The demographics of Thailand paint a statistical portrait of the national population. It includes such measures as population density and distribution, educational levels, public health metrics, economic status, religious affiliation, other national characteristics; the 2018 population of Thailand was estimated to be 69,428,453. Thailand's population is rural, it is concentrated in the rice growing areas of the central and northern regions. Its urban population—principally in greater Bangkok—was 45.7 percent of the total population in 2010 according to National Economic and Social Development Board. Accurate statistics are difficult to arrive at, as millions of Thai migrate from rural areas to cities return to their place of origin to help with seasonal field work, they have rural residency, but spend most of the year in urban areas. Thailand's successful government-sponsored family planning program has resulted in a decline in population growth from 3.1 percent in 1960 to around 0.4 percent in 2015.
The World Bank forecasts a contraction of the working-age population of about 10 percent between 2010 and 2040. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the figure was down to 3.2. Though Thailand has one of the better social security systems in Asia, the increasing population of elderly people is a challenge for the country. Life expectancy has risen, a reflection of Thailand's efforts to implement effective public health policies; the Thai AIDS epidemic had a major impact on the Thai population. Today, over 700,000 Thai are HIV or AIDS positive two percent of adult men and 1.5 percent of adult women. Every year, 30,000–50,000 Thai die from HIV or AIDS-related illnesses. Ninety percent of them are ages the youngest range of the workforce. An aggressive public education campaign begun in the early-1990s reduced the number of new HIV infections from 150,000 to under 10,000 annually; the leading cause of death among the age cohort under 15 years of age: drowning.
A study by the Child Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Centre of Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that more than 1,400 youths under 15 years old died from drowning each year, or an average four deaths a day, becoming the top cause of deaths of children exceeding that of motorbike deaths. Thailand's Disease Control Department estimates that only 23 percent of Thai children under 15 can swim; the Public Health Ministry said that from 2006 to 2015, 10,923 children drowned. Of the 8.3 million children aged 5–14 nationwide, only two million can swim, according to the Public Health Ministry. The United Nations classifies Thailand as an "aging society", on track to become an "aged society" by 2025; the Fiscal Policy Office projects that the number of Thais aged 60-plus will increase from 14 percent in 2016 to 17.5 percent in 2020, 21.2 percent in 2025, 25.2 percent in 2030. As of 2016 it is estimated. Thailand's ethnic origins continue to evolve; the nation's ethnic makeup is obscured by the pressures of Thaification, Thai nationalism, social pressure, intertwined with a caste-like mentality assigning some groups higher social status than others.
In its report to the United Nations for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Thai government recognized 62 ethnic communities. Twenty million Central Thai make up 20,650,000 million of the nation's population of 60,544,937 at the time of completion of the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data. Thailand's report to the UN provided population numbers for mountain peoples and ethnic communities in the northeast. Thus, though over 3.288 million people in the northeast alone could not be categorised, the population and percentages of other ethnic communities c. 1997 are known and constitute minimum populations. In descending order, the largest are a) 15,080,000 Lao consisting of the Thai Lao and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei, Lao Lom, Lao Wiang/Klang, Lao Khrang, Lao Ngaew, Lao Ti. Thailand's Ministry of Social Development and Human Security's 2015 Master Plan for the Development of Ethnic Groups in Thailand 2015-2017 omitted the larger, ethnoregional ethnic communities, including the Central Thai majority.
There is a significant number of Thai-Chinese in Thailand. Chinese origins as evidenced by surname were erased in the 1920s by royal decree. Fourteen percent of Thais may have Chinese origins. One scholar estimated that the Sino-Thai population, itself around 14 per cent of the total, was composed of around 56 percent Teochew, 16 percent Hakka, 12 percent Hainanese, 7 percent Hokkien, 7 percent Cantonese and 2 percent other. Significant intermixing has taken place such that there are few pure ethnic Chinese, those of mixed Chinese ancestry account for as much as a third to a half of the Thai population; those assigned Thai ethnicity in the census process made up the vast majority of the population in 2010.
Pleuroncodes planipes, sometimes called the pelagic red crab, tuna crab or langostilla, is a species of squat lobster from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Pleuroncodes planipes is a bright red animal, up to 13 centimetres long, it has a shorter abdomen. Pleuroncodes planipes was first described by William Stimpson in 1860. In his description, Stimpson noted that P. planipes was close to P. monodon, the only other species in the genus. Pleuroncodes planipes lives on the continental shelf west of Mexico, it is found only south-west of San Diego, but in warmer years, its range may extend northwards into California. This is indicative of an El Niño event. Large numbers wash up on beaches during warm water events; the southern limit of the species' range is in Chile. The life cycle of Pleuroncodes planipes appeared for a long time to form a paradox: while an adult population was maintained along the south-western coast of the United States, the planktonic larvae they released were swept by the California Current thousands of miles out to sea.
A solution was proposed whereby the larvae use an opposing undercurrent at a lower depth to return to the continental shelf, this hypothesis was confirmed by sampling different depths of water with a plankton recorder. Pleuroncodes planipes feeds on protists and zooplankton, but will feed by filtering blooms of diatoms; as the most abundant species of micronekton in the California Current, Pleuroncodes planipes fills an important ecological niche converting primary production into energy that larger organisms can use. P. planipes is accordingly an important food item for many species of birds, marine mammals and fish. It is favoured by tuna, leading to one of the species' common names – "tuna crab". Other fish known to feed on P. planipes include billfishes, yellowtail amberjack and Epinephelus analogus. The diets of gray whales, Bryde's whales, blue whales and sea otters all include P. planipes. The Mexican endemic bat Myotis vivesi feeds on P. planipes at some times of the year. Off Baja California, the stomachs of some loggerhead sea turtles have been observed to contain only P. planipes.
Since P. planipes may be washed ashore in large numbers, it can be a valuable addition to the diets of seabirds such as the herring gull, whose food supply is diminished in El Niño years
Stuart Robertson Garden is a Scottish football player and coach. He played as a goalkeeper for Dundee United, Brechin City, Forfar Athletic, Notts County and Ross County. Garden was appointed Montrose manager in May 2012. Garden left Montrose by mutual consent in April 2014, after a defeat by Peterhead meant that the club could no longer qualify for the end of season promotion play-offs. Garden joined Airdrie in October 2014 to work as a goalkeeping coach, he joined Dundee United in the same role in October 2015, departed in May 2018. As of 06:12, 1 November 2014 Scottish Football League Third Division - Manager of the Month, November 2012
Oligogenic inheritance describes a trait, influenced by a few genes. Oligogenic inheritance represents an intermediate between monogenic inheritance in which a trait is determined by a single causative gene, polygenic inheritance, in which a trait is influenced by many genes and environmental factors. Many traits were thought to be governed by a single causative gene, however work in genetics revealed that these traits are comparatively rare, in most cases so-called monogenic traits are predominantly influenced by one gene, but can be mediated by other genes of small effect. Around the 1930s/40s, evidence that multiple genes could affect the risk of disease that showed discrete inheritance patterns, due to differences in the age of onset of disease for siblings; the age of onset for sibling pairs was similar, but between pairs of siblings could be quite different, would in some cases cluster into several age brackets. This suggested a major gene that controlled the risk for a disease, other genes that impacted age of onset.
The recognition of diseases which were influenced by more than one gene highlighted a need to develop methodologies for detecting these oligogenic inheritance patterns, as they did not fit the more straightforward Mendelian model of inheritance. The developments of such methods accelerated the discovery of other examples of oligogenic traits, sparked a change in the way genetic disease was perceived. One example of oligogenic inheritance is a case where one gene is sufficient to cause a trait, however its penetrance or expressivity is influenced by another gene, called a modifier. An example of such a case is the gene TGFB1 which modified a person's risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they are carrying the disease variant of the gene APP; the mechanism is thought to work through the modifier variant increasing the clearance of amyloid fibers in the aging brain, reducing plaque burden. A trait can be recognised as oligogenic through the following lines of evidence: Phenotype–genotype correlations: if phenotype can't be predicted to a single correlated locus, but inclusion of genotype from another locus improves the correlation, this is evidence for the trait being oligogenic Phenotypic differences in an animal model of the disease that are dependent on the genetic background: the effects of a potential modifier locus can be tested in an animal with another known causative mutation Disparities between mutations and a Mendelian model of inheritance: if carriers of a mutation do not show the pattern of phenotypes expected under Mendelian inheritance, other models may better explain observed patterns of inheritance The establishment of linkage to more than one locus or the failure to detect linkage using Mendelian models: when tracing mutations associated with a trait through a family tree, more than one mutation may show the same pattern of inheritance as the trait, or linkage may not be detected Gene Monogenic inheritance Polygenic inheritance
Dr. Ragheb Hanafi Sergani is an Egyptian professor of urinary tract surgery at Cairo University as a member of its Faculty of Medicine. Dr. Ragheb El-Sergany is famous for his academic interest in Islamic history and has authored books on the subject while overseeing the website "IslamStory.com". He was born in El Mahalla El Kubra in the Gharbia Governorate, he has published a number of books on Islamic history, has several lectures on the history of Islam published on social media. With over 240,000 followers on Twitter and 260,000 followers on Facebook, he has gained a large following online and in the Islamic social sphere. Graduated with honors from the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University in 1988 Completed his memorization of the Quran in 1991 Served as a visiting instructor at Tulane University in New Orleans, LA from 1994-1997 Earned a master's degree with honors from Cairo University in 1998 Received a doctorate in kidney and urinary tract surgery with joint supervision from the United States and Egypt in 1998 Assistant professor at the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University Member of the International Union of Muslim Scholars Member of the American Urological Association Member of the Egyptian Urological Association The Causes of the Ummah's Defeat Spiritual Reading
Lucas is a 1986 American romantic comedy-drama film written and directed by David Seltzer and starring Corey Haim, Kerri Green, Charlie Sheen, Courtney Thorne-Smith. Smith and Winona Ryder made their theatrical debut in Lucas. Lucas Blye is an nerdy 14-year-old high school student, he becomes acquainted with an attractive older girl who has just moved to town. After meeting Lucas on one of his entomological quests, Maggie befriends him, spending time with him during the remainder of the summer until school begins Lucas, who finds himself a frequent victim of bullying and teasing, has a protector of sorts, Cappie Roew, an older student and football player. Cappie was once one of Lucas' tormentors, until Cappie contracted hepatitis and Lucas, for reasons no one knew, brought him his homework every day, ensuring that Cappie didn't fail and have to repeat a year of school. Though Lucas deems it beneath her, Maggie becomes a cheerleader for the football team in order to get closer to Cappie, on whom she has a growing crush.
Angered and offended by Maggie's continuing to ignore him, Lucas begins to chastise Maggie, continuing to castigate her cheerleading as "superficial" and making the incorrect assumption that she will be his date to an upcoming school dance. Maggie complains to Lucas. On the night of the dance, Cappie is dumped by his girlfriend Alise over his attraction to Maggie, which she has been noticing. A depressed Cappie finds comfort with Maggie at her house—much to the chagrin of Lucas, who has arrived, in tuxedo, to pick her up for the dance. Though Cappie and Maggie invite him out for pizza, he rebukes them and rides off on his bike. Rina, one of Lucas' friends, encounters Lucas as he sits alone, watching the dance from across a lake. It's obvious Rina has feelings for Lucas, she consoles him as he frets about Maggie and him being "from two different worlds." Meanwhile and Maggie are out on their pizza date. In a last-ditch attempt to impress Maggie and win her back and gain the respect he so craves, the diminutive Lucas joins the football team.
In the shower after practice, Lucas endures yet another prank from his constant tormentors Bruno and Spike. At the end of the day, Lucas flees in embarrassment to his favorite hiding place and Maggie chases him to talk with him. After Maggie tells him that she wants him to be her friend, Lucas tries to kiss her. Maggie recoils, a heartbroken Lucas screams at her to leave; the next day at the football game, Lucas removes his helmet during a play and is injured after being tackled and is rushed to the hospital. Maggie and Rina attempt to contact Lucas' parents, though Maggie discovers that she does not know Lucas as well as she thought she did. Correcting Maggie's misguided impression that Lucas lives in the large luxurious house where she has seen him several times, Rina shows them that Lucas lives in a dilapidated trailer in a junkyard with his alcoholic father and only works as a gardener at the large house. Meanwhile, Lucas' schoolmates hold vigil for him in the hospital. Maggie visits Lucas' room that evening and sternly tells him never to play football again.
Lucas promises, the two reconcile, picking up their friendship where they left off. Lucas and Maggie speculate as to. Lucas returns to school a short time after his recovery, with schoolmates all casting surprised looks at him as he walks through the hall. Upon reaching his locker, he finds Bruno and Spike there waiting for him, but he tries to ignore them as he opens his locker. Inside is a varsity letter jacket, with Lucas's number on the back; as Lucas takes it out in shock, Bruno starts the "slow clap," and the entire hallway starts applauding. Maggie, Cappie and Rina are there as well, leading the applause as Lucas raises his arms triumphantly and smiles. Reviews for Lucas were positive. Based on 20 reviews collected by the film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 70% of critics gave Lucas a positive review and the film has an average score of 6.6/10. On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 75 out of 100 based on 11 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Roger Ebert gave the film 4 out of 4 stars, calling it a film "about teenagers who are looking how to be good with each other, to care, not to be filled with egotism and selfishness, all most Hollywood movies think teenagers can experience".
Ebert included the film in his top 10 films of 1986. The film was not considered a box office success. Both Corey Haim and Kerri Green were nominated for a Young Artist Award in 1987; the film ranked number 16 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies. In his 2013 book Coreyography, Corey Feldman said that Corey Haim was subjected to sexual abuse during the filming of Lucas. Feldman said that an adult male on the set convinced Haim it was "normal for older men and younger boys in the business to have sexual relations"; the man walked off with Haim to between two trailers on the set. Feldman says the man is one of the most successful people in the industry. Lucas on IMDb Lucas at AllMovie Lucas at Rotten Tomatoes