Jonathan Hoefler's types include: HoeflerCo. Friedl, Nicholas Ott and Bernard Stein. Typography: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Through History. Black Dog & Leventhal: 1998. ISBN 1-57912-023-7. Macmillan, Neil. An A–Z of Type Designers.
Yale University Press: 2006. ISBN 0-300-11151-7. “The I. D. Forty,” I. D. magazine, Jan/Feb 1995
Mac Martin of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a bluegrass musician. William "Mac Martin" Colleran used to listen to "hillbilly music" on WWVA and WSM Grand Ole Opry when he was young. Colleran had his first guitar at the age of fifteen. Shortly afterwards, he joined up with Ed Brozi. After graduating from high school he enlisted in the U. S. served on the island of Okinawa. In the late 1940s, Colleran formed his first group the "Pike County Boys" consisting of Bill Higgins and Bill Wagner, who began playing on WHJB in Greensburg, Pennsylvania; because there were three "Bills" in the group, Colleran changed his name to Mac Martin. In 1953, the "Pike County Boys" left WHJB. In the mid 1950s, Colleran got together with Mike Carson and Billy Bryant and by 1957 the Dixie Travelers was formed; the newly formed group began performing at Walsh's Lounge in Pittsburgh and did so until 1976. Musicians such as Earl Banner, Slim Jones, Frank Batista, Norm Azinger, Bud Smith, Keith Little and Bob Artis have all been part of the Dixie Travelers.
They recorded for Rural Rhythm Records. Pittsburgh Live.com
Bata, Bata… Pa'no Ka Ginawa? is a novel written in Filipino by the Filipino female writer, Lualhati Bautista. Bautista uses "Taglish" – a mixture of Tagalog and English, instead of pure Tagalog – as a stylistic device for her works; the novel is about the role of a woman, like its author, with Filipino society wherein the males were, in the past, assuming more dominant roles in society. The translation of the title is "Child, Child… How were you made?" Although figuratively it surpasses its allusion – or reference – to the process of reproduction through the revelation of its true, symbolic question-message: "Child, Child… How were you molded to become a mature, grown-up person?" In a period in the past, Philippine women and follow the wills and whims of their husbands and other male members of society. The role of women were just to act upon their role as mothers who perform household chores, take care of the children, take care of the needs of their husbands, they don’t and should not – based on previous customs – get involved with subject matters and discussions about livelihood and political issues.
But the face and ambience of the perceived role of women in society changed, as society itself was transformed. The doors of offices were opened to give way to women workers, they were given a place where their complaints regarding women rights could be heard, as well as their concept about life and livelihood, earning them a voice within and outside the boundaries of home. This is the subject revealed by Lualhati Bautista's novel which has 32 chapters; the work narrates the life of Lea, a working mother, who has two children – a young girl and a young boy. And for this reason, the novel depicts the society's view of women, how it is to be a mother, how a mother executes this role through modern-day concepts of parenthood. Vilma Santos as Lea Bustamante - A working mother, who has two children and brought up them with her own effort, she is a woman of courage in facing her problem, believes that for every problem there is always a solution. Lea represents the society's view of women, how it is to be a mother, how a mother executes this role through modern-day concepts of parenthood.
Ariel Rivera as Raffy de Lara - The first husband of Lea and the father of Ogie. He is a type of person, quiet and does not express his feelings that much. After he left his family for his job, he came back to see Ogie, which begins the conflict of the story. Albert Martinez as Ding Gascon - The live-in partner of Lea and the father of Maya, he is a person, still close to his mother despite his age to the point of dependency. Though he may not have performed his duties well as a replacement father for Ogie, he acted well for his role as a father of Maya. Raymond Bagatsing as Johnny Deogracias - Closest Friend of Lea, goes with her in any trip except the trip to baguio due to some conflicts with shifts. Carlo Aquino as Ojie de Lara - The only son of Lea and Raffy and the eldest child of Lea, he was at a young age. He asked so many questions to his mother on why his father did not live together with them. Being a teenager, he became conscious and discovers what life is. Serena Dalrymple as Maya Gascon - The daughter of Lea and Ding.
A fresh graduate from kindergarten possesses intelligence and beauty. She is a smart and outspoken six-year-old child and acts as more matured from the other girls at her age. Cherry Pie Picache as Sr. Ann - a nun and boss of Lea in the office where she works, part of the woman at crisis non government group. Angel Aquino as Elinor - Wife after Lea of Ogie's father, Raffy de Lara, loving and caring to her family, willing to do everything for her family. Rosemarie Gil as Mrs. Zalamea Dexter Doria as Mrs. Gatmaitan Cita Astals as Mrs. Olivarez Andrea del Rosario as Jinky Lucy Quinto as Lola Sylvia Menggie Cobarrubias as Mr. Olivarez Carmen Serafin as Rosita Josie Tagle - Mother of Girl Crying Ronalisa Cheng - Girl Crying Jeralyn Narciso - Ms. Talent Cory Dela Cruz - Nun Joy Santos - Nun Marivic Suspine - Nun Girlie Alcantara - Lawyer Emma Hizola - Lea's Baguio Companion Monette G. Quioge - Lea's Baguio Companion Loy Rabor - Lea's Baguio Companion Nora Protacio - Rally Speaker Dheng Foz - Hairstylist Medy Sordan - Manicurist Junard Zacarias - Dumb Actor The novel began with an introductory chapter about the graduation day from kindergarten of Maya, Lea's daughter.
A program and a celebration were held. In the beginning, everything in Lea's life was going smoothly – her life in connection with her children, with friends of the opposite gender, with her volunteer work for a human rights organization, but Lea's children were both growing-up – and Lea could see their gradual transformation. There were the changes in their ways and personalities: Maya's curiosity was becoming more obvious every day, while Ojie was crossing the boundaries from boyhood to teenage to adulthood. A scene came when Lea's former husband came back to persuade Ojie to go with him to the United States. Lea experienced the fear of losing both her children, when the fathers of her children decide to take them away from her embrace, she needed to spend more time for work and with the organization she was volunteering for. In the end, both of Lea's children decided to choose to stay with her – a decision that Lea never forced upon them. Another graduation day of students was the main event in the novel's final chapter, where Lea was the guest-of-honor.
Lea delivered a speech that discusses the topic of how life evolves, on how time consumes itself so as fast as how human beings grow, change and mature. Lea leaves a message to her audi