Demographics of Romania

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Demographics of Romania
Romania demography 1961-2010.svg
The evolution of the population between 1961 and 2010
Population20,121,641 (2011 census)[1]
Growth rate-0.29% (2014)
Birth rate9.27 births/1,000 population (2014)
Death rate11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2014)
Life expectancy75 years (2015)[2]
 • male71.4 years
 • female78.8 years
Fertility rate1.71 children born/woman (2017)[3]
Infant mortality rate9.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2012)[4]
Net migration rate-0.24 migrants/1,000 population (2015)
Age structure
0–14 years3,189,646 (15.8%)
15–64 years13,684,251 (68.1%)
65 and over3,247,744 (16.1%)
Sex ratio
Total0.95 males/female (2014)
At birth1.06 males/female
Under 151.05 males/female
15–64 years0.99 males/female
65 and over0.69 males/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s), adjective: Romanian
Major ethnicRomanian
Minor ethnicHungarian, Roma, Ukrainian, German, Albanian, Russian, Turkish, Serbian, Slovak, Arab, African etc.
Language
OfficialRomanian
SpokenRomanian and other minority languages

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Romania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

About 88.9% of the people of Romania are ethnic Romanians, whose language, Romanian, is an Eastern Romance language, descended from Latin with some German, French, English, Greek, Slavic, and Hungarian borrowings. Romanians are by far the most numerous group of speakers of an Eastern Romance language today, it has been said that they constitute "an island of Latinity"[5] in Eastern Europe, surrounded on all sides either by Slavic peoples or by the Hungarians. The Hungarian minority in Romania constitutes the country's largest minority, 6.1 per cent of the population.[6]

Population[edit]

Romania's population declined steadily in recent years, from 21.7 million in 2002 to 19.9 million in 2014.[7] More specifically, in the last decade, the population of Romania decreased by 7.5%, the most important moment for the country's demography being 2008, when the number of inhabitants dropped by 600,000 people.[8] Among the causes of population decline are high mortality, low fertility rate after 1989, and emigration.[7]

For the entire period 1990–2006 estimated population loss tops 1.5 million. But it is likely to be higher, given the explosion of migration for work after 2001 and the tendency of some migrants to settle permanently in the countries where they live.[9]

Population evolution[edit]

Birth and death rates in 1950-2008. A huge surge of the birth rate in 1967 is the most prominent feature of these graphs.

Sources give varied estimates for Romania's historical population; the National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (NIRDI) gives the following numbers:

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic map (1930 census)
Ethnic map (1977 census)
Ethnicity in Romania by county (inhabitants) based on the 2002 census data
Romanians in Romania based on 2002 census data
Ethnic map (2011 census)
The Romani minority in Romania by county (2011 census)

Slightly more than 10% of the population of Romania is formed of minorities of Romania; the principal minorities are Hungarians and Roma, although other smaller ethnic groups exist too. Before World War II, minorities represented more than 28% of the total population. During the war that percentage was halved, largely by the loss of the border areas of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (to the former Soviet Union, now Moldova and Ukraine) and southern Dobrudja (to Bulgaria). Two-thirds of the ethnic German population either left or were deported after World War II, a period that was followed by decades of relatively regular (by communist standards) migration. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939),[10][11] a figure which had subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania. One of the reasons for which the number of Germans in Romania fell is because after the Romanian Revolution there has been a mass migration of Transylvania Saxons to Germany, in what was referred by British daily newspaper Guardian to as 'the most astonishing, and little reported, ethnic migration in modern Europe'.[12]

Of a total official population of over three quarter million Jews before World War II, more than half were killed during the Holocaust.[13] Mass emigration, mostly to Israel and United States, has reduced the surviving Jewish community to less than 6,000 in 2002 (it is estimated that the real numbers could be 3-4 times higher).[14]

Hungarians (Magyars; see Hungarians in Romania), especially in Harghita, Covasna, and Mureș counties, and the Roma are the principal minorities, with a declining German population (Banat Swabians in Timiș; Transylvanian Saxons in Sibiu, Brașov and elsewhere), and smaller numbers of Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Chinese, Croats, and Banat Bulgarians (in Banat), Ukrainians (especially in Maramureș and Bukovina), Greeks of Romania (especially in Brăila and Constanța), Turks and Tatars (mainly in Constanța), Armenians, Russians (Lipovans, Old Believers in Tulcea), Jews and others. Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Bucharest has again become an increasingly cosmopolitan city, including identifiable presences from outside the EU (Chinese, Turks, Moldavian, Syrians, Iraqis, Africans) as well as from the EU (French, Italians, Germans, British, Greek).[15] In Bucharest, there are also guest workers from countries such as Vietnam and Nepal.[16][17]

Minority populations are greatest in Transylvania and the Banat, areas in the north and west of the country, which were part of the Kingdom of Hungary (after 1867 the Austria-Hungary) until the end of World War I. Even before the union with Romania, ethnic Romanians comprised the overall majority in Transylvania. However, ethnic Hungarians and Germans were the dominant urban population until relatively recently, while Hungarians still constitute the majority in Harghita and Covasna counties. After Hungarians and Roma, Ukrainians of Romania are the third-largest minority. According to the 2011 Romanian census they number 51,703 people, making up 0.3% of the total population.[18] Ukrainians mainly live in northern Romania, in areas close to the Ukrainian border. Over 60% of all Romanian Ukrainians live in Maramureş County, where they make up 6.77% of the population. Sizable populations of Ukrainians are also found in Suceava County, Timiş County, Caraş-Severin County, Satu Mare County, Tulcea County and Arad County.

Romani people in Romania constitute one of Romania's largest minorities. According to the 2011 census, they number 621,573 people or 3.08% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians.[19] There are different estimates about the size of the total population of people with Romani ancestry in Romania because a lot of people of Romani descent do not declare themselves Roma; the number of Roma people is usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population.[20]

Origins[edit]

Population of Romania according to ethnic group in 1930 [21]
Ethnicity number %
Romanians 12,981,324 71.9
Hungarians 1,425,507 7.9
Germans 745,421 4.1
Jews 728,115 4.0
Ruthenians and Ukrainians 582,115 3.2
Russians 409,150 2.3
Bulgarians 366,384 2.0
Romani (Tigani) 262,501 1.5
Turks 154,772 0.9
Gagauzians 105,750 0.6
Czechs and Slovaks 51,842 0.3
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 51,062 0.3
Poles 48,310 0.3
Greeks 26,495 0.2
Tatars 22,141 0.1
Armenians 15,544 <0.1
Hutsuls 12,456 <0.1
Albanians 4,670 <0.1
Others 56,355 0.3
Undeclared 7,114 <0.1
Total 18,057,028 100.0
Population of Romania according to ethnic group 1948–2011
Ethnic
group
census 19481 census 19562 census 19663 census 19774 census 19925 census 20026 census 20117
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Romanians 13,597,613 85.7 14,996,114 85.7 16,746,510 87.7 18,999,565 88.1 20,408,542 89.5 19,399,597 89.5 16,792,868 88.9
Hungarians 1,499,851 9.4 1,587,675 9.1 1,619,592 8.5 1,713,928 7.9 1,624,959 7.1 1,431,807 6.6 1,227,623 6.1
Roma (Tigani) 53,425 0.3 104,216 0.6 64,197 0.3 227,398 1.05 401,087 1.8 535,140 2.5 621,573 3.0
Ukrainians 37,582 0.2 60,479 0.4 54,705 0.3 55,510 0.3 65,764 0.3 61,098 0.3 50,920 0.2
Germans 343,913 2.2 384,708 2.2 382,595 2.0 359,109 1.6 119,462 0.5 59,764 0.3 36,042 0.2
Turks 28,782 0.2 14,329 0.2 18,040 0.1 23,422 0.1 29,832 0.1 32,098 0.2 27,698 0.2
Tatars 20,469 0.2 22,151 0.1 23,369 0.1 24,596 0.1 23,935 0.1 20,282 0.1
Russians 39,332 0.2 38,731 0.2 39,483 0.2 21,206 0.2 7,983 0.1 35,791 0.2 23,864 0.1
Lipovans 11,090 0.1 30,623 0.2
Serbs 45,447 0.3 46,517 0.3 44,236 0.3 34,429 0.2 29,408 0.1 22,561 0.1 18,076 0.1
Croats 7,500 0.0 4,085 0.0 6,807 0.0 5,408 0.0
Slovenes 175 0.0
Slovaks 35,143 0.2 23,331 0.2 22,151 0.1 21,286 0.1 19,594 0.1 17,226 0.2 13,654 0.1
Czechs 11,821 0.0 9,978 0.0 7,683 0.0 5,797 0.0 3,941 0.0 2,477 0.0
Bulgarians 13,408 0.1 12,040 0.1 11,193 0.1 10,372 0.0 9,851 0.1 8,025 0.0 7,336 0.0
Greeks 8,696 0.1 11,166 0.0 9,088 0.0 6,262 0.0 3,940 0.0 6,472 0.0 3,668 0.0
Jews 138,795 0.9 146,264 0.8 42,888 0.2 24,667 0.1 8,955 0.0 5,785 0.0 3,271 0.0
Poles 6,753 0.0 7,627 0.0 5,860 0.0 4,641 0.0 4,232 0.0 3,559 0.0 2,543 0.0
Armenians 6,987 0.0 6,441 0.0 3,436 0.0 2,342 0.0 1,957 0.0 1,780 0.0 1,361 0.0
Macedonians 1,176 0.0 6,867 0.0 731 0.0 1,264 0.0
Csangos 1,266 0.0 1,536 0.0
Aromanians 982 0.0 21,736 0.1
Others/undeclared 15,897 0.1 17,522 0.1 6,990 <0.1 5,731 <0.1 9,368 <0.1 28,303 0.1 23,741 0.1
Undeclared 1,236,810 6.14
Total 15,872,624 17,489,450 19,103,163 21,559,910 22,810,035 21,680,974 20,121,641
1 The results of the 1948 census are according to language. 2 Source:.[22] 3 Source:.[22] 4 Source:.[22] 5 Source:.[22] 6 Source:[23] 7 Source:[24]

Vital statistics[edit]

Romania total fertility rate by region (2014)
  1.9 - 2.1
  1.7 - 1.9
  1.5 - 1.7
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

Total Fertility Rate from 1850 to 1899[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman, it is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[25]

Years 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 5.22 5.08 4.94 4.8 4.66 4.52 4.38 4.24 4.11 3.97 4.23
Years 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 4.29 4.29 4.07 4.82 4.64 4.19 4.25 4.48 4.56 4.61
Years 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 4.49 4.29 4.36 4.6 5.2 4.96 4.74 4.22 4.97 5.05
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 5.56 5.41 5.74 5.55 5.78 5.65 5.49 5.68 5.44 5.16
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 5.67 5.23 5.43 5.48 5.67 5.45 5.75 4.92 5.63

Before WWI[edit]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[25]
1900 6 050 000 235 000 146 000 89 000 38.8 24.2 14.6 5.2
1901 6 120 000 241 000 160 000 81 000 39.3 26.2 13.1 5.27
1902 6 210 000 242 000 172 000 70 000 39.0 27.7 11.3 5.23
1903 6 290 000 252 000 156 000 96 000 40.1 24.8 15.3 5.37
1904 6 390 000 256 000 156 000 100 000 40.1 24.4 15.7 5.37
1905 6 480 000 248 000 160 000 88 000 38.3 24.7 13.6 5.13
1906 6 570 000 262 000 157 000 105 000 39.9 23.9 16.0 5.35
1907 6 680 000 274 000 176 000 98 000 41.1 26.3 14.8 5.51
1908 6 770 000 273 000 185 000 88 000 40.3 27.4 12.9 5.4
1909 6 860 000 282 000 188 000 94 000 41.1 27.4 13.7 5.51
1910 6 970 000 274 000 173 000 101 000 39.3 24.8 14.5 5.27
1911 7 090 000 300 000 179 000 121 000 42.3 25.3 17.0 5.67
1912 7 240 000 314 000 166 000 148 000 43.4 22.9 20.5 5.82
1913 7 360 000 310 000 192 000 118 000 42.1 26.1 16.0 5.64
1914 7 770 000 327 000 183 000 144 000 42.1 23.5 18.6 5.64
1915 7 910 000 320 000 194 000 126 000 40.5 24.5 16.0 5.43
Years 1916 1917 1918[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 4.84 4.25 3.67

Between WWI and WWII[edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[25]
1919 15 920 000 366 000 328 000 38 000 23.0 20.6 2.4 3.08
1920 16 010 000 539 000 415 000 124 000 33.7 25.9 7.8 4.52
1921 16 240 000 620 000 372 000 248 000 38.2 22.9 15.3 5.12
1922 16 500 000 614 000 376 000 238 000 37.2 22.8 14.4 4.98
1923 16 770 000 609 000 372 000 237 000 36.4 22.1 14.3 4.88
1924 16 990 000 623 000 383 000 240 000 36.7 22.5 14.2 4.92
1925 17 190 000 606 000 362 000 244 000 35.2 21.1 14.1 4.72
1926 17 460 000 608 000 373 000 235 000 34.8 21.4 13.4 4.66
1927 17 690 000 603 000 393 000 210 000 34.1 22.2 11.9 4.57
1928 17 970 000 624 000 352 000 272 000 34.7 19.6 15.1 4.65
1929 17 640 000 601 000 378 000 223 000 34.1 21.4 12.7 4.57
1930 17 870 000 625 000 347 000 278 000 35.0 19.4 15.6 4.69
1931 18 190 000 605 000 379 000 226 000 33.3 20.8 12.5 4.46
1932 18 427 000 662 000 399 000 263 000 35.9 21.7 14.2 4.81
1933 18 653 000 598 000 348 000 250 000 32.1 18.7 13.4 4.3
1934 18 914 000 612 416 390 668 221 748 32.4 20.7 11.7 4.34
1935 19 088 000 585 503 402 720 182 783 30.7 21.1 9.6 4.11
1936 19 319 000 608 906 382 179 226 727 31.5 19.8 11.7 4.22
1937 19 535 000 601 310 377 954 223 356 30.8 19.3 11.4 4.13
1938 19 750 000 585 423 379 445 205 978 29.6 19.2 10.4 3.97
1939 19 934 000 563 817 370 348 193 469 28.3 18.6 9.7 3.79
Years 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania 3.55 3.08 2.87 3.14 2.91 2.63

After WWII[edit]

[26][27][25]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1]
1946 15 760 000 391 273 296 439 94 834 24.8 18.8 6.0 3,32
1947 15 860 000 370 562 349 331 21 231 23.4 22.0 1.3 3,14
1948 15 893 000 379 868 248 238 131 630 23.9 15.6 8.3 3,2
1949 16 084 000 444 065 219 881 224 184 27.6 13.7 13.9 3,7
1950 16 311 000 426 820 202 010 224 810 26.2 12.4 13.8 3,14
1951 16 464 000 412 534 210 021 202 513 25.1 12.8 12.3 3,01
1952 16 630 000 413 217 195 287 217 930 24.8 11.7 13.1 2,97
1953 16 847 000 401 717 194 752 206 965 23.8 11.6 12.3 2,76
1954 17 040 000 422 346 195 091 227 255 24.8 11.4 13.3 2,98
1955 17 325 000 442 864 167 535 275 329 25.6 9.7 15.9 3,07
1956 17 583 000 425 704 174 847 250 857 24.2 9.9 14.3 2,89
1957 17 829 000 407 819 181 923 225 896 22.9 10.2 12.7 2,73
1958 18 056 000 390 500 156 493 234 007 21.6 8.7 13.0 2,58
1959 18 226 000 368 007 186 767 181 240 20.2 10.2 9.9 2,43
1960 18 403 000 352 241 160 720 191 521 19.1 8.7 10.4 2,34
1961 18 567 000 324 859 161 936 162 923 17.5 8.7 8.8 2,18
1962 18 681 000 301 985 172 429 129 556 16.2 9.2 6.9 2,04
1963 18 813 000 294 886 155 767 139 119 15.7 8.3 7.4 2,01
1964 18 927 000 287 383 152 476 134 907 15.2 8.1 7.1 1,96
1965 19 027 000 278 362 163 393 114 969 14.6 8.6 6.0 1,91
1966 19 141 000 273 678 157 445 116 233 14.3 8.2 6.1 1,90
1967 19 285 000 527 764 179 129 348 635 27.4 9.3 18.1 3,68
1968 19 721 000 526 091 188 509 337 582 26.7 9.6 17.1 3,64
1969 20 010 000 465 764 201 225 264 539 23.3 10.1 13.2 3,20
1970 20 253 000 427 034 193 255 233 779 21.1 9.5 11.5 2,89
1971 20 470 000 400 146 194 306 205 840 19.5 9.5 10.1 2,67
1972 20 663 000 389 153 189 793 199 360 18.8 9.2 9.6 2,55
1973 20 828 000 378 696 203 559 175 137 18.2 9.8 8.4 2,44
1974 21 029 000 427 732 191 286 236 446 20.3 9.1 11.2 2,71
1975 21 245 000 418 185 197 538 220 647 19.7 9.3 10.4 2,60
1976 21 446 000 417 353 204 873 212 480 19.5 9.6 9.9 2,55
1977 21 658 000 423 958 208 685 215 273 19.6 9.6 9.9 2,57
1978 21 855 000 416 598 211 846 204 752 19.1 9.7 9.4 2,52
1979 22 048 000 410 603 217 509 193 094 18.6 9.9 8.8 2,48
1980 22 201 000 398 904 231 876 167 028 18.0 10.4 7.5 2,43
1981 22 353 000 381 101 224 635 156 466 17.0 10.0 7.0 2,36
1982 22 478 000 344 369 224 120 120 249 15.3 10.0 5.3 2,17
1983 22 553 000 321 498 233 892 87 606 14.3 10.4 3.9 2,07
1984 22 625 000 350 741 233 699 117 042 15.5 10.3 5.2 2,27
1985 22 725 000 358 797 246 670 112 127 15.8 10.9 4.9 2,31
1986 22 823 000 376 896 242 330 134 566 16.5 10.6 5.9 2,40
1987 22 940 000 383 199 254 286 128 913 16.7 11.1 5.6 2,39
1988 23 054 000 380 043 253 370 126 673 16.5 11.0 5.5 2,31
1989 23 152 000 369 544 247 306 122 238 16.0 10.7 5.3 2,20
1990 23 207 000 314 746 247 086 67 660 13.6 10.6 2.9 1,83
1991 23 185 000 275 275 251 760 23 515 11.9 10.9 1.0 1,59
1992 22 789 000 260 393 263 855 -3 462 11.4 11.6 -0.2 1,51
1993 22 755 000 249 994 263 323 -13 329 11.0 11.6 -0.6 1,43
1994 22 731 000 246 736 266 101 -19 365 10.9 11.7 -0.9 1,40
1995 22 681 000 236 640 271 672 -35 032 10.4 12.0 -1.5 1,33
1996 22 608 000 231 348 286 158 -54 810 10.2 12.7 -2.4 1,30
1997 22 546 000 236 891 279 316 -42 425 10.5 12.4 -1.9 1,32
1998 22 503 000 237 297 269 166 -31 869 10.5 12.0 -1.4 1,32
1999 22 458 000 234 600 265 194 -30 594 10.4 11.8 -1.4 1,30
2000 22 435 000 234 521 255 820 -21 299 10.5 11.4 -0.9 1,31
2001 22 132 000 220 368 259 603 -39 235 10.0 11.7 -1.8 1,27
2002 21 803 000 210 529 269 666 -59 137 9.7 12.4 -2.7 1,25
2003 21 734 000 212 459 266 575 -54 116 9.8 12.3 -2.5 1,30
2004 21 673 000 216 261 258 890 -42 629 10.0 11.9 -2.0 1,33
2005 21 635 000 221 020 262 101 -41 081 10.2 12.1 -1.9 1,40
2006 21 588 000 219 483 258 094 -38 611 10.2 12.0 -1.8 1,42
2007 21 547 000 213 625 252 097 -38 472 10.0 11.7 -1.7 1,45
2008 21 513 000 222 749 253 177 -30 428 10.3 11.8 -1.5 1,60
2009 21 480 000 222 925 257 083 -34 158 10.4 12.0 -1.6 1,66
2010 21 432 000 211 922 259 747 -47 825 9.9 12.1 -2.2 1,59
2011 20 121 000 196 373 251 370 -54 997 9.7 12.5 -2.8 1,47
2012 20 066 000 201 202 255 458 -54 256 10.0 12.7 -2.7 1,52
2013 19 952 000 198 216 249 264 -51 048 9.9 12.5 -2.6 1,46
2014 19 897 000 195 612 254 791 -59 179 9.8 12.8 -2.6 1,56
2015 19 838 000 187 372 260 997 -73 625 9.8 13.6 -3.8 1,58
2016 19 771 000 190 238 256 501 -66 263 9.6 13.0 -3.4 1,64[28]
2017 19 702 000 191 496 256 761 -65 265 9.7 13.0 -3.3 1.71
2018 19 627 000 188 755 263 316 -74 561 9.6 13.4 -3.8

Note: The 2011 Romanian Census gave a figure of 20,121,641.

Current vital statistics[edit]

  • Number of births January–March 2018 = Decrease 43,504
  • Number of births January–March 2019 = Decrease 41,902
  • Number of deaths January–March 2018 = Negative increase 70,690
  • Number of deaths January–March 2019 = Negative increase 70,835
  • Natural Decrease January–March 2018 = Decrease -27,186
  • Natural Decrease January–March 2019 = Decrease -28,933

[29]

  • Number of Marriages January–November 2017 = Increase 136,813
  • Number of Marriages January–November 2018 = Decrease 135,955[30]

Life expectancy 1950-2015[edit]

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[31]

Period Life expectancy in

Years

1950–1955 61.15
1955–1960 Increase 63.29
1960–1965 Increase 67.78
1965–1970 Decrease 67.34
1970–1975 Increase 69.02
1975–1980 Increase 69.59
1980–1985 Increase 69.73
1985–1990 Decrease 69.52
1990–1995 Increase 69.60
1995–2000 Increase 69.71
2000–2005 Increase 71.47
2005–2010 Increase 73.08
2010–2015 Increase 74.85

Birth rates by counties[edit]

Romania has 41 counties and one city with a special status, namely Bucharest. Ilfov county has the highest crude birth rate (12.0‰), while Vâlcea County has the lowest crude birth rate (6.6‰). Birth rates are generally higher in rural areas compared to urban areas.

Crude birth rate by province in 2016 (insse) [32]
Județ Total CBR (‰) Urban (‰) Rural (‰)
Romania 8.6 8.3 8.9
Alba County 8.0 7.5 8.8
Arad County 8.5 8.1 8.9
Argeş County 8.3 8.2 8.3
Bacău County 8.0 7.5 8.5
Bihor County 9.2 8.6 9.8
Bistriţa-Năsăud County 9.7 9.8 9.7
Botoşani County 8.3 8.1 8.4
Brașov County 9.6 8.6 12.6
Brăila County 6.9 6.2 8.4
Bucharest city 8.8 8.8 -
Buzău County 7.6 7.7 7.6
Caraș-Severin County 6.9 6.7 7.3
Călărași County 8.7 8.5 8.9
Cluj County 9.5 9.2 9.9
Constanța County 9.3 8.8 10.4
Covasna County 9.6 8.1 11.2
Dâmbovița County 8.3 7.7 8.6
Dolj County 7.9 7.9 7.9
Galați County 7.4 6.7 8.3
Giurgiu County 8.3 7.2 8.8
Gorj County 7.5 7.9 7.1
Harghita County 9.4 8.4 10.2
Hunedoara County 7.2 7.4 6.7
Ialomița County 8.2 7.8 8.7
Iași County 9.4 9.1 9.7
Ilfov County 12.0 12.3 11.8
Maramureş County 8.7 8.3 9.2
Mehedinți County 7.8 7.6 8.1
Mureș County 9.4 8.2 10.7
Neamț County 7.5 7.0 7.9
Olt County 7.0 7.8 6.5
Prahova County 7.9 7.6 8.2
Satu-Mare County 8.6 7.6 9.5
Sălaj County 10.0 10.2 9.9
Sibiu County 9.3 8.4 11.3
Suceava County 10.3 9.6 10.8
Teleorman County 6.8 6.5 6.9
Timiș County 9.4 9.0 10.0
Tulcea County 7.3 7.8 6.8
Vaslui County 8.2 7.5 8.8
Vâlcea County 6.6 7.2 5.9
Vrancea County 8.3 7.9 8.5

Largest urban agglomerations[edit]

1. Bucharest 2. Cluj Napoca 3. Timișoara 4. Iași 5. Constanța 6. Craiova 7. Brașov 8. Galați

Demographics statistics[edit]

Live births and deaths between 1930 and 2006

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[34]

  • One birth every 3 minutes
  • One death every 2 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 5 minutes
  • One net migrant every 19 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[35]

Population[edit]

21,457,116 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Romania in 2017
0-14 years: 14.31% (male 1,576,621 /female 1,493,082)
15-24 years: 10.45% (male 1,151,312 /female 1,091,956)
25-54 years: 46.11% (male 5,010,272 /female 4,883,090)
55-64 years: 12.37% (male 1,244,669 /female 1,409,854)
65 years and over: 16.76% (male 1,454,320 /female 2,141,940) (2018 est.)

The following demographic statistics are from National Institute of Statistic on 1 July 2016.

  • 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 1,678,542/female 1,586,709)
  • 15–64 years: 69.5% (male 7,744,863/female 7,687,078)
  • 65 years and over: 15.8% (male 1,420,144/female 2,097,659) (2016 est.)

As a consequence of the pro-natalist policies of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime (see Decree 770), Romania has a higher proportion of people born in the late 1960s and 1970s its population than any other Western country except Slovenia; the generations born in 1967 and 1968 were the largest, although fertility remained relatively high until 1990. 8.55% of the Romanian population was born in the period from 1976 to 1980, compared with 6.82% of Americans and 6.33% of Britons.[36]

Median age[edit]

total: 41.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 38th
male: 40.2 years
female: 43 years (2018 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 211st

Death rate[edit]

12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th

Total fertility rate[edit]

1.36 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 215th

Net migration rate[edit]

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 113rd
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)[37]

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

26.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

-0.35% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 219th
-0.127% (2007 estimate).[37]

Urban-rural ratio[edit]

Romania is one of the least urbanised countries in Europe. Just a slight majority, 56.4 percent, lives in urban areas (12,546,212 people in total). The remainder, 43.6 percent, lives in rural areas (9,695,506 people in total).[38]

urban population: 54% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female
total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (May 2010);[39] down from 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births in 2002.[40]

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

  • total population: 75.6 years (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 106th
    • male: 72.1 years (2018 est.)
    • female: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
  • Total population: 75 years
    • male: 71.4 years
    • female: 78.8 years (2015 est.)[41]

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 20.6%. Country comparison to the world: 62nd
male: 19.9%
female: 21.8% (2016 est.)

Nationality[edit]

The noun form is Romanian(s), and the adjectival form is Romanian.

Immigration[edit]

Foreign-born population (according to Eurostat):[42]

2013 2015 2017
Population total 20,020,074 19,870,647 19,644,350
Total 182,939 281,048 421,801
 Moldova 59,670 114,654 161,846
 Italy 22,486 38,580 56,515
 Spain 18,827 29,937 42,165
 Ukraine 8,743 11,900 16,729
 United Kingdom 2,604 5,208 15,346
 Germany 3,759 6,552 15,121
 France 3,780 6,471 12,589
 Bulgaria 11,163 10,465 10,646
 Hungary 5,795 6,420 8,184
 Turkey 5,057 3 7,986
 Greece 4,085 4,653 6,494
 Russia 4,952 5,269 6,063
 China 2,978 3,722 5,068
 United States 2,360 2,876 4,428
 Syria 2,295 2,576 3,492
 Israel 1,665 1,837 2,936
 Belgium 54 1,102 2,650
 Iraq 1,136 1,419 2,338
 Serbia 1,529 5,783 2,296
 Austria 121 509 1,934
 Ireland 22 657 1,876
 Tunisia 1,034 1,062 1,627
 Iran 1,114 1,261 1,464
 Portugal 81 364 1,377
 Republic of Congo 102 301 1189
 Somalia 90 329 978
 Nigeria 103 298 932

Religion[edit]

Religious affiliation tends to follow ethnic lines, with most ethnic Romanians identifying with the Romanian Orthodox Church; the Greek Catholic or Uniate church, reunified with the Orthodox Church by fiat in 1948, was restored after the 1989 revolution. The 2002 census indicates that 0.9% of the population is Greek Catholic, as opposed to about 10% prior to 1948. Roman Catholics, largely ethnic Hungarians and Germans, constitute 4.7% of the population; Calvinists, Baptists (see Baptist Union of Romania and Convention of the Hungarian Baptist Churches of Romania), Pentecostals, and Lutherans make up another 5%. There are smaller numbers of Unitarians, Muslims, and other religions.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and have been marked blue, 2 and below leads an aging population and the result is that the population reduces.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Recensământul populației și locuințelor - 2011" (PDF). Institutul Național de Statistică (in Romanian). Bucharest. July 2013.
  2. ^ "Life expectancy". World Health Organization.
  3. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  4. ^ "European health for all database (HFA-DB)". World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
  5. ^ See, for example, Fabio Bordignon, "Italian Decentralisation in Romania", SEF 2003, Warsaw. Abstract available online. Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "COMUNICAT DE PRESĂ : 2 februarie 2012 privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor" (PDF). Recensamantromania.ro. 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Populația României, scădere alarmantă: Suntem la nivelul lui 1966. Anual dispar două orașe mici". Ziare.com (in Romanian). 10 December 2015.
  8. ^ "Evoluția populației României (milioane de locuitori)". Ziarul Financiar (in Romanian). 3 August 2015.
  9. ^ Vasile Ghețău (2007). Declinul demografic și viitorul populației României. O perspectivă din anul 2007 asupra populației României în secolul 21 (PDF). Institutul Național de Cercetări Economice al Academiei Române (in Romanian). Editura Alpha MDN. ISBN 978-973-7871-88-6.
  10. ^ Dr. Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995, Page 17
  11. ^ Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 Page 46
  12. ^ Jenkins, Simon (2009-10-01). "A forgotten Saxon world shows how ancient and modern can co-exist". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-09-25.
  13. ^ "Estimated Number of Jews Killed in the Final Solution". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  14. ^ Comunitati evreiesti din România, B'nai B'rith International and Federația Comunitatii Evreiesti din România. Accessed online 4 December 2006
  15. ^ https://www.mediafax.ro/social/locuitorii-straini-ai-capitalei-peste-30-000-de-migranti-inregistrati-in-bucuresti-10519706
  16. ^ https://observator.tv/social/firmele-cauta-cu-disperare-angajati-in-asia-pe-un-santier-din-bucuresti-am-gasit-zeci-de-vietnamezi-au-parte-de-salarii-speciale-247740.html
  17. ^ https://observator.tv/economic/nepalezi-solutie-criza-angajatori-251794.html
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference insse3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference CensusRef was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ https://www.cia.gov/librarY/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ro.html
  21. ^ Populația pe Neamuri (in Romanian). Institutul Central de Statistică. pp. XXIV. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
  22. ^ a b c d Varga E. Árpád. "Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995. Supplementary Tables". Kia.hu. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  23. ^ "Population data" (PDF). www.insse.ro.
  24. ^ "Microsoft Word - REZULTATE DEFINITIVE RPL2011.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  26. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  27. ^ "Bun venit la Institutul National de Statistica - Institutul National de Statistica". Insse.ro. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  28. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". ec.europa.eu.
  29. ^ http://www.insse.ro/cms/en/content/vital-statistics-51. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ (PDF) http://www.insse.ro/cms/sites/default/files/com_presa/com_pdf/pop03e18.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  32. ^ "Demographic evenements in 2016" (PDF). Insse.ro. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Romania Population 2019", World Population Review
  35. ^ "World Factbook EUROPE : Romania", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  36. ^ "Countries Compared by People > Total population > Age 25-29 > % of the total. International Statistics". NationMaster.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  37. ^ a b "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  38. ^ "POPULAŢIA ROMÂNIEI PE LOCALITĂŢI LA 1 IANUARIE 2016" (PDF). Insse.ro. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  39. ^ Populatia Romaniei, in continua scadere, July 12, 2010, Wall-street.ro, Accessed online on August 2, 2012
  40. ^ "UNDP Romania" (PDF). Undp.ro. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  41. ^ "GHO - By category - Life expectancy and Healthy life expecancy - Data by country". apps.who.int.
  42. ^ "Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth". Eurostat.

External links[edit]