Battle of San Marino
The Battle of San Marino was an engagement on 17–20 September 1944 during the Italian Campaign of the Second World War, in which German Army forces occupied the neutral Republic of San Marino, were attacked by Allied forces. It is sometimes known as the Battle of Monte Pulito. San Marino had declared its neutrality earlier in the war, had remained broadly unaffected by events in Europe until 1944, when Allied forces had advanced a sizable distance up the Italian Peninsula. A major German defensive position, the Gothic Line, ran across the peninsula a short distance south of the Sammarinese border, in late June, the country was bombed by the Royal Air Force, killing 35 people, in the belief that the German army had taken up positions on its territory. In Operation Olive, launched in late August, a strong Allied force attacked at the eastern end of the line, aiming to pass through Rimini—just east of San Marino—and break out onto the plains north of the city. Whilst San Marino was southwest of Rimini, the plan was.
In response to the Allied movements, the Germans sent a small force into San Marino to guard their lines of communication and act as artillery observers. After a few days, the main thrust of the offensive was halted south of Rimini by strong resistance and severe weather, the British and Indian flanking forces began to push westwards, taking the frontline towards San Marino. On 17 September the 4th Indian Infantry Division attacked forces of the 278. Infanterie-Division holding two hills just across the Sammarinese border; the city was captured by the afternoon of 20 September, the 4th Indian Division left the country on the 21st, leaving it under the control of the local defence forces. The microstate of San Marino, in the northern Italian Peninsula and surrounded by Italy, had played little role throughout the Second World War, it had a fascist government aligned with Benito Mussolini's regime, but remained neutral. It was reported to have declared war against the United Kingdom in September 1940, though the Sammarinese government transmitted a message to the British government stating that it had not.
In early 1942, the Sammarinese government reiterated it was not at war with the United States, a position, confirmed by the US State Department. The British Foreign Office noted more equivocally in 1944 that Britain had never declared war, but had never formally recognised San Marino's neutrality, that it felt that military action on Sammarinese territory would be justified if it were being used by Axis forces; the country was bombed by the Allies on 27 June 1944, killing at least 35. The Sammarinese government declared the same day that no military installations or equipment were located on its territory, that no belligerent forces had been allowed to enter. In early July, it announced that prominent signs had been put up at the border crossings by the German command, to instruct German units not to enter the territory, again reiterated its complete neutrality. By the late summer of 1944, German forces in Italy had withdrawn toward the Gothic Line, a chain of defended positions stretching across the Italian peninsula.
The Allies formulated a plan to break through the defences, pushing north toward Rimini and the plains of Northern Italy. This would involve a strong thrust up the eastern seaboard by the British Eighth Army, codenamed Operation Olive. Once through the Gap, the force would deploy outward onto the Romagna Plain, move westward toward Bologna. Meanwhile, the American Fifth Army would push north along the centre of the peninsula converging on Bologna and trapping a large German force in a pincer movement; the main Allied assault began on 25 August, reaching the Foglia valley—the Gothic Line proper—on 29 August. It was breached, the German command attempted to assemble a second defensive line on the Coriano ridge, a hilly spur to the north of the Conca river, the last major geographic obstacle south of Rimini; the Allied offensive reached the river on 3 September, but ground to a halt due to mechanical difficulties with its tanks, strengthening German resistance, heavy rain. The Allied forces halted, brought up reinforcements whilst waiting for a chance to resume the offensive along the coast.
On the left flank of the assault, the attack had been halted in the Battle of Gemmano, to the south of the Conca river. At this point, the forces on the Allied left wing were strung out in a line running due south from the Coriano ridge, facing westward toward San Marino, a few miles distant; the 56th Infantry Division was opposite Croce, with the 46th Infantry Division opposite the defended position at Gemmano. The 4th Indian Infantry Division was to the south of the 46th, forming the left wing of the offensive; when the assault on Coriano was resumed on the 12th, led by two armoured divisions with heavy artillery support, these forces pushed westwards. The main assault pushed onto the ridge, the 56th Division advanced about 1 mi past Croce, before digging in on the evening of the 13th, it was captured by the 46th and 4th Indian Divisions on the morning of the 15th, the British forces prepared to move toward Montescudo and exploit the German confusion. The 46th Division too
Sport in San Marino
This article is about the sports in the Republic of San Marino. San Marino, along with Italy, enjoys football as its most popular sport; the San Marino Championship, founded under the auspices of the FSGC, is the premier footballing competition in San Marino. The fifteen teams that take part in the competition are split into two groups of eight and seven teams; the top three from each section at the end of the regular season progress into a semi-knockout style Championship Playoff. Prior to 2007, the playoff champion earned a spot in the preliminary rounds of the UEFA Cup. In 2007, UEFA granted San Marino a spot in the 1st Qualifying Round of the Champions League. 2007 league champions S. S. Murata was the first team to represent San Marino in the Champions League when they participated in the 2007-08 competition, losing to Finland's Tampere team. San Marino has a representative in the Italian system, with San Marino Calcio playing in the fourth tier of Italian football, Serie D. San Marino play.
The San Marino national team played its first unofficial international match in 1986, in which it suffered a 0-1 defeat to the Canadian Olympic team. Its first competitive outing was on November 14, 1990, a 0-4 loss against Switzerland in the European Championship qualifier; these defeats set the tone for most of the following outings of the team, who are regarded as whipping boys in the qualifying sections of the European Championship and the World Cup, calling into question the merits of San Marino and the other'microstate' teams being included in the main qualifying groups for said tournaments. They had a brief moment of glory when they faced England in a World Cup qualifier on November 17, 1993 and took the lead through Davide Gualtieri after just 8.3 seconds - still the fastest goal in World Cup competition. Despite this goal, only San Marino's third at international level, the microstate went on to lose 7-1; until San Marino's international record was one of total failure, with famous draws against Turkey and Latvia being the only partial successes in an international career that contains over 70 defeats.
However, on 29 April 2004, San Marino recorded their first win, with a 1-0 victory over Liechtenstein in an international friendly. Andy Selva scored the only goal in a close game that gave this tiny republic a footballing victory. On September 6, 2006, San Marino suffered their biggest defeat, losing 13-0 to world giants Germany in the Stadio Olimpico, it was the largest goal margin defeat in European Championship Qualifying history. In the same competition on February 7, 2007, they came within 8 seconds of the best result in their history, they were level at 1-1 with the Republic of Ireland after 94 minutes when Stephen Ireland scored within 8 seconds of the final whistle. The goal scored by San Marino was their European Qualifying first goal since losing 4-1 to Austria in 1998; as of December 2018, San Marino is 211th in the FIFA world rankings - last place with 854 ranking points. The most notable Sanmarinese footballer was Massimo Bonini, a midfielder, who played for the national team, but most notably for Italy's Juventus F.
C. from 1981 to 1988. Although named after the Republic, the San Marino Grand Prix of Formula One was held at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in the Italian town of Imola, about 100 km northwest of San Marino, along the Via Emilia, it was removed from the sport's calendar in 2007 due to no negotiations to renew the contract with the event organizers. This Grand Prix became etched in infamy after two fatal accidents occurred in 1994, when rookie Roland Ratzenberger and three-time World Champion Ayrton Senna were killed while competing. San Marino motorcycle Grand Prix has been held during the years in Imola and Mugello. Misano hosts both the Grand Prix and the World Superbike Race. Sammarinese Manuel Poggiali won two World Championship titles: 125cc in 2001 and 250cc in 2003. Alex de Angelis has won one 250cc race and is riding in the Moto2 class. Since 2006, from San Marino starts the FIA Alternative Energies Cup event Ecorally San Marino - Città del Vaticano, organized by the Automobile Club San Marino.
San Marino has a rather successful professional baseball team, T & A San Marino, which play in the top division of Italian professional baseball, the Serie A1. It has participated in the European Cup tournament for the top European professional baseball teams several times, hosting the event in 1996, 2000 and 2004, scheduled to host in 2007, it won the championship in 2006 and 2008. San Marino has a vibrant basketball scene. San Marino Basketball Federation is the governing body of basketball in San Marino, it was founded in 1968. It runs the San Marino national basketball team. There is an annual international basketball tournament held every summer called San Marino Basketball Cup. San Marino Volleyball Federation or FSPAV is the governing body of volleyball and beach volleyball in San Marino, it was formed in 1980. It runs the San Marino national volleyball team; the San Marino team represents the nation at rugby, the "Rugby Club San Marino" plays in the Italian leagues. San Marino Football Federation San Marino Basketball Federation
Municipalities of San Marino
These are the 9 castelli of San Marino: Though it is one of the biggest towns of the Republic, Dogana is not an autonomous castello but belongs to the castello of Serravalle. Like Italian comuni, the castelli of San Marino include a main town, the seat of the castello, called the capoluogo, some small settlements known as frazioni or curazie. ISO 3166-2:SM
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Transport in San Marino
San Marino is a small European republic, with limited public transport facilities. It is an enclave in central Italy; the principal public transport links involve buses, an aerial tramway. There was a public rail network, a small part of, preserved. For a few years prior to World War II, San Marino had a railway network consisting of a single line, connecting the country with the Italian rail network at Rimini railway station. Due to difficulties in accessing the capital, San Marino City, the terminus station was to be located at the village of Valdragone. However, with a joint effort between San Marino and Italy the railway was extended to reach the capital through a steep and winding track comprising many tunnels; the railway was opened on 12 June 1932. It was an advanced system for its time, being an electric railway, powered by overhead electric cables; the trains drew power from these cables by means of a pantograph system. The tracks were narrow gauge, which offered advantages in terms of costs and ease of construction given the geographical features of the route, but made the railway incompatible with the Italian network.
The train carriages had a distinctive appearance, being liveried in the national colours of San Marino and white layered horizontally. There were 17 tunnels, all located within Sammarinese territory, ranging from about 50 m to 800 m in length; the railway was well built and well used, in all probability would have been a long-term feature of Sammarinese public transport, but it was completely destroyed during the fighting in this region during World War II. Today there is no operational railway in San Marino, but many disused artifacts such as bridges and stations are still well visible, in some cases have been refurbished and converted to parks, public footpaths or traffic routes. Most of the tunnels are well preserved today and three of them have been checked for safety, provided with lighting and opened for pedestrian use. Most of the others have either been closed for safety reasons or purchased for storage. Inside the last tunnel, about 500 m long, closest to the former San Marino station, some of the train coaches once used are still being preserved.
Some of the bridges and other constructions used by the former railway have become well loved landmarks the "Fontevecchia" bridge, set in a pleasant countryside location. Dogana's station is now the centre of a large public park. Other stations have either been demolished. Beginning on 21 July 2012, next to the terminal station of the City of San Marino, an 800 m-long electrified stretch was reactivated for tourist and promotional reasons; this was the first step to reactivate the rail line, or part of it, the government of San Marino is committed to the restoration of the line to Borgo Maggiore. There is a 300 m aerial tramway connecting the city of San Marino on top of Monte Titano with Borgo Maggiore, a major town in the republic, with the second largest population of any Sammarinese settlement. Indeed, for the tourist visitor the aerial tramway gives the best available views of Borgo Maggiore, as the cars sweep low over the rooftops of the main town square. From here a further connection is available to the nation's largest settlement, Dogana, by means of local bus service.
Two aerial tramway cars, known as gondolas, numbered'1' and'2', operate in opposition on a cable, a service is provided at fifteen-minute intervals throughout the day. A third vehicle is available on the system, being a service car for the use of engineers maintaining the tramway; the upper station of the aerial tramway serves no other purpose. However, the lower station in Borgo Maggiore has a number of retail and catering outlets situated within its overall structure. There are 220 km of highways in the main road being the San Marino Highway. Roads are well used by private car drivers. Sammarinese authorities license private vehicles with distinctive licence plates which are white with blue figures a letter followed by up to four numbers. To the left of these figures is printed the national Coat of Arms of San Marino. Many vehicles carry the international vehicle identification code, "RSM". Since 2004 custom licence plates have become available. A limited licensed taxi service operates nationwide.
There are seven licensed taxi operating companies in the republic, Italian taxis operate within San Marino when carrying passengers picked up in Italian territory. There is a regular international bus service between Rimini and the city of San Marino, popular with both tourists and tourist industry workers commuting to San Marino from Italy; this service stops at twenty advertised locations in Rimini and within San Marino, with its two terminus stops at Rimini railway station and San Marino coach station, respectively. San Marino has its own local bus system within the republic, which provides a limited service connecting the capital and the smaller rural communities. There is a small airfield located 43.94942°N 12.51098°E / 43.94942. Most tourists who arrive by air land at Rimini's Federico Fellini Airport and make the transfer by bus. Two rivers flow through San Marino, but there is no major water transport, no major port or harbour. Media related to Transport in San Marino at Wikimedia Commons
Romagnol is a group of related dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the historical region of Romagna, today in the south-eastern part of Emilia-Romagna. The name itself is derived from the Lombard name for the region Romania, it is spoken outside the region in the neighboring province of Pesaro-Urbino and in the independent country of San Marino. It is classified as a threatened language, due to older generations having “neglected to pass on the dialect as a native tongue to the next generation”. While contemporaneous with modern Standard Italian, it is technically a member of the Gallo-Italic branch and more comparable to the “northern group” of Italian dialects; this includes the dialects Emilian, Ligurian and Piedmontese. It is sometimes considered a subdialect of a larger Emilian-Romagnol language, which encompasses a broad continuum of dialects spanning the region of Emilia-Romagna. West of Romagna, the Emilian language is spoken; the border with Emilian-speaking areas is the Sillaro river, which runs 25 km east from Bologna to the west of.
Emilian is spoken, to the east, in Imola, the language is Romagnol. In Emilia-Romagna, Emilian is spoken in all the rest of the region moving from the Sillaro river to the west, up to Piacenza; the Reno River is the dialect of Ferrara. Romagnol is spoken in some villages northwards of the Reno River, such as Argenta, Emilia–Romagna and Filo, where people of Romagnol origin live alongside people of Ferrarese origin. Ferrara goes into Emilian language territory. Outside Emilia-Romagna, Romagnol is spoken in the Republic of San Marino, in the Marecchia Valley, in the Conca Valley and in all of the Pesaro e Urbino province. Romagnol's first acknowledgement outside regional literature was in Dante Alighieri’s treatise De vulgari eloquentia, wherein Dante compares “the language of Romagna” to his native Tuscan dialect. In 1629, the author Adriano Banchieri wrote the treatise Discorso della lingua Bolognese, which countered Dante’s claim that the Tuscan dialect was better, arguing his belief that Bolognese was superior in “naturalness, softness and usefulness.”
Romagnol received more recognition. There is a large repertoire of folklore legends and fables in Romagnol, due to its role in local geopolitical history. Romagna’s geographic diversity was home to a variety of lifestyles and trade backgrounds, such as “the mountaineers of the Alps, the fisherman of the Adriatic, the farmers of the plains, the city folk,” which in turn, allowed for a large range of topics and themes present in the literature. Darker themes, such as poverty and pessimism, are known to be common subjects of Romagnol poetry and prose; the first appearance of a distinct Romagnol literary work is "Sonetto romagnolo" by Bernardino Catti, from Ravenna, printed 1502. It is written in a mixture of Romagnol; the first Romagnol poem dates back to the end of 16th century: E Pvlon matt. Cantlena aroica, a mock-heroic poem based on Orlando Furioso and written by an anonymous author from San Vittore di Cesena; the original poem comprised twelve cantos. The first Romagnol poet to win fame was the cleric Pietro Santoni.
He was the teacher of one of the most famous Italian poets of his time. In 1840 the first Romagnol-Italian Dictionary was published by Antonio Morri, printed in Faenza; the 20th century saw a flourishing of Romagnol literature. Theatrical plays and books of a high quality were produced; some of the best known Romagnol authors are: Raffaello Baldini, who won in 1988 the "Premio Viareggio" and in 1995 the "Premio Bagutta," known for long pessimistic poems and prose Tonino Guerra, wrote poems during his exile to WWII-era Germany, focusing on people of suffering and poverty Olindo Guerrini, with "Sonetti romagnoli" Aldo Spallicci, an antifascist exiled from Romagna. He wrote poems such as "Rumâgna" that were descriptive of Romagna Unlike Standard Italian, not all nouns end in a theme vowel. Masculine nouns lack theme vowels and feminine nouns terminate in "a." To form plurals, masculine nouns and adjectives undergo lexically-specified ablaut. In the case of feminine nouns and adjectives, "a" becomes "i" or deletes if after a consonant cluster or double consonant.
Though both languages derive their lexicon from Vulgar Latin, some words differ in gender. Italian and Romagnol share much of the same features. Both languages are SVO in simple sentences. Verbs are conjugated according to tense and person. Romagnol has 4 conjugations compared to Italian's 3: the 1st, êr. One marked difference in syntax between Romagnol and Italian is that pronouns are obligatory, some verbs in Romagnol use a reflexive construction where Italian uses an intransitive construction. Verbs that are impersonal in Romagnol use "avèr," in contrast with Italian which uses "essere." Though the subject is null, an expletive pronoun inserts itself in the specifier position, much like English's "it". Italian: è piovuto, It rained Romagnol: l'à piuvù, It rainedAdditionally, whereas Standard Italian and other Northern dialects omit the definite article before “singular names and names of relatives,” Romagnol