Saint Barthélemy the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy, called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies. Abbreviated to St-Barth in French, St. Barths or St. Barts in English, the island lies about 35 kilometres southeast of St. Martin and north of St. Kitts. Puerto Rico is 240 kilometres to the west in the Greater Antilles. Saint Barthélemy was for many years a French commune forming part of Guadeloupe, an overseas region and department of France. In 2003, the island voted in favour of secession from Guadeloupe in order to form a separate overseas collectivity of France; the collectivity is one of four territories among the Leeward Islands in the northeastern Caribbean that comprise the French West Indies, along with Saint Martin and Martinique. Saint Barthélemy, a volcanic island encircled by shallow reefs, has an area of 25 square kilometres and a population of 9,625, its capital is Gustavia, which contains the main harbour to the island.
It is the only Caribbean island, a Swedish colony for any significant length of time. Symbolism from the Swedish national arms, the Three Crowns, still appears in the island's coat of arms; the language and culture, are distinctly French. The island is a popular tourist destination during the winter holiday season for the rich and famous during the Christmas and New Year period. Before European contact the island was frequented by Eastern Caribbean Taíno people. Christopher Columbus was the first European to encounter the island in 1493, he named it after his brother Bartolomeo. Sporadic visits continued for the next hundred years. By 1648, the island was settled from St. Christopher, but the settlement was attacked and destroyed by Caribs six years later; these first French settlers had been encouraged by Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy, the lieutenant-governor of the French West India Company and comprised about 50 to 60 settlers. Led by Jacques Gentes, the new arrivals began cultivating cacao, until the Carib attack forced them to retreat.
De Poincy was a member of the Order of Saint John. He facilitated the transfer of ownership from the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique to the Order, he continued to rule the island until his death in 1660. Five years it was bought by the French West India Company along with the Order's other possessions in the Caribbean. By 1674, the company was dissolved and the islands became part of the French Kingdom. There was a brief takeover by the British in 1758; the island was given to Sweden in 1784 in exchange for trade rights in Gothenburg. It was only after 1784, when King Louis XVI traded the island to Sweden, that the island's fortunes changed for the better; this change of control saw progress and prosperity as the Swedes declared Gustavia a free port, convenient for trading by the Europeans for goods, including contraband material. Slavery was practiced in St. Barthélemy under the "Ordinance concerning the Police of Slaves and free Coloured People" of 1787; the last legally-owned slaves in the Swedish colony of St. Barthélemy were granted their freedom by the state on 9 October 1847.
Since the island was not a plantation area, the freed slaves suffered economic hardships due to lack of opportunities for employment. In 1852, a devastating hurricane hit this was followed by a fire. Following a referendum in 1877, Sweden gave the island back to France in 1878, after which it was administered as part of Guadeloupe. On 19 March 1946, the people of the island became French citizens with full rights. Many men from St. Barthélemy took jobs on Saint Thomas to support their families; the island received electricity circa 1961. Organised tourism and hotels began in earnest the 1960s and developed in the 1970s onwards after the building of the island's landing strip that can accommodate mid-sized aircraft; the coves and beach-side hotels attract catered and self-catered honeymooners. The capital attracts cruise liners. Saint Barthélemy was for many years a French commune forming part of Guadeloupe, an overseas region and department of France. Through a referendum in 2003, island residents sought separation from the administrative jurisdiction of Guadeloupe, it was accomplished in 2007.
The island of Saint Barthélemy became an Overseas Collectivity. A governing territorial council was elected for its administration, which has provided the island with a certain degree of autonomy; the Hotel de Ville, the town hall, is now the Hotel de la Collectivité. A senator represents the island in Paris. St. Barthélemy has retained its free port status. Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012; the island sustained damage from Hurricane Irma in September 2017 but by March 2018, the airport was handling daily flights and the ferry between St. Martin and St. Barts was operating. Electricity and water had been restored; some hotels were not yet open but most were expected to be operating by the fall of the year. The cruise ship port in Gustavia was operational. Located 250 kilometres east of Puerto Rico and the nearer Virgin Islands, St. Barthélemy lies sou
Futuna (Wallis and Futuna)
Futuna is an 80 km2 island with 5,000 people and max. elevation of 500 m in the Pacific Ocean, belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It is one of the Hoorn Islands or Îles Horne, nearby Alofi being the other, they are both a remnant of an old extinct volcano, now bordered with a fringing reef. On the island is the place where Pierre Chanel was martyred in 1841, becoming Polynesia's only Catholic saint. Futuna takes its name from an endonym derived from the local fish-poison tree; the population is 4,871, of which 2,991 reside in 1,880 in Sigave. Futuna's highest point is Mont Puke with 524 m, the island has an area of 83 km², with 53 km² in Sigave and 30 km² in Alo. Futuna and Alofi were put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their famous circumnavigation of the globe with the ship Eendracht in 1616. After having come from Niuafoʻou, they changed their course from west to northwest and so stumbled on this island pair, they called it Hoorn Eylanden, after the city of Hoorn, Schouten's birthplace, which became Horne in both French and English.
Wise from their earlier experiences, they started with a show of force to the natives who approached them, which resulted in a peaceful barter with coconuts and hogs from one side and iron nails and knives from the other. They found a beautiful bay, a natural harbour along the southwest coast of Futuna, which they called after the ship the Eendrachts baai; this must be the Anse de Sigave near Leava of today. They went ashore on to get water and met the king, who told his subjects that their guests were not to be disturbed by petty thieving. In this amiable way the Dutch were able to replenish their stocks. A few days the king of the other island, came to visit with 300 men; the two kings were courteous to each other, a big feast was prepared. A kava ceremony and ʻumu were organised. Schouten and LeMaire were the first Europeans to witness these, the description they gave still rings familiar tones nowadays. Not having been bothered by thieving and hostilities, Schouten and LeMaire had the opportunity to study Futuna a little bit more than the Niua islands..
But their description of the islanders is not flattering. Although they praise the men for being well proportioned, the women they found ugly, ill-shaped with breasts hanging down to their bellies as empty satchels, they all went naked and copulated in public in front of their revered king. Whaling ships from America and elsewhere called at Futuna in the 19th century for water and food; the first such vessel known to have called was the Independence in 1827. Two kings, elected from the local nobility every few years, rule the population in conjunction with French authorities, they are the king of Sigave, the western province, the king of Alo, the eastern province including Alofi. Except for Poi all villages are along the southwest coast, they are from west to east: Toloke, Vaisei and Leava in Sigave, Taoa, Malaʻe, Ono and Vele in Alo; as on ʻUvea, all Futunans are religious Catholics and the number of churches and oratories is overwhelming. Although the island is closer to Tonga and farther from Samoa than ʻUvea, the vernacular and culture are more Samoan.
The languages spoken are French. There are six primary schools on Futuna; the island has two junior high schools: Fiua de Sigave and Sisia d'Ono. Residents are served by a senior high school/sixth-form college, Lycée d'Etat de Wallis et Futuna, on Wallis. Pointe Vele Airport Peter Chanel Cartes institut géographique national Robert Kerr: Voyage round the world, in 1615-1617, by William Cornelison Schouten and Jacques le Maire, going round Cape Horn; the comments of the editor to the original ship's journals are wrong, however. Percy Smith: "Futuna.
Demographics of Réunion
This article concerns the demography of Réunion. Nationals of Réunion are Réunionese; the official language is French, Réunionese Creole is spoken. The population of Réunion is 869,925 as of 2016; as of 2016, estimates put the population of Réunion at 869,925, with a growth rate of 1.63%. The birth rate was estimated at 21.84 births per 1,000 population, the death rate at 5.55 deaths per 1,000 population in the same year. The net migration rate was zero in 2000; the following table describes age sex ratios in Réunion. Structure of the population: At birth, life expectancy is 76.5 years for male children, 82.9 for female. The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism with Hinduism and Buddhism represented, among others. French is the only official language of Reunion. Although not official, Réunion Creole is commonly spoken by the majority of the population. One can hear it in any administration or office. Tamil is taught as optional language in some schools. Due to the diverse population, other languages such as Mandarin and Cantonese are spoken by members of the Chinese community, but fewer people speak these languages as younger generations start to converse in French.
The number of speakers of Indian languages is dropping sharply. Arabic is spoken by a small community of Arabs. Ethnic groups present include people of European, Malagasy and Chinese origin as well as many of mixed race. Local names for these are used: Yabs, Cafres and Zarabes and Chinois; the proportion of people of each ethnicity is not known since the 1958 constitution bans questions about ethnicity in compulsory censuses in France, applies in Réunion. Extensive and long-going intermarriage blurs the issue. Whites are estimated to make up one-quarter of the population, Indians roughly a quarter, people of Chinese ancestry to form 3%; the percentages of racially mixed people and those of Afro-Malagasy origins vary wildly between estimates. Some people of Vietnamese ancestry live on the island, though they are few in number. People of Tamil origin make up the majority of the Indo-Réunionnais people; the island's community of Muslims from modern region of Pakistan and North India and elsewhere is commonly referred to as Zarabes.
Creoles, make up the majority of the population. Groups that are not creole include people from Metropolitan France and those from Mayotte and the Comoros. In 2005, a genetic study on the racially mixed people of Réunion found the following. For maternal DNA, the haplogroups are East Asian, European/Middle Eastern or African; the Indian lineages are M2, M6 and U2i, the East Asian ones are E1, D5a, M7c, F, the European/Middle Eastern ones are U2e, T1, J, H, I, the African ones are L1b1, L2a1, L3b, L3e1. For paternal DNA, the haplogroups are East Asian; the European lineages are R1b and I, the Middle Eastern one E1b1b1c, the East Asian ones are R1a and O3. Réunion page at INSEE
Demographics of New Zealand
The demographics of New Zealand encompass the gender, religious and economic backgrounds of the 4.9 million people living in New Zealand. New Zealanders, informally known as "Kiwis", predominantly live in urban areas on the North Island; the five largest cities are Auckland, Wellington and Tauranga. Few New Zealanders live on New Zealand's smaller islands. Waiheke Island is the most populated smaller island with 9,770 residents, while Great Barrier Island, the Chatham and Pitt Islands and Stewart Island each have populations below 1,000. New Zealand is part of a realm and most people born in the realm's external territories of Tokelau, the Ross Dependency, the Cook Islands and Niue are entitled to New Zealand passports. In 2006, more people who identified themselves with these islands lived in New Zealand than on the Islands themselves; the majority of New Zealand's population is of European descent, with the indigenous Māori being the largest minority, followed by Asians and non-Māori Pacific Islanders.
This is reflected in immigration, with most new migrants coming from Britain and Ireland, although the numbers from Asia are increasing. The largest Māori tribe is 18.8 percent of the Māori population. Auckland is the most ethnically diverse region in New Zealand with 59.3 percent identifying as Europeans, 23.1 percent as Asian, 10.7 percent as Māori and 14.6 percent as Pacific Islanders. The ethnicity of the population aged under 18 years is more diverse than the population aged 65 years or older. Recent increases in interracial marriages have resulted in more people identifying with more than one ethnic group. English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language are the official languages, with English predominant. New Zealand English is non-rhotic and sounds similar to Australian English, with a common exception being the centralisation of the short i; the Māori language has undergone a process of revitalisation and is spoken by 3.7 percent of the population. New Zealand has an adult literacy rate of 99 percent and over half of the population aged 15 to 29 hold a tertiary qualification.
In the adult population 14.2 percent have a bachelor's degree or higher, 30.4 percent have some form of secondary qualification as their highest qualification and 22.4 percent have no formal qualification. As of the 2013 census, just under half the population identify as Christians, with Hinduism and Buddhism being the most significant minority religions. New Zealand has no state religion and just over 40 percent of the population does not have a religion. Farming is a major occupation in New Zealand. Most New Zealanders earn wage or salary income, with a median personal income in 2013 of NZ$28,500. While the demonym for a New Zealand citizen is New Zealander, the informal "Kiwi" is used both internationally and by locals; the name derives from the kiwi, a native flightless bird, the national symbol of New Zealand. The Māori loanword "Pākehā" refers to New Zealanders of European descent, although some reject this appellation, some Māori use it to refer to all non-Polynesian New Zealanders. Most people born in New Zealand or one of the realm's external territories before 2006 are New Zealand citizens.
Further conditions apply for those born from 2006 onwards. In June 2018, New Zealand has an estimated population of 4,885,300, up from the 4,027,947 recorded in the 2006 census. According to Statistics New Zealand estimates, population is increasing at a rate of 1.4–2.0% per year and is projected to rise to 5.01–5.51 million in 2025. The median child birthing age was 30 and the total fertility rate is 2.1 births per woman in 2010. In Māori populations the median age is 26 and fertility rate 2.8. In 2010 the age-standardised mortality rate was 3.8 deaths per 1000 and the infant mortality rate for the total population was 5.1 deaths per 1000 live births. The life expectancy of a New Zealand child born in 2014-16 was 83.4 years for females, 79.9 years for males, among the highest in the world. Life expectancy at birth is forecast to increase from 80 years to 85 years in 2050 and infant mortality is expected to decline. In 2050 the median age is forecast to rise from 36 years to 43 years and the percentage of people 60 years of age and older rising from 18 percent to 29 percent.
During early migration in 1858, New Zealand had 131 males for every 100 females, but following changes in migration patterns and the modern longevity advantage of women, females came to outnumber males in 1971. As of 2012 there are 0.99 males per female, with males dominating under 15 years and females dominating in the 65 years and older range. The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman, it is based on good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation; the following figures show the total fertility rates since the first years of British colonisation. New Zealand has a growing population, as measured: Births from January to September 2017 = 44,082 Births from January to September 2018 = 43,956Deaths from January to September 2017 = 25,509 Deaths from January to September 2018 = 25,056Natural growth from January to September 2017 = 18,573 Natural growth from January to September 2018 = 18,900 New Zealand's population density is low, at 18.2 per square kilometre (June 2018 e
Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, west of the Cook Islands. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016; the island is referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia". Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands; the terrain of the island has two noticeable levels. The higher level is made up of a limestone cliff running along the coast, with a plateau in the centre of the island reaching 60 metres high above sea level; the lower level is a coastal terrace 0.5 km wide and about 25–27 metres high, which slopes down and meets the sea in small cliffs. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature are the many limestone caves near the coast. Niue is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand.
Niueans are citizens of New Zealand, Queen Elizabeth II is head of state in her capacity as Queen of New Zealand. Between 90% and 95% of Niuean people live in New Zealand, along with about 70% of the speakers of the Niuean language. Niue is a bilingual country, with 30% of the population speaking both Niuean and English, though the percentage of monolingual English-speaking people is only 11%, while 46% are monolingual Niuean speakers. Niue is not a member of the United Nations, but UN organisations have accepted its status as a freely-associated state as equivalent to independence for the purposes of international law; as such, Niue is a member of some UN specialised agencies, is invited, alongside the other non-UN member state, the Cook Islands, to attend United Nations conferences open to "all states". Niue has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1980. Niue is subdivided into 14 villages; each village has a village council. The villages are at the same time electoral districts. A small and democratic nation, Niueans hold legislative elections every 3 years.
The Niue Integrated Strategic Plan, adopted in 2003, is the national development plan, setting national priorities for development in areas such as financial sustainability. Since the late 20th century Niue has become a leader in green growth. In January 2004, Niue was hit by Cyclone Heta, which caused extensive damage to the island, including wiping out most of South Alofi; the disaster set the island back about two years from its planned timeline to implement the NISP, since national efforts concentrated on recovery. Polynesians from Samoa settled Niue around 900 AD. Further settlers arrived from Tonga in the 16th century; until the beginning of the 18th century, Niue appears to have had no national government or national leader. Around 1700 the concept and practice of kingship appears to have originated through contact with the Tongans who settled around the 1600s. A succession of patu-iki ruled. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian king; the first Europeans to sight Niue sailed under Captain James Cook in 1774.
Cook made three attempts to land. He named the island "Savage Island" because, as legend has it, the natives who "greeted" him were painted in what appeared to be blood; the substance on their teeth was a native red fe'i banana. For the next couple of centuries, Niue was known as Savage Island until its original name, Niuē, which translates as "behold the coconut", regained use; the next notable European visitors represented the London Missionary Society. After many years of trying to land a European missionary, a Niuean named Nukai Peniamina went with his friend, Niumaga, to Samoa and trained as a pastor at the Malua Theological College. Peniamina returned in 1846 on the John Williams as a missionary with the help of Toimata Fakafitifonua, he was allowed to land in Uluvehi Mutalau after a number of attempts in other villages had failed. The chiefs of Mutalau village allowed him to land and assigned over 60 warriors to protect him day and night at the fort in Fupiu. In July 1849 Captain John Erskine visited the island in HMS Havannah.
Christianity was first taught to the Mutalau people. Other major villages opposed the introduction of Christianity and had sought to kill Peniamina; the people from the village of Hakupu, although the last village to receive Christianity and asked for a "word of God". In 1889 the chiefs and rulers of Niue, in a letter to Queen Victoria, asked her "to stretch out towards us your mighty hand, that Niue may hide herself in it and be safe". After expressing anxiety lest some other nation should take possession of the island, the letter continued: "We leave it with you to do as seems best to you. If you send the flag of Britain, well; the British did not take up the offer. In 1900 a petition by the Cook Islanders asking for annexation included Niue "if possible". In a document dated 19 October 1901, the "King" and Chiefs of Niue consented to "Queen Victoria taking
Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls, with a combined land area of 10 km2; the capital rotates yearly between the three atolls. Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, northwest of the Cook Islands. Swains Island is geographically part of Tokelau, but is subject to an ongoing territorial dispute and is administered by the United States as part of American Samoa. Tokelau has a population of 1,500 people, the fourth-smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency; as of the 2016 census, around 45% of residents were born overseas in Samoa and New Zealand. The nation has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations. 94% of the population speak Tokelauan as a first language. Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world, although it is a leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world.
Tokelau is referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government. It is a democratic nation with elections every three years. However, in 2007 the United Nations General Assembly included Tokelau on its list of non-self-governing territories, its inclusion on the list is controversial, as Tokelauans have twice voted against further self-determination and the islands' small population reduces the viability of self-government. The basis of Tokelau's legislative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, amended on a number of occasions. Since 1993, the territory has annually elected its own head of the Ulu-o-Tokelau; the Administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government and the territory was administered directly by a New Zealand government department. The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "north wind"; the islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau – Atafu and Fakaofo – were settled about 1,000 years ago and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia. Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; the three atolls functioned independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island", held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on coconut. Commodore John Byron discovered Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of previous inhabitants. Captain Edward Edwards, knowing of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties.
On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying places, canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons. On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the USS Dolphin ship wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu: Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, quite small, put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon, they would come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation. On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island". On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island; the residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes.
They desired to barter, possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch"; the islanders were found to be similar in nature to those in Atafu. Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1870s. French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations; the Rev. Samuel James Whitmee, of the London Missionary Society, visited Tokelau in 1870. Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian "blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the atolls.
The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, few returned. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented. During this time
Demographics of Vanuatu
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Vanuatu, including population density, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook. 275,974 0-14 years: 36.71% 15-24 years: 19.94% 25-54 years: 34.45% 55-64 years: 5.13% 65 years and over: 3.77% 1.95% 25.04 births/1,000 population 4.09 deaths/1,000 population -1.47 migrant/1,000 population At birth: 1.05 male/female 0-14 years: 1.04 male/female 15-24 years: 0.99 male/female 25-54 years: 0.96 male/female 55-64 years: 1.02 male/female 65 years and over: 1.04 male/female Total population: 1 male/female Total: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births Male: 16.77 deaths/1,000 live births Female: 14.58 deaths/1,000 live births Total population: 73.06 years Male: 71.47 years Female: 74.72 years 3.25 children born/woman Ni-Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu 97.6% Part Ni-Vanuatu 1.1% Other 1.3% Protestant 70% Presbyterian 27.9% Anglican 15.1% Seventh-day Adventist 12.5% Assemblies of God 4.7% Church of Christ 4.5% Neil Thomas Ministry 3.1% Apostolic 2.2%) Roman Catholic 12.4%, Customary beliefs 3.7% Including Jon Frum cargo cult Other 12.6% None 1.1% Unspecified 0.2% Local languages 63.2% Bislama 33.7% English 2% French 0.6% Other 0.5% Total population: 85.2% Male: 86.6% Female: 83.8%