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Demographics of Trinidad and Tobago

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Trinidad and Tobago, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. The total population of Trinidad and Tobago was 1,328,018 according to the 2011 census, an increase of 5.2% since the 2000 census. According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was estimated at 1,389,843 in 2018, compared to only 646,000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 20.7%, 71% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 8.3% was 65 years or older. Structure of the population: Due to decreasing fertility, the proportion of children below the age of 15 is decreasing, while the proportion of elderly is increasing; the median age has increased from 21.6 in 1980, 24.1 in 1990, 28.1 in 2000 to 32.6 in 2011. The estimated mid-year population of 2014 is 1,344,000; as of January 2019, the estimated population is 1,383,368.

Emigration from Trinidad and Tobago, as with other Caribbean nations, has been high. Emigration has continued, albeit at a lower rate as the birth-rate dropped to levels typical of industrialised countries; because of this phenomenon, as of 2011, Trinidad and Tobago has been experiencing a low population growth rate. More there has been some return migration, chiefly from the United States after the recession of 2008, which caused a population jump in the last census in 2011. Source: UN World Population Prospects Indo-Trinidadians make up the country's largest ethnic group, they are descendants from indentured workers from South Asia, or the British India, brought to replace emancipated Africans who refused to continue working under the violent, exploitative conditions on the sugar plantations. The Indian community is divided half-and-half between those who maintained their original religions, those who have converted to Christianity or have no religious affiliation. Through cultural preservation groups, Trinidadians of Indian descent maintain many of their customs and language.

Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian make up the country's second largest ethnic group. Although enslaved Africans were first imported in 1517, they constituted only 11 percent of the population in 1783; the majority of the enslaved Africans were brought in the last few years of Trinidad's Spanish Colonial era, the beginning of the British colonial period. The Cedula of Population transformed a small colony of 1,000 in 1773 to 18,627 by 1797. In the census of 1777 there were only 2,763 people recorded as living on the island, including some 2,000 Arawaks. In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act 1807 that abolished the trading of enslaved persons, the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished the practice of slavery itself; the European Trinidadian population is descended from early settlers and immigrants. The recent census counted 7,832 people of European descent; these numbers do not include people who have at least some European ancestry or self-identify as African or Indian. The French arrived during the Spanish period to take advantage of free agricultural lands.

Some Portuguese more came at the turn of the century. The Europeans who remained in Trinidad live in areas around Port of Spain. Furthermore, British rule led to an influx of settlers from the United Kingdom and the British colonies of the Eastern Caribbean and descendants of English indentured workers brought in as overseers following the end of the Second World War; the Portuguese came to Tobago and Trinidad as early as the 17th century, including groups of Portuguese Jews and Protestants. For over 140 years, from 1834 up to 1975, the ancestors of the modern Portuguese community in Trinidad and Tobago hailed from the archipelago of Madeira, starting from 1846, with the earliest registers being from the Azores in 1834; the Portuguese came directly from Madeira, via Guyana, St Vincent, Antigua and St Kitts. Important communities settled in Port of Spain, Arouca, San Fernando and Scarborough. In 2011, the Madeiran Portuguese Community of Trinidad and Tobago celebrated their 165th Anniversary of arrival of the first Madeirans in Trinidad back in 1846.

Recalling the presence of the Portuguese in the nation today are over 100 Portuguese surname, some of which have become street nomenclature. As an independent nation, the country has recognised several members of the Portuguese community, through official awards. In Tobago, many white residents are retirees who have arrived there. Given the large number of ethnic identities in Trinidad and Tobago, many citizens have a mixed ethnic heritage due to influences from French, West African, Chinese, Scotts, Welsh, Swiss, English, Spanish, Norwegian, Arab and Russian ancestors. Additionally, there are nationals of Hispanic Spaniard, Mestizo and Pardo ancestry from Venezuela and Colombia, along with a small number from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Common ethnic mixtures include people of European and African descent, mulatto-creoles, Indian and African descent; this mixed population is estimated at around 22.8%. A person mi

Krakatoa, East of Java

Krakatoa, East of Java is a 1969 American disaster film starring Maximilian Schell and Brian Keith. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Special Visual Effects. During the 1970s, the film was re-released under the title Volcano; the story is loosely based on events surrounding the 1883 eruption of the volcano on the island of Krakatoa, west of Java, but the producers thought that "East" was a more-atmospheric word, as it is located in the Far East. The characters are engaged in the recovery of a cargo of pearls from a shipwreck perilously close to the volcano. In 1883, the volcano on the island of Krakatoa in the Netherlands East Indies begins to erupt, terrorizing the children at a mission school in Palembang on nearby Sumatra. Meanwhile, across the Sunda Strait at her home port of Anjer on the west coast of Java, the steamer Batavia Queen, under the command of Captain Chris Hanson, takes aboard passengers and cargo, including a diving bell and a balloon. Among the passengers coming aboard are Douglas Rigby, the designer and operator of the diving bell.

Laura was married to an abusive man with. Her husband did not want the marriage but threatened to take Peter away from her if she asked for a divorce. Wanting to be with Hanson, she had asked for a divorce anyway, her husband had left her, taking both Peter and a fortune in pearls with him aboard the steamer Arianna; the Arianna had sunk off Krakatoa during a storm, a guilt-ridden Laura, fearing that Peter had died aboard the Arianna and blaming herself for his death, had spent a year in a mental institution before coming aboard the Batavia Queen. Hanson has organized the Batavia Queen's voyage to find the wreck of the Arianna, salvage the pearls, determine Peter's fate – and to find Peter if he is still alive. Hanson plans to use a variety of techniques to search for the wreck and salvage the pearls, with the Borgheses' balloon conducting an aerial search of shallow waters around Krakatoa, the pearl divers providing a mobile underwater search-and-salvage capability in shallow waters, Rigby in his diving bell searching in deeper water, Connerly responsible both for recovering the pearls if they are in waters too deep for the pearl divers and for assisting in the heavy work of bringing the Arianna's safe to the surface.

Colonial authorities arrive just before the Batavia Queen departs and force Hanson to take 30 convicts and their jailer aboard for transportation to Madura Island, countering his argument that the ship is not equipped to accommodate them and has no room for them by telling him to transport the prisoners in the ship's hold in appalling conditions. Hanson plans to deliver the convicts to Madura after recovering the pearls off Krakatoa. One of the prisoners, Lester Danzig, is an acquaintance of Hanson's, Hanson allows him to make the voyage on deck instead of in the hold. Aware that Krakatoa has begun to erupt and warned by a colonial official that the island is a "raging volcano," Hanson replies that the volcano had been quiet for the previous 200 years and posed no threat now. During the Batavia Queen's voyage to Krakatoa, her crew and passengers observe strange phenomena: They see seabirds swarming in huge flocks by day, witness a series of fiery explosions erupting from the sea one evening, hear a high-pitched, ear-splitting hissing and whistling sound like that of escaping steam on another night.

During a conversation on deck one night, Danzig discovers that Connerly is using laudanum to kill the pain of a lung disease which he is keeping secret from Hanson because it might interfere with his diving abilities. Danzig informs Connerly of Laura's time in the mental institution, calling into question the veracity of her story about the pearls; the Borgheses, Charley and Toshi confront Hanson about Laura's mental state, but Hanson assures them that Laura's story about the Arianna is true. Connerly takes so much laudanum that he hallucinates one night, attacks one of the pearl divers, assaults several crewmen coming to her aid before they can subdue him. On Hanson's orders, the Batavia Queen's crew suspends Connerly in a slatted box above the main deck so that he will pose no danger to others aboard the ship. Meanwhile and Toshi take a romantic interest in one another; the Batavia Queen arrives off Krakatoa to find. It clears when she anchors off the island, the Borgheses ascend in their balloon while Rigby descends in his diving bell.

The Borgheses discover the wreck of the Arianna and guide the Batavia Queen and the submerged Rigby to it. Afterwards, the motor driving the propeller that allows them to steer their balloon fails and they careen helplessly over Krakatoa and into its active crater, they jettison the useless engine and propeller into the crater's lava lake to reduce weight and are blown clear of the crater by a volcanic explosion which sets their balloon afire. They drift away from the island, leap into the sea, are rescued, but the fire destroys the balloon. Danzig tells Hanson of Connerly's lung problems, Hanson decides that he will dive on the Arianna instead of Connerly. While Connerly and Hanson argue over this, Rigby's

Battle of Rocheserviere

The Battle of Rocheserviere was fought at Rocheservière on the 20 June 1815, between Vendéan Royalists, who had remained loyal to King Louis XVIII during the Hundred Days, Napoleon's Army of the West, commanded by General Jean Maximilien Lamarque. The battle ended with the defeat of the Royalist forces. Five days the Treaty of Cholet was signed, ending the hostilities; the Army of the West had been formed to pacify the region and support the new French government instigated by Napoleon Bonaparte after his return to Paris at the start of the Hundred Days in 1815. While Napoleon marched north to deal with the threat from the British and Prussian armies during the Waterloo campaign, Lamarque was sent to pacify the Royalist stronghold of the Vendée. Assisted by Michel Silvestre Brayer, he left Nantes with 3000 men on 11 June. By the 17th, his force had increased to 6000 men, he soon learned that a Vendean army of around 8000 men under Charles Autichamp and Pierre Constant Suzannet was concentrating in the vicinity of Rocheservière.

The Vendée Royalist forces were well protected in defensive positions, but were divided into separate armies. Suzannet occupied the heights of Rocheservière, protected to the west by the Boulogne river, difficult for an army to cross. Another force under Bertrand Saint-Hubert was in Saint-André-Treize-Voies, nine kilometers east of Rocheservière; as for Charles Autichamp, he was positioned Vieillevigne north-east, 7 kilometers from Rocheservière and 4 km from Saint-André. These positions would be difficult for the Bonapartists to attack, but on 19 June Suzannet's force withdrew from Rocheservière and occupied Mormaison to the south east; the Bonapartists took the opportunity to launch an attack on the Vendeans. The chasseurs under Jean-Pierre Travot clashed with the Vendeans at La Grolle between Rocheservière and Saint-André; however Suzannet's cavalry were sent in. Suzannet brought all his troops up to La Grolle; the next day, 20 June, Suzannet decided to meet the Bonapartists in battle. He wrote to Autichamp, the commander in chief, asking him to join him, but Autichamp refused to move saying he was securing his position.

Suzannet and Saint-Hubert crossed the Boulogne river and marched to meet the Bonapartists. The two armies met on the moors of South West of Rocheservière; the separate forces of Saint-Hubert and Suzannet were at some distance from each other. The Bonapartists under Travot first entered into contact with the forces of Saint-Hubert. Saint-Hubert's men were taken in the flank by Travot's chasseurs, were routed. Suzannet arrived too late to retrieve the situation. Seeing the rout of Saint-Hubert, he launched a desperate charge at the Bonapartist lines. In the ensuing fight Suzannet collapsed wounded by a bullet. Lamarque ordered his cavalry to attack, Suzannet's forces broke and fled the field. At Vieillevigne, General Autichamp was informed of the fighting at Grand-Collet, he marched towards Rocheservière, but only arrived in time to witness the rout of Suzannet and Saint-Hubert. Autichamp decided to place his men in defense of the bridge over the Boulogne, but Lamarque forded the river, taking Rocheservière, moved round behind the Vendeans.

They fled, falling back in disorder to the north of Clisson. The next day General Suzannet died of his injuries at Aigrefeuille-sur-Maine. Though the battle was fought two days after Napoleon's decisive defeat at Waterloo, neither side was aware of this; the first information to emerge about the wider military situation was news of Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Ligny. This led to attempts on the part of the Royalists to negotiate with Lamarque. A treaty was signed five days after the battle, in which the Vendean Royalists agreed to cease operations; when news came through shortly afterwards of Napoleon's defeat, Lamarque convinced the Royalists not to exploit the situation but to allow the area to be occupied by the advancing Prussian troops. The section "La Vendée" in Minor campaigns of 1815 www.histoiredevendee.com: Combat de Rocheservière Military history of the Vendée: Fight at Rocheservière

2013 British GT Championship

The 2013 Avon Tyres British GT season was the 21st season of the British GT Championship. The season began on 30 March at Oulton Park and finished on 6 October at Donington Park, after ten rounds held over seven meetings. Beechdean Motorsport team principal Andrew Howard won the GT3 category in an Aston Martin V12 Vantage GT3, Optimum Motorsport's Ryan Ratcliffe and Rick Parfitt Jr. won the GT4 championship, driving a Ginetta G50 while Paul Bailey and Andy Schulz took the GTC title in a Ferrari 458 Challenge, driving for Horsepower Racing. The SRO released the entry list on 7 March at the season launch, containing 27 GT3 and 6 GT4 full season entries; the 2013 calendar was announced on 13 September 2012. A revised calendar was released on 6 December 2012, with Zandvoort replacing the Nürburgring. All races except Dutch round at Zandvoort, were held in the United Kingdom. Points are awarded as follows: British GT website

NEDD4

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4 known as neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEDD4 gene. NEDD4 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme. NEDD4 is a conserved gene in eukaryotes, is the founding member of the NEDD4 family of E3 HECT ubiquitin ligases, consisting of 9 members in humans. NEDD4 regulates a large number of membrane proteins, such as ion channels and membrane receptors, via ubiquitination and endocytosis. NEDD4 protein is expressed, a large number of proteins have been predicted or demonstrated to bind in vitro. In vivo NEDD4 is involved in the regulation of a diverse range of processes, including insulin-like growth factor signalling, neuronal architecture and viral budding. NEDD4 is an essential protein for animal survival; the NEDD4 protein has a modular structure, shared among the NEDD4 family, consisting of an amino-terminal C2 calcium-dependent phospholipid binding domain, 3-4 WW protein-protein interaction domains, a carboxyl-terminal catalytic HECT ubiquitin ligase domain.

The C2 domain targets proteins to the phospholipid membrane, can be involved in targeting substrates. The WW domains interact with proline rich PPxY motifs in target proteins to mediate interactions with substrates and adaptors; the catalytic HECT domain forms a thioester bond with activated ubiquitin transferred from an E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, before transferring ubiquitin directly to a specific substrate. The human NEDD4 gene is located on chromosome 15q21.3, consists of 30 exons that transcribe five protein variants of NEDD4, all of which vary in the C2 domain but share 100% identity from the first WW domain through to the end of the protein. The mouse Nedd4 gene is located on chromosome 9. NEDD4 is a 120kDa protein, expressed in most tissues, including brain, lung and skeletal muscle; the NEDD4 protein localizes to the cytoplasm in the perinuclear region and cytoplasmic periphery. In vitro, NEDD4 has been shown to bind and ubiquitinate a number of ion channels and membrane transporters resulting in their subsequent endocytosis and degradation by the proteasome, including the epithelial sodium channel, voltage-gated calcium and voltage-gated sodium channels.

NEDD4 mediates ubiquitination and subsequent down-regulation of components of the epidermal growth factor signalling pathway, such as HER3 and HER4 EGF receptors, ACK. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 undergoes NEDD4 mediated ubiquitination and down-regulation, contains a novel site that binds the C2 and WW3 domain of NEDD4. There is a role for NEDD4 in viral budding via ubiquitination of viral matrix proteins for a number of viruses, NEDD4 interacts with components of the endocytic machinery required for budding. NEDD4 can function independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity. NEDD4 interacts with VEGFR2, leading to the degradation of VEGFR2 irrespective of whether the HECT domain is catalytically active. NEDD4 can bind and ubiquitinate the epithelial sodium channel, leading to down-regulation of sodium channel activity. However, in vivo studies have implicated the NEDD4 family member NEDD4-2 as the main ligase responsible for ENaC regulation. NEDD4 activity can be regulated by auto-inhibition, whereby the C2 domain binds to the HECT domain to create an inhibitory conformation of the protein.

This auto-inhibitory conformation can be disrupted by the presence of calcium, by proteins that bind to NEDD4 to prevent this conformation, or by phosphorylation of NEDD4 at specific tyrosine residues to activate NEDD4 ubiquitin ligase activity. The NDFIP1 and NDFIP2 proteins function as adaptor proteins that can facilitate NEDD4 binding to substrates that lack PY motifs, as well as a role in binding NEDD4 to abrogate auto-inhibition. NDFIP1 may regulate NEDD4 recruitment to exosomes for secretion. Oxidative stress induces the activation of NEDD4 transcription via the FOXM1B transcription factor. Ras signalling up-regulates NEDD4 transcription. In vivo, NEDD4 is involved in the regulation of insulin and insulin-like growth factor signalling by regulating the amount of insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor on the cell surface; the deletion of NEDD4 in mice leads to a reduced number of effector T-cells, a slower T-cell response to antigen, suggesting that NEDD4 may function to convert naïve T-cells into activated T-cells.

NEDD4 plays an important role in neuronal development, is responsible for the formation and arborisation of dendrites in neurons by forming a signalling complex with TINK and Rap2A. It is required for proper formation and function of neuromuscular junctions, normal numbers of cranial neural crest cells, motor neurons and axons. NEDD4 has been shown to interact with and ubiquitinate the tumour suppressor protein PTEN in vitro, resulting in PTEN proteasomal degradation or trafficking; the in vivo role of NEDD4 in PTEN regulation is less clear. There is some evidence from NEDD4 deficient mice that NEDD4 does not target PTEN for degradation or trafficking. However, in other in vivo models, in many human cancer cell lines, NEDD4 does appear responsible for the degradation of PTEN. NEDD4 regulation of PTEN may only occur in specific biological contexts; the role of NEDD4 in negatively regulating tumour suppressor proteins is consistent with the frequent overexpression of NEDD4 in many different types of human cancers.

Decreased levels of NEDD4 have been associated with some cancers, including neuroblastoma and pancreatic cancer where the NEDD4 directly targets the respective

2010 Armor All Gold Coast 600

The 2010 Armor All Gold Coast 600 is the eleventh event of the 2010 V8 Supercar Championship Series. It was held on the weekend of 22 to 24 October at the Surfers Paradise Street Circuit in Queensland. V8 Supercars became the naming right category of the event for the first time in 2010 after racing as a support category for international open wheel racing for many of the previous Surfers Paradise events. In 2009 V8 Supercar were the leading category but not the naming rights category as, marketed as a double header with A1 Grand Prix who failed to arrive. In an altered format for 2010 the races would take place over two 300 kilometres races with a driver change in the first time a third co-driver event was held in an Australian touring car season since 1990. In an effort to keep the events former international flavour each V8 Supercar team has employed a driver with an'international reputation' with many drivers coming from the IndyCar Series and the World Touring Car Championship. Chaos erupted at the start.

Cameron McConville launched away from Garth Tander's pole position, but crept on the line and would be assigned a ten-second pit penalty for a jumped start. Jacques Villeneuve to be penalised for a too quick start, Luke Youlden collided at the first corner, with Villeneuve spinning in front of the pack at the second corner after contact with Greg Ritter, causing damage to several cars. Will Davison stopped on the first lap after contact with the spinning Villeneuve. Dean Fiore pulled in on the opening lap with Will Power an early stopper after losing all of his cars oil. McConville led the early laps with Michael Caruso climbing through the field into second place. Steve Owen climbed through the field into third ahead of Warren Luff. Repeated spoiler damage by Tiago Monteiro caused his retirement. On lap 70 Garth Tander was assigned a mechanical black flag, it was assumed for a fuel leak, but as it transpired to be a leak from Tander's drink bottle the flag was withdrawn. Subsequently, Tander's car shed a headlight cluster into the path of pursuing cars to no penalty, causing controversy amongst team principals and officials in the pits.

Courtney took the lead from Tander just prior to a safety car being called for Andrew Thompson, parked in the first chicane. At the lap 84 restart, Greg Murphy and Todd Kelly stopped in the second corner after Kelly spun. Teammates Jason Bright and Jason Richards tangled on another safety car restart on lap 97, shortly after race leader James Courtney was penalised a drive-through for slowing down after the safety car pulled away from the queue. Garth Tander pulled out to win from Shane van Gisbergen. Michael Caruso finished fourth from Jamie Whincup and Jason Bright. Steven Richards outlaunched teammate polesitter Luke Youlden to lead at the start as Greg Ritter crawled away all but stalling. Alain Menu was slow away and stopped on the track, bringing out the safety car. At the restart there was contact between Cameron McConville and David Brabham, sending Brabham into the wall hard. At the second restart Richards started to build a gap over Warren Luff. Steve Owen and Michael Caruso pushed past Youlden and Luff.

Safety car emerged again for the stopped car of Andrew Thompson. The safety car emerged again on lap 33 for debris on the circuit as Jack Perkins scraped a door skin off his car at the top of the circuit. Andrew Jones had an exhaust problem and slowed on the front straight to allow his pitcrew to examine the car as he passed. Three cars came past at differing speeds. Scott Dixon swung to the inside to get around the slowing cars in front as they checked their speed to begin their first safety car lap. Dixon struck the slow moving Jones, tearing the right rear corner from Jones' Commodore and damaging the front left corner of his own Commodore, putting both out of the race. Steven Johnson was shortly afterward put into the wall after contact with Rick Kelly; the final laps saw a close dice between Jamie Whincup and Shane van Gisbergen which became a physical clash on the final lap into the first chicane. Whincup held with Mark Winterbottom crossing for third just behind. Source: After 20 of 26 races.

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