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Demographics of Réunion

This article concerns the demography of Réunion. People of Réunion are Réunionese; the official language is French, Réunionese Creole is spoken. The population of Réunion is 882,526 as of 2018; as of 2018, estimates put the population of Réunion at 882,526, with a growth rate of 1.63%. The birth rate was estimated at 21.84 births per 1,000 population, the death rate at 5.55 deaths per 1,000 population in the same year. The net migration rate was zero in 2000; the following table describes age sex ratios in Réunion. Structure of the population: At birth, life expectancy is 76.5 years for male children, 82.9 for female. The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism with Hinduism and Buddhism represented, among others. French is the only official language of Reunion. Although not official, Réunion Creole is commonly spoken by the majority of the population. One can hear it in any administration or office. Tamil is taught as optional language in some schools. Due to the diverse population, other languages such as Mandarin and Cantonese are spoken by members of the Chinese community, but fewer people speak these languages as younger generations start to converse in French.

The number of speakers of Indian languages is dropping sharply. Arabic is spoken by a small community of Arabs. Ethnic groups present include people of European, Malagasy and Chinese origin as well as many of mixed race. Local names for these are used: Yabs, Cafres and Zarabes and Chinois; the proportion of people of each ethnicity is not known since the 1958 constitution bans questions about ethnicity in compulsory censuses in France. Extensive and long-going intermarriage blurs the issue. Whites are estimated to make up one-quarter of the population, Indians roughly a quarter, people of Chinese ancestry to form 3%; the percentages of racially mixed people and those of Afro-Malagasy origins vary wildly between estimates, though they are few in number. People of Tamil origin make up the majority of the Indo-Réunionnais people; the island's community of Muslims from modern region of Pakistan and North India and elsewhere is commonly referred to as Zarabes. Creoles, make up the majority of the population.

Groups that are not creole include people from Metropolitan France and those from Mayotte and the Comoros. In 2005, a genetic study on the racially mixed people of Réunion found the following. For maternal DNA, the haplogroups are East Asian, European/Middle Eastern or African; the Indian lineages are M2, M6 and U2i, the East Asian ones are E1, D5a, M7c, F, the European/Middle Eastern ones are U2e, T1, J, H, I, the African ones are L1b1, L2a1, L3b, L3e1. For paternal DNA, the haplogroups are East Asian; the European lineages are R1b and I, the Middle Eastern one E1b1b1c, the East Asian ones are R1a and O3. Réunion page at INSEE

Death of David Dragičević

On 18 March 2018, David Dragičević, a 21-year-old man, went missing in Banja Luka and Herzegovina. On 24 March, his dead body was found. Police investigation ruled the death as an accident, but Dragičević's parents claimed that their son was brutally murdered and that the police and prosecutor's office are trying to cover-up the case; the result of the police investigation provoked major public uproar, many mass protests were organized demanding the truth and justice. The public was overwhelmingly convinced. In May 2018, the National Assembly of Republika Srpska voted to form an Inquiry Board to analyze circumstances surrounding Dragičević's death; the Board found that Dragičević was murdered, but its report was rejected by the Assembly. As of July 2018, the Prosecutor's office has not reacted, the death remains classified as an accident, while the public protests are ongoing. On 18 March 2018, 21-year-old David Dragičević went out with his friends around 7 p.m. but never returned home and was declared missing the same day.

On 24 March, his dead body was found small Crkvena creek in suburb of Banja Luka. Dragičević was buried on 7 April at the New Cemetery of Banja Luka; the funeral was attended by the President of Republika Srpska Milorad Dodik. Police investigators claim that on 18 March, Dragičević visited the cafe in central Banja Luka where he had been caught up in a fight with several other young men. After this incident, nothing was heard from him until 24 March when police were informed about a dead body found in the water. According to the police, Dragičević visited another cafe after the fight and robbed a house on the way home. Police inspector Darko Ilić claims that surveillance cameras confirm that Dragičević committed the robbery on the way home and that several stolen items from the robbed house were found in his pockets. According to the police investigation, after the robbery, on his way home, Dragičević walked across a small bridge over Crkvena creek and fell in the water and drowned. Coroner Željko Karan said that Dragičević had several haematomas on his body caused by strokes during the fight he had, several post-mortem injuries on the hands, caused by stones at the bottom of the creek.

When journalists asked Karan about the possibility that the haematomas were caused by another attack on the bridge, he answered that it is indeed possible, but that it "could not be determined during the autopsy". Despite this, police ruled the death as an "accident". From the start of the investigation, Dragičević's parents claimed that their son was brutally murdered and that they possess evidence of that. According to Davor Dragičević, David's father, the killer is a well-known figure, police officers, Minister of the Interior Dragan Lukač, local police chief Darko Ćulum, are trying to cover-up the crime. Dragičević's mother said that he, on the night he disappeared, sent her an SMS that read "if anything happens to me, the perpetrator will be F. Ć."Dragičević's death triggered daily protests in Banja Luka from the day his body was found. Every evening at 6 p.m. a crowd of 200 has been gathering at the Krajina Square in central Banja Luka demanding justice for Dragičević. On 15 May, a large protest was organized in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where several hundred people demanded justice for Dragičević and Dženan Memić, a young man from Sarajevo whose 2016 death was ruled an accident, but whose father and friends claim he was murdered.

On 16 May, similar protest organized in Zenica was attended by several hundred people. On 20 May, another protest was held in Tuzla under the banner "Justice for David and Dženan". Another protest was organized in Sarajevo on 26 May. Another large protest was attended by 10.000 people. On October 5th another massive protest was organized in Banja Luka with over 40.000 attendees in this huge event. It streamed live on BN TelevizijaJournalist and blogger Slobodan Vasković analyzed documents and eye-witness accounts and on 2 May claimed that Dragičević was murdered. Chairman of the parliamentary caucus of the Serb Democratic Party Vukota Govedarica said on 10 May that he thinks Dragičević was murdered. Under constant public pressure, on 11 May 2018, the National Assembly of Republika Srpska voted to form an Inquiry Board to analyze circumstances surrounding Dragičević's death. On 5 June, the Inquiry Board adopted a 320-pages long report after hearing members of the police and public prosecutor's office, coroner Karan, minister Lukač.

The report concluded that there is more than enough evidence that Dragičević was murdered and that the public prosecutor should respond to those findings. On 3 July, the National Assembly rejected the Inquiry Board report by a majority vote; the report was supported by the opposition MPs, but rejected by the majority coalition of the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, the Democratic People's Alliance, the Socialist Party and two independent MPs. The Assembly majority held that the Board did not have competency to characterize the case as a murder. Instead, they suggested the following conclusion: "The National Assembly expects the Prosecution and other law-enforcement agencies to treat the case of David Dragičević in accordance with their prescribes competencies and to act in accordance with the regulations of the Criminal Procedure Code, which will oblige other institutions to act accordingly." Although not accepting the report, the Assembly adopted conclusion that "the prosecutors in the case made numerous errors" and demanded that "the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council of Bosnia and Herzegovina consider initiation of certain disc

Gambling in Russia

Gambling in Russia is legal in only four regional subject areas, in 2009 was made illegal in all other areas of Russia. In 2009, gambling was banned everywhere in Russia; the only exceptions are four specially arranged zones in the Altai, Krasnodar and Primorsky regions. Gambling has been a major policy problem for the Russian government since the early 21st century; the problem was the increasing number of slot machines and gambling houses, including casinos, spreading all over the country. This caused a little concern for the government. According to city officials, after the year 2002 there were 58 casinos, 2,000 gaming rooms and 70,000 slot machines in Moscow, it became a greater problem for the government because the younger population was exposed to the obtrusive advertising of gambling houses. Teenagers missed school to crowd around slot machines hoping to win some money; this behavior affected the society’s welfare in a way, external to the market, giving rise to a negative externality.

Experts from the Russian Association of Gambling Business Development claimed that half a million people on a regular basis indulged in gambling in the capital city of Moscow. At the same time, city psychiatrists, who met with people addicted to excessive gambling, provided quite different information arguing that the number was much higher. “The head of the extra-hospital aid in the National Narcological Scientific Center Taras Dudko says that the number of people going to Moscow casinos, bookmaking offices and gambling houses is over 1.5 million people”. According to marketing research by Bookmaker-Ratings, in Russia from May 2016 till May 2017 services of illegal offshore bookmakers were used by 1 million 410 thousand players, services of legal Russian bookmakers – by 820 thousand players. Additionally, money laundering was another concern of every city government that failed to collect estimated tax revenue from gambling businesses, that kept the profits and did not share them with the city by avoiding tax payment.

These were the major rationales for the government to get involved and implement a policy on gambling restriction. One of the policy solutions to solve the gambling problem in Russia was proposed in the form of limiting the number of gambling establishments throughout the country. Additionally, the Moscow officials proposed to bar slot machine parlors within 500 yards of a residential area, which would force operators out of all urban areas in the country in order to protect the young generation from being tempted to lose money using slot machines; the major policy problem about excessive gambling in the Russian society and their people’s continuous discontent with the spread of gambling houses all over the country led to the implementation of federal policy. Russia closed down its casinos overnight, thus since July 1, 2009, according to the Federal Law № 244 “On state regulation of organization and management of gambling”, the gambling business in Russia has been allowed only in four designated zones.

The ban was to protect the health of society, was expected to put an end to the era which witnessed an eruption of gambling fueled by a lawless business culture, which caused great costs to the society. Despite the ban, gambling continues working, pretending to be Internet cafes, lottery clubs, nightclubs. At the end of 1927, the People’s Commissar of the Interior presented a report devoted to gambling and the gaming business existing at that time to the RSFSR SPC; the main idea voiced through the report was that its incompatibility of an idle, bourgeois pastime with the true spirit of the working proletariat. And, regardless of the rather modest figures in the gaming sector, the key prohibitive provisions in the report were approved. All this led to a ban on the opening of gambling houses in worker districts, it was followed by a ban on gambling in the entire districts, on May 8, 1928, by the resolution of the USSR SPC, all Soviet Republics were instructed, the reasons not being explained, "to take measures on the immediate closure of any facilities for card games, roulette and other kinds of gambling".

The closure of gaming houses and the gambling ban were pushed by the penal policy course shaped by the Soviet state, providing for overall reinforcement of criminal sanctions in the country and the modification of the state's penitentiary policy upon the whole. Lotteries were restricted. On June 6, 1928, the Workers-Peasants’ Government of the RSFSR issues the resolution, "On Banning the Draw of Liquors in Lotteries". First, on January 1, 1930, the USSR SPC issues the resolution "On the Procedure of Issuing Permits for Lottery Arrangement", on August 31, 1932, another USSR SPC Resolution #1336 was announced, "On the Regulation of the Lottery Business"; the first slot machines which appeared in the country quite lawfully, were installed only in 1988 in hotels which were part of the USSR State Committee of Foreign Tourism. Within the system, the All-Russian Business External Trade Union "Intourservice" is set up, developing new kinds of additional services for foreign tourists, payable in free convertible currency.

And private businesses have no access to gambling operations. Despite an eagerness to deal with slot machine installation and operation, the Soviete authorities allowed it only within its state structures, only as an experiment. To be on the safe side, there was a legal reminder. On December 29, 1988, the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued another resolution, this time "On the Regulation of Certain Activities of Cooperatives According to the Law on

Baggage (American game show)

Baggage is an American dating game show hosted by Jerry Springer and broadcast by Game Show Network. The original series premiered on April 2010, airing for four seasons. A spin-off series, entitled Baggage on the Road, aired for one season, which debuted January 7, 2015; the show has earned high ratings by GSN's standards. The series gives three contestants the chance to win the eye of a prospective date; the contestants each have three suitcases onstage: a small and large one. Each suitcase contains an embarrassing, unique, or weird proposition the contestant may have; these cases represent the "baggage" to which they will defend. As the suitcase size increases, so does the level of shame or embarrassment the secret carries. Once the three contestants are pared down to one, the potential dater must admit to a fault of his or her own; the game is played by first introducing the central character. Three contestants are introduced, each accompanied by three pieces of baggage: a small one, a medium one, a large one, with each one containing a corresponding secret.

The central contestant has a piece of baggage of his or her own, only revealed at the end of the show. During the show, three possible secrets about the central contestant are given, one of, the actual secret contained in their baggage; these secrets can include bad habits, strange relationship preferences, issues with one's past, or strange hobbies. After the three other contestants are introduced, they each open the smallest piece of baggage, explain the secrets they contain. In the second segment, Springer reveals the second piece of baggage, contained in the medium-sized suitcase; the suitcases are placed in random order, so the central character does not know to whom each belongs. The three contestants are placed on the other side of the stage, along with the central contestant. Only the three contestants know; the main contestant chooses the piece of baggage, the "deal breaker". After stating this, the contestants return to the other side of the stage and reveal which suitcase belongs to them.

The person who claims the deal breaker baggage is eliminated, backstage reveals the largest piece of baggage that would have been shown in the final round. The central contestant and two remaining contestants discuss the secrets in the medium pieces of baggage. Springer asks the two remaining contestants, one at a time, a few questions about their personal lives; the two contestants open their largest pieces of baggage and reveal the secrets they contain. Each contestant makes one final statement, the main contestant eliminates a second contestant; the main contestant's own baggage is opened and the contents revealed to the remaining contestant. If the contestant accepts the secret belonging to the central character, the couple is given an expense-covered evening together. However, if the contestant can not accept the secret, the pair part ways; the series was announced on March 23, 2010, with Jerry Springer being confirmed as the host. The original series was produced by Comcast Entertainment Group.

On July 26, 2010, GSN announced plans to renew the show for a second season, which began airing on August 16, 2010. A syndication test run was shown on a select group of Sinclair Broadcast Group's stations January 10, 2011; the series began airing in syndication in the United States in September 2012, becoming the first original program in the network's history to achieve such a feat. A third season began airing on June 6, 2011. During season three, a half-hour special entitled Baggage First Dates aired during a five-hour "Best of Baggage Marathon." The special followed a couple who had appeared on the show talking to Springer about what happened on their first date following their appearance. A fourth season of the show premiered on March 14, 2012. With GSN’s Executive Vice President of Programming, Amy Introcaso-Davis, citing that the series continued to remain "extremely popular" in reruns, GSN announced plans to order twenty episodes of a traveling version of the series; the spin-off, entitled Baggage on the Road, follows an identical format to its predecessor while traveling to tape episodes in various U.

S. cities. Prior to the spin-off, a one-hour special entitled Baggage: Most Outrageous Moments aired on January 1, 2015, featuring highlights from the original series' run; the spin-off premiered on January 7, 2015, Wilshire Studios produced the revival with Lisa Tucker serving as executive producer. The show became a ratings success for GSN, becoming the highest-rated weekday series in the network's history; the original series averaged 473,000 viewers during its first season, while the 2015 version saw a season-high of 524,000 viewers for its only season. Despite earning respectable ratings by GSN's standards, Baggage received mixed critical reviews. Carrie Grosvenor of About Entertainment argued that the series "isn't must-see TV, but it's entertaining enough to catch an episode here and there." Additionally, Josef Adalian of The Wrap gave a negative pre-review of the show, calling it and Springer "GSN's latest bad idea." In 2012, Baggage appeared in Entertainment Weekly as a "top guilty pleasure," and was featured in the HBO television series Girls.

Writing for Yahoo!, Gabrielle Rice called the series "very entertaining," and argued Springer to be "the perfect host for the show." June Thomas, writing for Slate, opened her review by call

Haldane Reforms

The Haldane Reforms were a series of far-ranging reforms of the British Army made from 1906 to 1912, named after the Secretary of State for War, Richard Burdon Haldane. They were the first major reforms since the "Childers Reforms" of the early 1880s, were made in the light of lessons newly learned in the Second Boer War; the major element of the reforms was the creation of an expeditionary force prepared and trained for intervening in a major war. This had existed before. At the same time, the reserve forces were restructured and expanded so as to ensure that overseas forces could be efficiently reinforced and supplied with new recruits. To ensure that home defence would not suffer from sending the regular forces overseas, part of the Militia was formed into the Special Reserve, the Volunteer Force and the Yeomanry were reorganised into a new Territorial Force. To encourage the development of military skills, an Officer Training Corps was established in public schools and universities. Military strategy was revitalised by a new Imperial General Staff, which would ensure a common doctrine and common strategic aims among the various military forces of the British Empire, including the Dominions as well as British India.

The Regular Army itself would be reformed by the development of a new operational and training doctrine, laid down in Douglas Haig's new Field Service Pocket Book. The outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 saw the bulk of the changes put to the test. In the middle of the 19th century, the British Army had seen two major operations in close succession - the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny - and it had become apparent that the existing organisation of the forces was not sufficient for large-scale modern warfare; the first wave of reforms was from 1858 to 1860. This period saw the creation of the Staff College, which helped to turn officers in the upper reaches of the Army into professional soldiers; the second wave was from 1868 to 1872, comprising a collection of administrative changes popularly known as the "Cardwell Reforms" after the Secretary of State for War, Edward Cardwell. The purchase of commissions by officers was abolished, recruits were now taken on for a short enlistment in a specified regiment or corps rather than the system of twenty-one-year general service enlistments.

These measures at a stroke increased the quality of the manpower of the Army, provided for a trained and efficient reserve of veterans which could be recalled to the colours in an emergency. A further part of the reforms was the reorganisation of the regimental system, linking "territorial" regiments in paired regimental depots with a territory based recruiting area for simplified recruitment and training; the third set of reforms was the "Childers Reforms" of the early 1880s, which carried through the Cardwell regimental reorganisations to their logical end by completing the amalgamation of linked regiments into single two-battalion regiments along with the local units of militia and volunteers. The result of these reforms was to provide a sizable, well-trained force in the British Isles, which could be sent overseas in time of crisis, with a system of reservists and home-service volunteers to support it. However, with the outbreak of the South African War in October 1899, the system began to show some strain.

Various novel measures, including the extensive use of auxiliary forces, were experimented with for the remainder of the war. A number of half-hearted attempts were made at reform during the war and in its immediate aftermath, but with little effect. Two important Royal Commissions were established in 1902 - the Esher Committee and the Norfolk Commission - and reported in 1904; the Esher Report called for wide-ranging reforms in the administration of the Army and the War Office, whilst the Norfolk Commission, which had studied the auxiliary forces, declared them "unfit for service" and recommended various practical reforms alongside the much more sensational suggestion of universal military service. Some of these reforms were instituted under the Conservative Secretary of State for War, Hugh Arnold-Forster, in 1904-5, but the broad thrust of his reform plans were opposed. Attempts to reorganise the home forces into six Army Corps had begun, but only one of these had been organised, that lacked many of its support units and staff.

The Balfour government collapsed in December 1905, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman became Prime Minister, leading a minority Liberal government. Richard Haldane was appointed Secretary of State for War, an accidental selection — he himself had been aiming to be Lord Chancellor, whilst Campbell-Bannerman offered him the post of Attorney-General the Home Office, had offered the War Office to two other men before Haldane offered to take it. Despite this in

RMS Republic (1903)

RMS Republic was a steam-powered ocean liner built in 1903 by Harland and Wolff in Belfast, lost at sea in a collision in 1909 while sailing for the White Star Line. The ship was equipped with a new Marconi wireless telegraphy transmitter, issued a CQD distress call, resulting in the saving of around 1,500 lives. Known as the "Millionaires' Ship" because of the number of wealthy Americans who traveled by her, she was described as a "palatial liner" and was the flagship of White Star Line's Boston service; this was the first important marine rescue made possible by radio, brought worldwide attention to this new technology. The ship was built in Belfast, Ireland for the International Mercantile Marine's Dominion Line and was named Columbus, she was launched on 26 February 1903 and made her maiden voyage in October 1903 from Liverpool to Boston. After two voyages with the Dominion Line, along with three other Dominion liners: New England and Mayflower, were sold to the White Star Line for use on their new service between Liverpool and Boston.

Columbus was renamed Republic, the second ship under White Star livery to hold the name, while her three fellow former Dominion liners were renamed Romanic and Cretic respectively. Republic made her first crossing under White Star from Liverpool to Boston on 17 December 1903, arriving in Boston 27 December. In January 1903, she made her first crossing from Boston to the Mediterranean via Gibraltar, making calls at Sao Miguel in the Azores, followed by the Italian ports of Naples and Genoa, ending at Alexandria, a voyage which took up to three weeks to complete one-way. In November 1904, she inaugurated White Star's Mediterranean–New York service. White Star intended this route for two purposes: first, they sought to establish a market for cruising opportunities for wealthy American passengers, as her spacious and luxurious accommodations in first and second class attracted scores of wealthy vacationers, thus earning her the nickname "The Millionaire's Ship". Second, more predominantly on her westbound crossings, White Star sought to tap into the massive Italian immigrant trade.

Republic, with a third class capacity of 2,000, proved to be immensely profitable on this route, as when she sailed for the United States on any given trip, third class was booked to capacity, sometimes beyond. A vast majority of Italian immigrants who sailed by White Star boarded Republic and the other ships at Naples, along with smaller groups of Greeks, Slavs and Syrians. White Star's placement of Sao Miguel on their Mediterranean services opened them up to traffic from Portuguese immigrants as well. Over the next four years, Republic spent the winter and spring months running on White Star's Mediterranean–New York service alongside the Cretic, while during the summer and fall months she sailed on the Liverpool–Boston route together with Cymric and Arabic. In early morning of 23 January 1909, while sailing from New York City to Gibraltar and Mediterranean ports with 742 passengers and crew and Captain William Inman Sealby in command, Republic entered a thick fog off the island of Nantucket, Massachusetts.

Amongst the passengers were plenty of illustrious people such as Mrs. Sophie Mansfield Curtis, wife of George Munson Curtis, Mrs. Mary Harriman Severance, wife of Cordenio A. Severance, Professor John M. Coulter with wife and children, General Brayton Ives, St. Louis millionaire Samuel Cupples, historian Alice Morse Earle, Mildred Montague, Countess Pasolini. Travelling in first class were Mr. Leonard L. McMurray, who, in 1915, would survive the sinking of the Cunard liner Lusitania, Mrs. Bessie Armstead Davis, daughter-in-law of senator Henry G. Davis of West Virginia with two children. Taking standard precautions and maintaining her speed, the steamer signaled her presence in the outbound shipping traffic lane by whistle. At 5:47 a.m. another whistle was heard and Republic's engines were ordered to full reverse, the helm put "hard-a-port". Out of the fog, the Lloyd Italiano liner SS Florida appeared and hit Republic amidships on her portside, at about a right angle. Two passengers asleep in their cabins on Republic were killed when Florida's bow sliced into her, liquor wholesale manager Eugene Lynch's wife Mary and banker William J. Mooney.

Eugene Lynch was critically injured and died as a result of his injuries at Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, 26 January. On Florida, three crewmen were killed when the bow was crushed back to a collision bulkhead. Six people died in total; the engine and boiler rooms on Republic began to flood, the ship listed. Captain Sealby led the crew in calmly organizing the passengers on deck for evacuation. Republic was equipped with the new Marconi wireless telegraph system, became the first ship in history to issue a CQD distress signal, sent by John R. Binns. Florida came about to rescue Republic's complement, the U. S. Revenue Cutter Service cutter Gresham responded to the distress signal as well. Passengers were distributed between the two ships, with Florida taking the bulk of them, but with 900 Italian immigrants on board, this left the ship dangerously overloaded; the White Star liner Baltic, commanded by Captain J. B. Ranson responded to the CQD call, but due to the persistent fog, it was not until the evening that Baltic was able to locate the drifting Republic.

Once on-scene, the rescued passengers were transferred from Florida to Baltic. Because of the damage to Florida, that ship's immigrant passengers were transferred to Baltic, but a riot near