Demographics of Sierra Leone

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Demographics of Sierra Leone
Population7,396,190
Density80.06 inhabitants per sq km.
Growth rate15.40% (2004–2014 est.)
Birth rate37.40 births/1,000 inhabitants
Death rate11.03 deaths/1,000 inhabitants
Life expectancy57.39 years
 • male54.85 years
 • female60.00 years
Fertility rate4.83 children born/women
Infant mortality rate73.29 deaths/1,000 births
Age structure
0–14 years41.9%
15–64 years54.4%
65 and over3.7%
Sex ratio
Total0.94 male(s)/female
At birth1.03 male(s)/female
Under 150.99 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.94 male(s)/female
65 and over0.78 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalitySierra Leonean(s)
Major ethnicTemne 35%, Mende 31%
Minor ethnicLimba 8%, Kono 5%, Kriole 2%, Mandingo 2%, Loko 2%, other 15%
Language
OfficialEnglish
SpokenMende, Temne, Krio

The demographics of Sierra Leone are made up of an indigenous population from 18 ethnic groups. The Temne in the north and the Mende in the South are the largest. About 60,000 are Krio, the descendants of freed slaves who returned to Sierra Leone from Great Britain, North America and slave ships captured on the high seas. In addition, about 5,000 Lebanese, 1,000 Indians, and 5,000 Europeans reside in the country.

In the past, some Sierra Leoneans were noted for their educational achievements, trading activity, entrepreneurial skills, and arts and crafts work, particularly woodcarving. Many are part of larger ethnic networks extending into several countries, which link West African states in the area, their level of education and infrastructure have declined sharply over the last 30 years.[1]

Population[edit]

Historical populations of Sierra Leone
YearPop.±% p.a.
1963 2,180,355—    
1974 2,735,159+2.08%
1985 3,515,812+2.31%
2004 4,976,871+1.85%
2014 5,743,725+1.44%
Source: [2]
Sierra Leone's total population, from 1961 to 2003.

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[3] the total population was 7,396,190 in 2016, compared to only 1 895 000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 43%, 55.1% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 1.9% was 65 years or older .[4]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 1 895 000 39.4 57.6 3.0
1955 2 029 000 39.6 57.5 2.9
1960 2 187 000 39.6 57.5 2.9
1965 2 373 000 39.8 57.3 2.9
1970 2 593 000 40.5 56.9 2.9
1975 2 845 000 40.5 56.6 3.0
1980 3 162 000 41.1 56.0 2.9
1985 3 541 000 42.0 55.3 2.7
1990 3 982 000 42.4 55.1 2.6
1995 3 898 000 42.3 55.3 2.4
2000 4 143 000 42.4 55.5 2.1
2005 5 153 000 42.9 55.2 1.9
2010 5 868 000 43.0 55.1 1.9

Vital statistics[edit]

Registration of vital events is in Sierra Leone not complete; the Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [4]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 96 000 69 000 27 000 48.8 35.1 13.6 6.03 242
1955-1960 102 000 71 000 32 000 48.6 33.6 15.0 6.03 235
1960-1965 110 000 73 000 37 000 48.5 32.1 16.3 6.03 227
1965-1970 119 000 75 000 44 000 47.8 30.1 17.7 5.98 214
1970-1975 124 000 73 000 50 000 45.5 26.9 18.6 5.75 195
1975-1980 133 000 69 000 63 000 44.1 23.1 21.1 5.63 164
1980-1985 143 000 68 000 76 000 42.8 20.2 22.6 5.52 135
1985-1990 162 000 86 000 76 000 43.0 22.8 20.1 5.59 154
1990-1995 175 000 101 000 73 000 44.3 25.7 18.6 5.81 166
1995-2000 179 000 100 000 79 000 44.6 24.9 19.6 5.84 157
2000-2005 199 000 97 000 102 000 42.7 20.8 22.0 5.56 133
2005-2010 224 000 93 000 131 000 40.6 16.9 23.7 5.22 114
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[5]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2008 31.5 5.1 (4.5) 27.3 3.8 (3.4) 33.4 5.8 (5.2)
2013 35.7 4.9 (4.2) 29.5 3.5 (3.0) 38.2 5.7 (4.9)

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[6]

District Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Kailahun 6.0 9.7 6.4
Kenema 4.9 9.2 6.4
Kono 5.8 8.1 6.6
Bombali 4.4 7.3 6.1
Kambia 5.8 8.5 5.8
Koinadugu 5.5 9.6 6.8
Port Loko 5.3 10.6 5.9
Tonkolili 5.2 10.5 6.6
Bo 5.1 9.9 6.1
Bonthe 4.2 7.3 4.3
Moyamba 6.2 9.4 6.0
Pujehun 6.3 10.3 7.3
Western Area (Rural) 3.8 9.8 5.1
Western Area (Urban) 3.1 4.6 4.3

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[7]
1950–1955 28.82
1955–1960 Increase 29.87
1960–1965 Increase 30.99
1965–1970 Increase 32.63
1970–1975 Increase 36.78
1975–1980 Increase 39.70
1980–1985 Increase 40.85
1985–1990 Decrease 39.13
1990–1995 Decrease 35.96
1995–2000 Increase 36.69
2000–2005 Increase 41.32
2005–2010 Increase 45.88
2010–2015 Increase 50.19

Other demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[8]

  • One birth every 2 minutes
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • One net migrant every 120 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 3 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[9] unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

6,312,212 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Sierra Leone in 2017
0-14 years: 41.71% (male 1,314,905 /female 1,317,921)
15-24 years: 18.6% (male 572,274 /female 602,105)
25-54 years: 32.23% (male 973,698 /female 1,060,688)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 110,176 /female 123,268)
65 years and over: 3.76% (male 97,922 /female 139,255) (2018 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 19.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 201st
male: 18.4 years
female: 19.7 years (2018 est.)

Birth rate[edit]

36 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 18th
38.12 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate[edit]

10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 33rd
11.41 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

4.69 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 21st
4.9 children born/woman (2012 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

2.4% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 27th
2.33% growth rate (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

19.2 years (2013 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

16.6% (2013)

Net migration rate[edit]

-1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 160th
-3.86 migrants/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 82.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 78 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Maternal Mortality Ratio[edit]

890 deaths/100 000 births (2010)

Sierra Leone's MMR is the worst of any country in the world, according to the 2000 WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA report.

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 59 years
male: 56.4 years
female: 61.7 years (2018 est.)
total population: 56.55 years
male: 54.08 years
female: 59.11 years (2012 est.)
total population: 42.84 years
male: 40.33 years
female: 45.42 years (2003 est.)
total population: 45.25 years
male: 42.37 years
female: 48.21 years (2000 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 42.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.12% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Education expenditures[edit]

4.6% of GDP (2017)

Health expenditures[edit]

11.1% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density[edit]

0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density[edit]

0.4 beds/1,000 population (2008)

HIV/AIDS[edit]

adult prevalence rate: 1.4% (2017 est.)
people living with HIV/AIDS: 61,000 (2017 est.)
deaths: 2,600 (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases[edit]

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dist or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2009)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups[edit]

18 native African tribes 90% (Temne 36%, Mende 33%, Limba 6.4%, Kono 4.4% other 20%)
Creole 1.2% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century)
Refugees from Liberia's recent civil war
Small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions[10][edit]

Muslim 78.6%, Christian 20.8%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.2% (2013 est.)

Languages[edit]

English (official, regular use limited to literate minority)
Mende (principal vernacular in the south)
Temne (principal vernacular in the north)
Fula (principal language in Sierra Leone, it is also strongly and widely spoken across West Africa and beyond...)
Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed American and West Indian slaves and Liberated Africans who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)

Education expenditure[edit]

4.3% of GDP (2009)

Literacy[edit]

Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic

total population: 48.1%
male: 58.7%
female: 37.7% (2015 est.)
Total population: 35.1%
Male: 46.9%
Female: 24.4% (2004 est.)
Total population: 31.4%
Male: 45.4%
Female: 18.2% (1995 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24[edit]

total: 9.4%
male: 14.8%
female: 6.1% (2014 est.)

Cities with the highest percentage of a single ethnic group[edit]

City largest ethnic group percentage of population
Freetown Krio 28% Fullah 28%
Bo Mende 47%
Kenema Mende 45%
Koidu Town Kono 30% Fullah 30%
Makeni Temne 30% Fullah 30%
Magburaka Temne 46%
Kabala Fullah 49%
Kailahun Mende 50%
Bonthe Sherbro 40%
Port Loko Temne 50%
Moyamba Mende 42%
Kambia Temne 20% Susu 20% Fullah 20%

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sierra Leone (02/08)". "U.S. Department of State". Retrieved 2008-02-17.
  2. ^ "FINAL RESULTS 2004 POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS" (PDF). Sierra-leone.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  3. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Sierra Leone - Demographic and Health Survey 2008". microdata.worldbank.org.
  6. ^ "Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  7. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  8. ^ [worldpopulationreview.com/countries/sierra-leone-population/ "Sierra Leone Population 2019"] Check |url= value (help), World Population Review
  9. ^ "The World FactBook - Sierra Leone", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ "Africa :: SIERRA LEONE". CIA The World Factbook.