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Demographics of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

This article is about the demographics of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha, a British overseas territory in the south Atlantic Ocean. The citizens of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha hold British Overseas Territories citizenship. On 21 May 2002 they were granted access to full British citizenship by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002 and there is a special Saint Helena passport issued to them. Saint Helena is the most populous part of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the language spoken in Saint Helena is English. The island has a small population of a few thousand inhabitants descended from Africans, Mixed race African and Europeans, British settlers, East India Company employees and indentured labourers from the South Asian sub-Continent, East Indies and China; the people of Saint Helena are Saint Helenians. A census in February 2016 recorded a population of 4,534 on the island; this compares with a figure of 4,257 recorded in 2008 and a figure of 5,157 recorded in 1998. The fall between 1998 and 2008 can be explained by emigration since 2002 when the islanders were granted full British citizenship.

The main diasporas are to the United Kingdom, South Africa and more to the Falkland Islands, as well as on Ascension Island. The population density, based on the 2016 figure, is 95.3 per sq mile. The island of Saint Helena is administratively divided into eight districts, each with a community centre; the districts serve as statistical subdivisions. The island is a single electoral area; the following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook. NB: the following figures represent the whole territory, including Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha. By 2010 estimates, per one thousand population: the birth rate is 10.95 births, the death rate is 6.91 deaths. In the same year, it was estimated that the rate of population growth was 0.404%. The median age for 2010 is 38.2 years. The following tables describe age structure and human sex ratio, as estimated for 2010. Births and deaths The total fertility rate for 2010 is estimated at 1.56 children born per woman. According to the CIA World Factbook, by ethnicity 50% of the population of St Helena is Black or African, 25% is Chinese, a further 25% is White British.

However, the possibility of clear-cut categorical divisions between ethnicities on present day St Helena, as reflected by these statistics, is disputed. Many St Helenians today are mixed-race; the majority of St. Helenians are Anglican. Other religions in St. Helena include: the Bahá'í Faith, the Baptist church, Roman Catholicism, Seventh-day Adventism. According to the statistics in the 2014 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Saint Helena has the highest proportion of Jehovah's Witnesses of any country or territory in the world: one person in thirty-five, using an estimated population of 4,000 for St Helena and a count of 118 members. In Tristan da Cunha, Christianity is the main religion, with the largest denominations being Anglican and Roman Catholic. Where being literate is defined as being of age 20 or over and able to read and write, 97% percent of the total population is literate, according to estimates from 1987. 97% of males and 98% of females of St. Helena are literate under this definition by the same estimates.

By 2010 estimates, life expectancy at birth for the total population is 78.6 years. The infant mortality rate is 16.98 deaths per 1,000 live births. Ascension Island has no native inhabitants officially. A transient population of 1,000 live on the Island, made up of members of the American and British militaries, supporting civilian contractors who serve on the joint Anglo-American airbase, members of their families. Tristan da Cunha has a population of about three hundred inhabitants of mixed-British, -African, -Italian descent. British Overseas Territory Citizens in mainland United Kingdom

USS Rutilicus (AK-113)

USS Rutilicus was a Crater-class cargo ship commissioned by the US Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for delivering troops and equipment to locations in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater. Rutilicus was laid down 2 April 1943, under MC hull No. 1643, as Liberty ship SS Andrew Rowan, by California Shipbuilding Corporation, Terminal Island, Los Angeles, California. Chandler. Acquired by the Navy on 9 October 1943, she was commissioned at San Diego, California, on 30 October 1943, Lieutenant Commander Hans O. Matthieson, USNR, in command. Following a short shakedown cruise along the coast, Rutilicus took on a load of general cargo at Port Hueneme and steamed in convoy for the Territory of Hawaii arriving at Pearl Harbor on 21 November. Departing the Hawaiian Islands on 4 December, she continued on to the Gilbert Islands, delivering cargo at both Tarawa and Abemama before returning to Pearl Harbor on 12 January 1944, she got underway on 25 January 1944, for the invasion of the Marshall Islands.

Arriving at Majuro on 3 February, she delivered 150 Marines and general cargo and returned to Pearl Harbor on 21 February. Her next voyage, 29 February to 28 March, was a run to Baker Island, to pick up Army Air Force advance base equipment for return to Pearl Harbor. Rutilicus' next operations involved extensive island-hopping. Standing out from Pearl Harbor on 14 April, she steamed in convoy for Kwajalein Atoll, the Marshalls, arriving on 23 April, she touched at Makin, Tarawa and Makin again, before returning to Pearl Harbor on 20 May. By 14 June, Rutilicus was steaming in convoy for Eniwetok Atoll, arriving there on 25 June. For the next seven weeks, she rode at anchor there joined up with a convoy for Tinian, the Marianas. Following offloading at Tinian, she left for Eniwetok 14 August, touching there on 19 August, continued on to Pearl Harbor, she steamed independently for San Francisco, arriving on 8 September. On 12 September, she moved into Amship Corporation Shipyard, California, for repairs and conversion from a general cargo carrier to a fleet dry provisions issue ship.

Rutilicus moved to the Naval Supply Depot, California, on 13 October, took on dry provisions, small stores, ship's store stock, medical stores for fleet issue in the forward areas. Thirteen days she steamed for Leyte, the Philippines, via Manus and Hollandia. By 1 December, she was serving units of the fleet in Philippine waters; the next 5 months saw her issuing stores between Hollandia, Nouméa, Espiritu Santo, Manus and Guam. She was back in San Francisco on 6 May 1945. Following repairs, she steamed on 12 June, via the Carolines for Okinawan waters, she commenced operations from Buckner Bay on 21 July. She shifted to Sasebo on 25 September. After returning to San Francisco, she headed, for Norfolk, Virginia. Arriving at Hampton Roads on 1 December, she reported to the Commandant, 5th Naval District for disposition. Decommissioned on 17 December 1945, returned to the War Shipping Administration the following day, she was struck from the Navy List on 8 January 1946. Rutilicus was placed in the MARCOM National Defense Reserve Fleet, was laid up in the James River.

On 26 October 1971, she was sold to Hierros Ardes, S. A. of Bilbao, for $71,520, to be scrapped. She was removed from the fleet 23 November 1971. Rutilicus received two battle stars for World War II service, her crew was eligible for the following medals: American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Service Medal Philippines Liberation Medal Citations Photo gallery of USS Rutilicus at NavSource Naval History

Atlanta (band)

Atlanta was an American country music group formed in 1982 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. It was composed of Brad Griffis, Bill Davidson, Tony Ingram, Alan David, Allen Collay, Bill Packard, Jeff Baker, Dick Stevens, John Holder. Between 1983 and 1988, Atlanta recorded two albums for MCA Records and charted nine hit singles on the Billboard country chart. Chart history included two top ten country hits in "Atlanta Burned Again Last Night" and "Sweet Country Music"; the latter was the band's highest charting single, peaking at #2 on Cashbox. Atlanta was formed in 1982 by Brad Griffis, Bill Davidson, Tony Ingram, Alan David, Allen Collay, Bill Packard, Jeff Baker, Dick Stevens, John Holder. Prior to the foundation, Ingram had recorded on Epic Records in the band Spurzz, Stevens, Davidson and David had toured as a re-establishment of The Vogues; the group was founded through the assistance of record producer Larry McBride, who had launched the career of Alabama. With nine members, Atlanta was the largest country music band at the time."Atlanta Burned Again Last Night" was the band's debut single, released in 1983 on the independent MDJ record label, which McBride owned.

This recording spent seventeen weeks on the Billboard country singles chart, peaking at #9. This single was one of the highest-charting debut singles by an independently signed country music act. After it came the # 11 "Dixie Dreaming", the band's final MDJ release. By early 1984, MCA Records assumed promotion of the band's singles and albums, releasing "Sweet Country Music" early in the year, it became the band's highest-charting hit. MCA released the band's debut album Pictures in 1984. MCA released the singles "Pictures" and "Wishful Drinkin'", the latter of, included in the film Ellie. Atlanta released its self-titled second album for MCA in 1985 with Larrie London as a session drummer before Boo Boo McAfee join the group after Holder leaves, it included the singles "My Sweet-Eyed Georgia Girl" and "Why Not Tonight", both of which peaked outside the country Top 40. The band moved to the Southern Tracks label as Davidson and David leaves and was replaced by Jody Worrell on guitar, releasing "We Always Agree on Love" and "Sad Clichés"

Sulfamethoxazole

Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic. It is used for bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections and prostatitis and is effective against both gram negative and positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli. Common side effects include nausea, loss of appetite, skin rashes, it is a bacteriostatic. It resembles a component of folic acid, it prevents folic acid synthesis in the bacteria. Mammalian cells, some bacteria, do not synthesize but require preformed folic acid, they are therefore insensitive to sulfamethoxazole, it was introduced to the United States in 1961. It is now used in combination with trimethoprim; the SMX-TMP combination is on the WHO Model List of Essential medicines as a first-choice treatment for urinary tract infections. Other names include: sulfamethalazole and sulfamethazole; the most common side effects of sulfamethoxazole are gastrointestinal disturbances and allergic skin reactions. There have been rare instances; these include Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, aplastic anemia, other blood dyscrasias.

Allergic reactions to Sulfonamides have been shown to include the entire Gel-Coombs spectrum of hyperactivity reactions. Type 1 reactions include immunoglobulin E -mediated reactions such as urticaria and anaphylaxis. In contrast, non-type 1 hypersensitivities are believed to be caused by metabolites of sulfonamides. Therefore, the liver and kidney are the determining factors of these other hypersensitivity reactions. One study has shown the allergic reaction rate to be about 3.0% over 359 courses of therapy. Of the allergic reactions, skin rashes and drug fever were the most common, while serious reactions were less common. Sulfamethoxazole is contraindicated in people with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides. Sulfamethoxazole, a sulfanilamide, is a structural analog of para-aminobenzoic acid, they compete with PABA to bind to dihydropteroate synthetase and inhibit conversion of PABA and dihydropteroate diphosphate to dihydrofolic acid, or dihydrofolate. Inhibiting the production of dihydrofolate intermediate interferes with the normal bacterial synthesis of folic acid.

Folate is an essential metabolite for bacterial growth and replication because it is used in DNA synthesis at thymidylate and purine biosynthesis, amino acids synthesis, including serine and methionine. Hence, blockage of folate production inhibits the folate-dependent metabolic processes for bacterial growth. Since it inhibits bacterial growth, sulfamethoxazole is considered a bacteriostatic antibiotic. Sulfonamides are selective against bacteria because they interfere with the synthesis of folate, a process which does not occur in humans. Humans do not synthesize folate, must acquire it through diet. Absorption Sulfamethoxazole is well-absorbed, it is absorbed when it is orally administered. Distribution Sulfamethoxazole distributes into most body tissues as well as into sputum, vaginal fluid, middle ear fluid, it crosses the placenta. About 70% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins, its Tmax occurs 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-life of sulfamethoxazole is 10 hours.

However, the half-life of the drug noticeably increases in people with creatinine clearance rates equal to or less than 30 mL/minute. A half-life of 22–50 hours has been reported for people with creatinine clearances of less than 10 mL/minute. Metabolism Sulfamethoxazole is metabolized in the human liver to at least 5 metabolites; these metabolites are the N4-acetyl-, N4-hydroxy-, 5-methylhydroxy-, N4-acetyl-5-methylhydroxy-sulfamethoxazole metabolites, an N-glucuronide conjugate. The CYP2C9 enzyme is responsible for the formation of the N4-hydroxy metabolite. In vitro studies suggest. Excretion Sulfamethoxazole is renally excreted via glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. About 20% of the sulfamethoxazole in urine is the unchanged drug, about 15–20% is the N-glucuronide conjugate, about 50–70 % is the acetylated metabolite. Sulfamethoxazole is excreted in human milk. Sulfisoxazole List of cytochrome P450 modulators Sulfamethoxazole in the ChemIDplus database

Mehmedpur

Mehmedpur is a village in Batala in Gurdaspur district of Punjab State, India. It is located 26 kilometres from sub district headquarter, 54 kilometres from district headquarter and 20 kilometres from Sri Hargobindpur; the village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village. As of 2011, The village has a total number of 82 houses and the population of 418 of which 215 are males while 203 are females. According to the report published by Census India in 2011, out of the total population of the village 117 people are from Schedule Caste and the village does not have any Schedule Tribe population so far. List of villages in India Tourism of Punjab Census of Punjab

Health court

Health courts are proposed specialized courts for handling medical malpractice claims. They are characterized by the use of specially trained adjudicators, independent expert witnesses, predictable damage awards. Successful administrative compensation systems exist in New Zealand and Scandinavia, limited programs operate in Florida and Virginia; the nonpartisan coalition Common Good, led by Philip K. Howard, the Harvard School of Public Health have advocated implementing health courts on a wider scale in the U. S; the potential advantages of health courts include decreasing administrative costs, improving access to compensation for injured patients, disincentivizing defensive medicine. By using trained judges and independent experts, health court advocates hope to achieve more fair outcomes at lower costs. Critics of the health courts concept contend, ill-conceived, that it would be unfair to patients, that it would be unlikely to achieve its objectives, that such of its goals as are reasonable can be achieved more and with greater efficiency under the existing civil justice system.

In addition, experts have suggested that health courts would be biased towards physicians, that the bureaucracy needed to introduce safeguards against such bias would negate any cost savings. In February 2011, President Barack Obama's administration announced a $250 million fund in the fiscal year 2012 budget for medical malpractice reforms, with special emphasis on health courts. Common Good