The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,140 kilometres. Its drainage basin, sometimes known as the Orinoquia, covers 880,000 square kilometres, with 76.3 percent of it in Venezuela and the remainder in Colombia. It is the third largest river in the world by discharge volume of water; the Orinoco River and its tributaries are the major transportation system for eastern and interior Venezuela and the llanos of Colombia. The environment in the Orinoco's basin is diverse; the mouth of the Orinoco River at the Atlantic Ocean was documented by Columbus on 1 August 1498, during his third voyage. Its source at the Cerro Delgado–Chalbaud, in the Parima range, was not explored until 1951, 453 years later; the source, near the Venezuelan–Brazilian border, at 1,047 metres above sea level, was explored in 1951 by a joint Venezuelan–French team. The Orinoco Delta, tributaries in the eastern llanos such as the Apure and Meta, were explored in the 16th century by German expeditions under Ambrosius Ehinger and his successors.
In 1531 Diego de Ordaz, starting at the principal outlet in the delta, the Boca de Navios, sailed up the river to the Meta. Antonio de Berrio sailed down the Casanare to the Meta, down the Orinoco River and back to Coro. In 1595, after capturing de Berrio to obtain information while conducting an expedition to find the fabled city of El Dorado, the Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh sailed down the river, reaching the savannah country. Alexander von Humboldt explored the basin in 1800, he published extensively on the river's fauna. The first bridge across the Orinoco River was the Angostura Bridge at Ciudad Bolívar, completed in 1967. In 2006 a second bridge was completed near Ciudad Guayana, known as the Orinoquia Bridge; the first powerline crossing of the Orinoco River was completed in 1981 for an 800 kV TL single span of 1,200 metres using two towers 110 metres tall. In 1992, an overhead power line crossing for two 400 kV-circuits was completed just west of Morocure, north of the confluence of Routes 1 and 19.
It had three towers, the two spans measured 2,161 metres and 2,537 metres, respectively. The course of the Orinoco forms a wide ellipsoidal arc. At its mouth, the Orinoco River forms a wide delta that branches off into hundreds of rivers and waterways that flow through 41,000 km2 of swampy forests. In the rainy season, the Orinoco River can swell to a breadth of 22 kilometres and a depth of 100 metres. Most of the important Venezuelan rivers are tributaries of the Orinoco River, the largest being the Caroní, which joins it at Puerto Ordaz, close to the Llovizna Falls. A peculiarity of the Orinoco river system is the Casiquiare canal, which starts as an arm of the Orinoco, finds its way to the Rio Negro, a tributary of the Amazon, thus forming a'natural canal' between Orinoco and Amazon. Apure: from Venezuela through the east into the Orinoco Arauca: from Colombia to Venezuela east into the Orinoco Atabapo: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco Caroní: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco Casiquiare canal: in SE Venezuela, a distributary from the Orinoco flowing west to the Negro River, a major affluent to the Amazon Caura: from eastern Venezuela north into the Orinoco Guaviare: from Colombia east into the Orinoco Inírida: from Colombia southeast into the Guaviare.
Meta: from Colombia, border with Venezuela east into the Orinoco Ventuari: from eastern Venezuela southwest into the Orinoco Vichada: from Colombia east into the Orinoco The boto and the giant otter inhabit the Orinoco River system. The Orinoco crocodile is one of the rarest reptiles in the world, its range in the wild is restricted to the middle and lower Orinoco River Basin. More than 1000 fish species have been recorded in the river basin and about 15% are endemic. Among the fish in the river are species found in brackish or salt water in the Orinoco estuary, but many restricted to fresh water. By far the largest orders are Characiformes and Siluriformes, which together account for more than 80% of the fresh water species; some of the more famous are the cardinal tetra. The latter species, important in the aquarium industry, is found in the Rio Negro, re
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Venezuela during World War II
The history of Venezuela during World War II is marked by dramatic change to the country's economy and society. At the beginning of World War II in 1939, Venezuela was the world's leading oil exporter, subsequently one of the main beneficiaries of the American Lend-Lease programs. Economic assistance from the United States, as well a booming oil industry, led Venezuela to become one of the few Latin American countries, able to finance its own modernization in the post-war era. Furthermore, through skillful diplomacy, Venezuela was able to gain territory, increase its share in oil profits, reduce its reliance on foreign oil companies. Although Venezuela was neutral for most of the war, it secretly supported the Allies, declared war on the Axis powers in February 1945, a few months before the end of the conflict. According to author Thomas M. Leonard, Venezuela's oil garnered "intense interest" from the Allies and the Axis, both before and during World War II. Thus, Venezuela's main strategic goal from 1939 to 1945 was to protect its oil from being seized by a belligerent nation.
Related to this goal was the need to market oil, which had become the mainstay of the Venezuelan economy. Leonard says that the war could, have resulted in an "economic boom" if Venezuela could maintain a policy of strict neutrality and sell oil to both sides. However, neither the Axis or the Allies were to tolerate such a situation, in the end, Venezuela sided with the Allies. Though Venezuela was decidedly pro-Allied, the government attempted to increase its hold on the oil market, dominated by American-owned petroleum firms. One option was to nationalize the oil industry, like Mexico did in 1938; this option, was never considered, because nationalizing the oil industry meant seizing American-owned oil, which would have resulted in a military intervention. Although Mexico's nationalization of its oil industry did not result in an American military intervention, just the possibility of one was enough to keep the Venezuelan government content with seeking a mere increase in its share of profits, rather than taking all of it.
Subsequently, the United States, eager to maintain its access to the oil, agreed to increase oil revenues for Venezuela. Profits were split fifty-fifty between the Venezuelan government and the oil companies, such as Standard Oil and the British-owned Shell Oil; as result, in 1944 Venezuela's oil income was 66% higher than it was in 1941, by 1947 total income had increased 358%. This "largesse," as Leonard calls it, allowed Venezuela to become one of the few Latin American countries, able to finance its own modernization in the postwar era, unlike many of the other states in the region, which relied on American economic assistance. Nazi efforts to increase their influence in Venezuela, thus access Venezuelan oil, date back to 1933, when Arnold Margerie formed the Venezuelan Regional Group of the Nazi Party, or Grupo Regional de Venezuela del Partido Nazi. After that, the Germans began "courting" the Venezuelan military through its military mission. On the "cultural front," according to Leonard, General Wilhelm von Faupel, head of the Ibero-American Institute, attempted to gain influence by sending his wife, Edith, to Venezuela to "extol the virtues of fascism."
Germany was active in countering American economic influence, by expanding its holdings in mining and railroading. During the war, there were nearly 4,000 German immigrants residing in Venezuela; as result of which, there was fear among certain Allied leaders of a "fifth column" forming to commit sabotage and other acts against the Venezuelan government or oil-related infrastructure. The nearby British and Dutch colonies presented security concerns: If any were to fall under Axis control, they would become bases for the interdiction of the Caribbean sea lanes, which carried Venezuela's crude oil to be refined in Aruba, thence to market, they could be used as staging areas for the invasion of neighboring countries, or for commando operations to interrupt oil production. In the 1930s there was a small Italian community in Venezuela with some links to fascist Italy: founded in 1923, the "Partito Nazionale Fascista" -with over two hundred members- had organizations in four cities: Caracas, Puerto Cabello and Barquisimeto.
President Eleazar López Contreras showed sympathy toward Mussolini and in 1938, the Venezuelan Navy purchased two Azio-class minesweepers from Fascist Italy. In September 1939, Contreras declared the country's neutrality: Venezuela continued to trade with Japan and Italy for another year. Moreover, trade with Imperial Japan reached an all-time high in 1939. After the war in Europe began in September 1939, after President Eleazar López Contreras declared the Venezuela's neutrality, he maintained a huge commerce with Japan and Italy, but trade with Germany ceased due to the British blockade, it was because of these circumstances some observers concluded that Venezuela would join the Axis if it were forced to take sides. However, the fear of Venezuela aligning itself with Germany, or any of the other Axis powers, was unwarranted, because the sentiment of your average Venezuelan was "bitterly anti-German." When World War II began, the Venezuelan military was badly in need of modernization, the United States was eager to help in return for Venezuela's support in the war.
However, the United States was concerned about a possible enemy attack on Venezuela, in order to disrupt oil production, if it did join the Allied cause and declare war. As result, the Venezuelan government broke relations with the Axis powers on December 31, 1941, but it did not de
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
University of Brasília
The University of Brasília is a federal public university in Brasília, the capital of Brazil. It was founded in 1960 and has since been named among the top five Brazilian universities and the top twenty universities in South America by Times Higher Education, it admits undergraduate and post-graduate students via a yearly vestibular and through ENEM and is most renowned for its courses in economics, international affairs and political science. Its Central Library is home to Centerwestern Brazil's largest archive. UnB offers 114 courses recognized by the Ministry of Education; the University of Brasilia Foundation was founded on December 15, 1961. Professor Darcy Ribeiro, who became its first leader, was one of the most enthusiastic supporters of its creation. Architect Oscar Niemeyer designed its main building, the 700 m long Instituto Central de Ciências, nicknamed Minhocão; the institution was created on April 21, 1962 by educator Anísio Teixeira and anthropologist professor Darcy Ribeiro. As of 2010, it employed 1,757 faculty and 2,391 servants, had over 30,000 graduate and undergraduate students.
Each semester, the University of Brasília accepts nearly 2,000 incoming students for its 61 undergraduate programs. On the graduate level, the university offers 27 doctoral programs; the university was one of the first in Brazil to admit students via Programa de Avaliação Seriada, an alternative evaluation which tests high school students once a year bypassing vestibular. Each semester, the University of Brasília accepts nearly 2,000 incoming students from a pool of 25,000 candidates for its 61 daytime or evening undergraduate programs. At the graduate level, the university offers 56 masters 31 doctorate programs, it offers advanced non-degree programs, many of them conducted in other Brazilian States, such as Bahia, Rondônia, Goiás and Rio Grande do Norte. The Technological and Scientific Development National Council and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel support most of these courses, offering scholarships and research grants. Distance education is an expanding activity in UnB, being managed by the Center for Open and Long Distance Education and the School of Education.
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization sponsors the Long Distance Education chair at UnB. Several of University of Brasília's graduate programs have been graded 6 and 7 in the annual CAPES assessment, including its courses in anthropology, geology, law, among others, its programs in economics, international relations and political science are ranked first among public universities in the country. The University of Brasilia has been ranked one of the top five public universities in Brazil by Editora Abril's Guia do Estudante, it ranks eighth in the list of the best universities in the country. UnB is located in the Brasília administrative region of the Federal District of Brazil, on the northwestern bank of Paranoá Lake. Most of its buildings were designed in a modernist architecture style. UnB's Central Library owns the largest archive in Centerwestern Brazil, it maintains a university restaurant, as well as Fazenda Água Limpa, a farm in the outskirts of the Federal District where ecological and forestry research is conducted.
The university runs 115 community outreach projects, offering a total of events. Involving the direct participation of 240 professors and 65,132 students, these activities reach nearly 185,000 people in the Federal District and surrounding region in Goiás and Minas Gerais. Outreach activities include the Future with Art and Sport program. University members offer consulting and assistance to the Community Health Training Program; the university hosts: 22 institutes, 50 departments, 16 scientific, cultural and general service centers and staff residences, a hospital, a sports center, a seismological observatory, physical experiment facilities, including plasma, liquid crystals, complex fluids and optical spectroscopy, an animal research laboratory, a library, the Central Library a student restaurant, the rectory building a farm for ecological and forestry research, an ecological station. More than 260 research-groups work in more than 400 laboratories; this research is supported by the Technological and Scientific Initiation Program and the Special Training Program, which offers scholarships to gifted undergraduates.
Among other federal and state agencies, programs are funded by CNPq, CAPES, the Research and Projects Funding Program, the Technological and Scientific Development Support Program and the Federal District Research Support Foundation. Other organisations active in the research area are the International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, the cbsp.unb.br, the Center for Maintenance of Equipment and the university Herbarium. The Technological Development Center works to integrate the University to the business world, maintaining a small business start-up program and other types of consulting assistance to business; the Continuing Evaluation Program evaluates high school students interested in enrolling on a yearly basis during their three years of high school, in addition to the traditional Brazilian vestibular
Timoto–Cuica people were an indigenous group composed of two tribes, the Timote and the Cuica, that inhabited in the Andean region of western Venezuela. They were related to the Muisca of the Andes, who spoke Muysccubun, a version of Chibcha; the Timoto-Cuicas were not only composed of the Timoto and the Cuica tribes, but the Mucuchíes, the Migures, the Tabayes, the Mucuñuques. Pre-Columbian Venezuela had an estimated indigenous population of one million, with the Andean region being the most densely populated area; the two tribes lived in what are today the states of Mérida, Táchira. Timoto-Cuica society was complex with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields, they stored water in tanks. Their houses were made of stone and wood with thatched roofs, they were peaceful, for the most part, depended on growing crops. Regional crops included ullucos, they left behind works of art anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. They spun vegetable fibers to weave into mats for housing.
They are credited with having invented a staple in Venezuelan and Colombian cuisine. Mahoney, James. "Colonialism and Postcolonial Development: Spanish American in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-11634-3. Indigenous Culture in Venezuela De los timoto-cuicas a la invisibilidad del indigena andino y a su diversidad cultural Caciques de Venezuela) Get to know Venezuela
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of