The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Captaincy General of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo Captaincy General of Santo Domingo or alternatively Kingdom of Santo Domingo was the first colony established in the New World under Spain. The island was named "La Española" by Christopher Columbus. In 1511, the courts of the colony were placed under the jurisdiction of the Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo. French buccaneers took over part of the west coast in 1625 and French settlers arrived soon thereafter. After decades of conflicts Spain ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, thus establishing the basis for the national divisions between the Dominican Republic and Haiti; the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo had an important role in the establishment of Spanish colonies in the New World. It was the headquarters for Spanish conquistadors on their way to the conquest of the Americas. Prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the native Taíno people populated the island which they called Quisqueya and Ayiti, which Columbus named Hispaniola.
At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana and Higüey. These were ruled by caciques Guacanagarix, Caonabo, Bohechío, Cayacoa. In 1493, Columbus came back to the island on his second voyage and founded the first Spanish colony in the New World, the city of Isabella. In 1496, his brother Bartholomew Columbus established the settlement of Santo Domingo de Guzmán on the southern coast, which became the new capital. An estimated 400,000 Tainos living on the island were soon enslaved to work in gold mines. By 1508, their numbers had decreased to around 60,000 because of forced labor, hunger and mass killings. By 1535, only a few dozen were still alive. Dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the first European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, after an earlier settlement in the north named after the Queen of Spain Isabella I. In 1495 it was renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor of Saint Dominic.
Santo Domingo came to be known as the "Gateway to the Caribbean" and the chief town in Hispaniola from on. Expeditions which led to Ponce de León's colonization of Puerto Rico, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's colonization of Cuba, Hernando Cortes' conquest of Mexico, Vasco Núñez de Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean were all launched from Santo Domingo. In June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River; the original layout of the city and a large portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of admiral. In 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos. Rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.
In 1586, Francis Drake held it for ransom. Drake's invasion signaled the decline of Spanish dominion over Hispaniola, accentuated in the early 17th century by policies that resulted in the depopulation of most of the island outside of the capital. An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 was defeated; the English troops took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, instead. In 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of France's dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. During this period, the colony's Spanish leadership changed several times; when Columbus departed on another exploration, Francisco de Bobadilla became governor. Settlers' allegations of mismanagement by Columbus helped create a tumultuous political situation. In 1502, Nicolás de Ovando replaced de Bobadilla as governor, with an ambitious plan to expand Spanish influence in the region, it was he. One rebel, however fought back. Enriquillo led a group who fled to the mountains and attacked the Spanish for fourteen years.
The Spanish offered him a peace treaty and gave Enriquillo and his followers their own city in 1534. The city lasted only a few years. Rebellious slaves killed all who stayed behind. In 1501, the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand I and Isabella, first granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves, which began arriving to the island in 1503. In 1510, the first sizable shipment, consisting of 250 Black Ladinos, arrived in Hispaniola from Spain. Eight years African-born slaves arrived in the West Indies. Sugar cane was introduced to Hispaniola from the Canary Islands, the first sugar mill in the New World was established in 1516; the need for a labor force to meet the growing demands of sugar cane cultivation led to an exponential increase in the importation of slaves over the following two decades. The sugar mill owners soon formed a new colonial elite, convinced the Spanish king to allow them to elect the members of the Real Audiencia from their ranks. Poorer colonists subsisted by hunting the herds of wild cattle that roamed throughout the island and selling their hides.
The enslaved population numbered between 20,000 and 30,000 in the mid-sixteenth century and included mine, cat
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly. UN DESA assists countries around the world in agenda-setting and decision-making with the goal of meeting their economic and environmental challenges, it supports international cooperation to promote sustainable development for all, having as a foundation the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals as adopted by the UN General Assembly on 25 September 2015. In providing a broad range of analytical products, policy advice, technical assistance, UN DESA translates global commitments in the economic and environmental spheres into national policies and actions and continues to play a key role in monitoring progress towards internationally agreed-upon development goals.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UN DESA is part of the UN Secretariat, funded through regular assessed contributions from Member States; the Department was reorganized into its present form in 1997. The Department is headed by Liu Zhenmin who assumed the office of Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, following his appointment to this position by Secretary-General António Guterres on 26 July 2017. Mr. Liu advises the Secretary-General on the three pillars of sustainable development—social economic and environmental, nurtures key partnerships with governments, UN agencies and civil society organizations, including the SDGs. In directing and managing UN DESA, the Under-Secretary-General is supported by the Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development and the Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs. UN DESA's mission is to promote sustainable development for all; this reflects a fundamental concern for equity and equality in countries large and small and developing.
It underscores the need for all stakeholders – governments, UN and other international organizations, civil society and the private sector – to do their part to improve economic and social well-being. This emphasis on equitable participation by all people and nations is what makes the United Nations unique and gives the development agenda its universal legitimacy. UN DESA's work programme can be categorized into three areas: Norm-setting: By facilitating major global conferences and summits, as mandated by UN Member States, UN DESA assists countries as they find common ground and take decisive steps forward. UN DESA is tasked with supporting deliberations in two major UN charter bodies: the UN General Assembly and UN Economic and Social Council, including ECOSOC's subsidiary bodies. In addition, UN DESA organises and supports consultations with a range of stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society. In this regard, UN DESA's main priorities are promoting progress toward and strengthening accountability in achieving the SDGs.
Furthermore, UN DESA is responsible for ensuring civil society engagement with the UN through the ECOSOC bodies. Data and Analysis: UN DESA, generates and compiles a wide range of official economic and environmental data and information on which Member States draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options. One of the Department's primary contributions is providing policy research and analysis for governments to use in their deliberations and decision-making UN DESA is the lead “author” Department of the UN Secretariat; the research and analytical work covers a range of economic and environmental issues. The Department produces a host of flagship publications and major intergovernmental reports, which are essential to UN negotiations and global policy decisions; the publications are distributed in print and electronic formats around the world. Capacity-building: UN DESA advises Member States / Governments on implementing the policies and programmes developed at UN conferences back in their home countries.
It assists interested Governments in translating policy frameworks developed in UN conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities. Economic Analysis and Policy Division: The Economic Analysis and Policy Division is the think-tank for development economics within DESA and the main development research unit within the United Nations; the core functions of the Division include monitoring the global economic and social situation, promoting macroeconomic policy co-ordination and analyzing development trends to improve the implementation of the UN Development Agenda. It has been contributing an array of analyses and policy recommendations to the international debate on the global financial and economic crisis; the division is responsible for publishing the yearly World Economic Situation and Prospects and the World Economic Social Survey reports, as well as a monthly briefing on the world economic landscape. It is host to the Committee for Development Policy, which monitors and benchmarks the Least Developed Countries.
Division for Sustainable Development Goals: The Division for Sustainable Development Goals supports intergovernmental processes related to sustainable development at the UN and serves as the substantive secretariat to the High-level Political Forum on sustainable development. The Division provides leadership and catalyses action to promote and implement the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the related 17 SDGs by conducting research and undertaking substant
Constitution of the Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic has gone through 39 constitutions, more than any other country, since its independence in 1844. This statistic is a somewhat deceiving indicator of political stability, because of the Dominican practice of promulgating a new constitution whenever an amendment was ratified. Although technically different from each other in some particular provisions, most new constitutions contained in reality only minor modifications of those in effect. Sweeping constitutional innovations were relatively rare; the large number of constitutions does, reflect a basic lack of consensus on the rules that should govern the national political life. Most Dominican governments felt compelled upon taking office to write new constitutions that changed the rules to fit their own wishes. Not only did successive governments strenuously disagree with the policies and the programs of their predecessors, but they rejected the institutional framework within which their predecessors had operated. Constitutionalism—loyalty to a stable set of governing principles and laws rather than to the person who promulgates them—became a matter of overriding importance in the Dominican Republic only after the death of Rafael Trujillo.
Dominicans had agreed that government should be representative and vaguely democratic, that there should be civil and political rights, separation of powers, checks and balances. Beyond that, consensus broke down; the country had been alternately dominated throughout its history by two constitutional traditions, one democratic and the other authoritarian. Were there attempts to bridge the gap between these diametric opposites; the current Constitution was promulgated on June 13, 2015. The first Dominican constitution was promulgated on November 6, 1844 after the nation achieved independence from Haiti, it was a liberal document with many familiar elements—separation of powers and balances, a long list of basic rights. However, an authoritarian government replaced the country's liberal, democratic government during its first year; the new regime proceeded to write its own constitution. This second constitution strengthened the executive, weakened the legislative and the judicial branches, gave the president widespread emergency powers, including the power to suspend basic rights and to rule by decree.
Thereafter, governance of the country alternated between liberal and authoritarian constitutional systems. The dictator Rafael Trujillo always took care to operate under the banner of constitutionalism. Under Trujillo, the legislature was a rubber stamp, he governed as unfettered by constitutional restrictions. After Trujillo's death in 1961, the constitution was amended to provide for new elections and to allow the transfer of power to an interim Council of State. Although promulgated as a new document, the 1962 constitution was a continuation of the Trujillo constitution, it was thus unpopular. In 1964, Juan Bosch's elected, social-democratic government drafted a new and far more liberal constitution, it separated church and state, put severe limits on the political activities of the armed forces, established a wide range of civil liberties, restricted the rights of property relative to individual rights. These provisions frightened the more conservative elements in Dominican society, which banded together to oust Bosch and his constitution in September 1963.
Subsequently, the more conservative 1962 constitution was restored. In the name of constitutionalism and his followers launched a revolution in 1965, the objective of, restoration of the liberal 1963 constitution; as a result of the United States military intervention of April 1965, the civil war had died down by 1966. With Joaquín Balaguer and his party in control, the Dominicans wrote still another constitution; this one was intended to avert the conflicts and polarization of the past by combining features from both the liberal and the conservative traditions. The 1966 Constitution incorporated a long list of basic rights, it provided for a strengthened legislature. In this way, the country sought to bridge the gap between its democratic and its authoritarian constitutions, by compromising their differences. Constitutions were enacted in 1994 and 2002. President Leonel Fernández ordered for a new constitution to be drafted; the constitution has faced notable criticism, both abroad and at home, with opponents referring to it as an "injustice" and as "step backwards" for ensuring of human rights in the country towards women and homosexuals.
A ban on same-sex marriage and abortion was included at the behest of the Roman Catholic Church and Evangelical Christians. As a result, the Dominican Republic has become the sixth jurisdiction in the world with a complete ban on abortion; until 2011, a public holiday was held to commemorate Constitution Day on November 6. Since it has been held on the closest Monday to that date, in order to ensure a three-day weekend. Constitution Constitutional law Constitutional economics Constitutionalism 2015 Constitution in English 2015 Constitution in Spanish 2010 Constitution in English 1994 Constitution 2002 Constitution
The World Factbook
The World Factbook known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition; the Factbook is available in the form of a website, updated every week. It is available for download for use off-line, it provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, communications, government and military of each of 267 international entities including U. S.-recognized countries and other areas in the world. The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U. S. government officials, its style, format and content are designed to meet their requirements. However, it is used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles; as a work of the U. S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States. In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below.
Other public and private sources are consulted. Antarctic Information Program Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center Bureau of the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy Department of State Fish and Wildlife Service Maritime Administration National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Naval Facilities Engineering Command Office of Insular Affairs Office of Naval Intelligence Oil & Gas Journal United States Board on Geographic Names United States Transportation Command Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA. However, the CIA requests. Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U. S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly. Information available as of January 1 of the current year is used in preparing the Factbook.
The first, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, the first unclassified version in June 1971. The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975. In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office; this happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition. The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994; the web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month. The official printed version is sold by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, floppy disk. Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook. Several publishers, including Grand River Books, Potomac Books, Skyhorse Publishing have re-published the Factbook in recent years; as of July 2011, The World Factbook comprises 267 entities, which can be divided into the following categories: Independent countries The CIA defines these as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory."
In this category, there are 195 entities. Others Places set apart from the list of independent countries. There are two: Taiwan and the European Union. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty Places affiliated with another country, they may be subcategorized by affiliated country: Australia: six entities China: two entities Denmark: two entities France: eight entities Netherlands: three entities New Zealand: three entities Norway: three entities United Kingdom: seventeen entities United States: fourteen entitiesMiscellaneous Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six such entities. Other entities The World and the oceans. There are the World. Areas not covered Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered, but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries. Subnational areas of countries are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.
This criterion was invoked in the 2007 and 2011 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, an integral part of France. Kashmir Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus, which the U. S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U. S. Government maps."Taiwan/Republic of China The name
Youth in the Dominican Republic
Youth in the Dominican Republic constitutes just over 30% of the total population. The Dominican Republic's population at eleven million people has grown tremendously with the help of the youth population. In 1960, the youth population was at 3.3 million, by 2008, it had reached 9.5 million, with two thirds of them in urban areas of the country. The Dominican Republic is considered a middle-income country, thrives economically through tourism and telecommunications. Tourism is the single best revenue earner and over 25,000 youth are employed in this sector. Although tourism generates large revenues, some scholars and activists argue that the development of tourism has negative impacts on youth by keeping them from pursuing higher education. Primary and secondary education are free to all citizens of the Dominican Republic. Higher education is free in the public sector, most notably at the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, which enrolls 44% of the total tertiary student population; the Dominican Republic is the only country.
In 2000, the country approved its General Youth Law, which allocates a budget of 1% of the national budget for the youth secretariat. The General Youth Law helps with youth development programs that promote development; the country has multiple governmental laws that protect minors younger than eighteen years old from being arrested processed, going to jail. Youth in the Dominican Republic face challenges to participating and positively in society; the Ministry of Youth and the General Youth Law of 2000 pinpoints Youth Civic Participation as an important part of promoting youth development and well-being. The General Youth Law has a national education-based policy that requires high school students to complete sixty hours of service as a prerequisite of graduation; the Law for the System of Protection regulates the treatment of minors from birth to age 18. This law states that children under the age of 13 are not criminally liable, while youth ages 13–18 are; the electoral participation rate in the Dominican Republic is higher than the Latin America average, as over 77.3 percent indicated they had voted in the last election.
Younger residents between the ages of 18-25 had a 29.2 percent voting rate, compared to 75.6 percent in the 26-35 year age range. Youth Civic Participation Programs attempt to foster youths' positive civic participation and reduce negative and illegal behaviors. Other programs are available to help youth obtain birth certificates and identity documents; as of 2006, there were 17,000 children and youth who have been issued birth certificates, allowing them to attend school and vote in elections. Youth in the Dominican Republic tend to distrust government officials and institutions because they feel exploited, they tend to fear the judicial process. Young adults in the Dominican Republic say that they believe they have a negative image in society, but just want their voices heard by older members of the community; some organizations that seek to empower young people with the specific intent that they will go out and further empower their communities are Fundacion Sur Adelante and the Callegjera-Action Educational Foundation.
These organizations work with the youth population to mobilize them to become change agents. They provide them with access to libraries and law services to allow them the awareness they need to better organize themselves for the future. There are set policies that help youth improve their creative and innovative skills for the workforce and reducing barriers that could limit their access to the labor market; these policies are responsible for detecting and removing children from child labor, while ensuring compliance with labor rights. Youth face difficulties when entering the labor market and have unemployment rates higher than adults. In 2008, youth ages 10–24 represented 24% of the total labor force in the Dominican Republic, 43% of the total unemployed population. Unemployment in the Dominican Republic appears to be in a slight but steady increase of 14.3 percent since 2010. An unbalanced market of supply and demand limits the number of jobs available to youth. Skill gaps prove to be another obstacle to the youth and jobs are too complex for youth just out of high school or college.
The lack of counseling services available to youth prohibit them from obtaining jobs. Agriculture is the primary source of employment for youth in rural areas while wholesale and retail trade is the primary source of employment for youth in urban areas. Over 75% of the youth labor force is concentrated in five activities: wholesale and retail trade, other services, hotels and restaurants, agriculture. Self-employment is a popular option among all age groups in the Dominican Republic, it has increased from 34% in 1991 to about 43% in 2011, leading to a measured increase in familiarity and comfort when working. The labor force participation is lower among young women due to gender stereotypes, which causes them to rely on self-employment. In 2007, the average wage for women was 87% of the average wage for men. One program available for youth trying to find employment is "Quesqueya believes in you" or NEO in the Dominican Republic, a program designed to increase job opportunities for low-income people, aged 15–29, living in urban areas of thirteen of the country's provinces.
Another program available is Espacios para Emprender, designed to equip 14-17 year old adolescents with the strategies required to find a job or establish a micro-enterprise. Work and education, combined early in life burden youth; some youth believe that relocating to a larger city would benefit them and provide more oppor
Unification of Hispaniola
The Unification of Hispaniola was the annexation and merger of then-independent Republic of Spanish Haiti into the Republic of Haiti, that lasted twenty-two years, from 9 February 1822 to 27 February 1844. The territory functioned as a self-governing entity with Dominican soldiers as overseers. Dominican citizens had more rights than the Haitians who were under Jean-Pierre Boyer's code rural. Black Haitian slaves expelled by force the French from French Saint Domingue. For more information see: Haitian Revolution Self-declared Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines decrees that all Haitian whites should be eliminated without exceptions; this was a separate action from French military whites and was aimed at the remaining local white civilian population. The act was carried out between February and April 1804. Fears of a genocide similar to the Haitian Massacre of 1804 were explicitly referred in the Confederate discourse during the American Civil War. For further reading see: 1804 Haiti massacre In February 1805, Haitian forces, under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, invaded from the southern route in opposition of French-led approved slave raiding.
Unable to overpower the Spanish-French defense, intimidated by the arrival of a French fleet in support of Borgella in Santo Domingo, the army of Dessalines along with Henri Christophe raided through the interior Dominican towns Santiago and Moca, while Alexandre Pétion invaded Azua. On his retreat from Santo Domingo, Dessalines arrived in Santiago on 12 April 1805. While in Santiago, Haitian forces set fire including churches and convents; the army killed 400 inhabitants including some priests and took prisoners to Haiti. More people were killed on Dessalines's orders in the French-held portions of the island, including the towns of Monte Plata, Cotuí and La Vega and 500 people of the northern town of Moca; the barrister Gaspar de Arredondo y Pichardo wrote, "40 children had their throats cut at the Moca's church, the bodies found at the presbytery, the space that encircles the church's altar..." Survivors from the raids fled to western locations including Higüey through Cotuí as well as to other territories of the Spanish Antilles.
Dessalines was assassinated, an act, instigated by his own generals Henri Christophe and Alexandre Pétion. Afterward, both Christophe and Pétion failed to agree to on, going to be the next leader-for-life, so they went separate ways: Christophe took the North of Haiti, while Pétion got for himself the South part of Haiti; the internal military conflicts lasted until 1820 when Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer unified both the South and North of Haiti. After this, Boyer aimed his sights on the struggling Spanish-side of the island. For further reading see: The struggle for unity Upon unification of both French-side and Spanish-side nations under the Haitian flag, Boyer divided the island into six departments, that were subdivided into arrondissements and communes; the departments established in the west were, Ouest and Artibonite, while the east was divided into Ozama and Cibao. This period led to large-scale land expropriations and failed efforts to force production of export crops, impose military services, restrict the use of the Spanish language, suppress traditional customs.
There was a resurgence of the decades-old rivalries between the governing Haitian elite and the masses of the black population, most notably throughout the western end. By the late 18th century, the island of Hispaniola had been divided into two European colonies: Saint-Domingue, in the west, governed by France. During the second half of the eighteenth century the French side of the island developed into the most prosperous plantation colony of the New World. French Saint-Domingue was dubbed the Pearl of the Antilles, as a result of the sugar plantations worked by African slaves. By the Peace of Basel of 22 July 1795, Spain ceded its two-third of the island to France in exchange for the return of the province of Guipuzcoa occupied by the French since 1793. Although Hispaniola was now unified under a single administration, it proved difficult for the French to consolidate their rule since their part of the island had been experiencing uprisings by elite mulattos and black freedman since 1791, in 1804 the leader of the Haitian revolution, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, declared Haiti's independence.
Independence did not come given the fact that Haiti had been France's most profitable colony. By 1795, the eastern side, what was once the headquarters of Spanish colonial power in the New World had long fallen into decline; the economy was stalled, the land unexploited and used for sustenance farming and cattle ranching, the population was much lower than in Haiti. The accounts by the Dominican essayist and politician José Núñez de Cáceres cite the Spanish colony's population at around 80,000 composed of European descendants, freedmen, a few black slaves. Haiti, on the other hand, was nearing a million former slaves. While the French had lost their former colony of Saint-Domingue by 1804, the French commander of the former Spanish side had been able to repulse the attacks of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, but in 1808 the people revolted