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Demographics of the Gambia

The demographic characteristics of the population of The Gambia are known through national censuses, conducted in ten-year intervals and analyzed by The Gambian Bureau of Statistics since 1963. The latest census was conducted in 2013; the population of The Gambia at the 2013 census was 1.8 million. The population density is 176.1 per square kilometer, the overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years. Since the first census of 1963, the population of The Gambia has increased every ten years by an average of 43.2 percent. Since 1950s, the birth rate has exceeded the death rate; the Gambia is in the second stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, The Gambia is dominated by 15- to 64-year-old segment; the median age of the population is 19.9 years, the gender ratio of the total population is 0.98 males per female. With a population of 1.88 million in 2013, The Gambia ranks 149th in the world by population. Its population density is 176.1 inhabitants per square kilometer. The overall life expectancy in The Gambia is 64.1 years.

The total fertility rate of 3.98 is one of the highest in the world. Since 1950, the United Nations estimated; the Gambia Bureau of Statistics estimates the population of The Gambia is expected to reach 3.6 million in 20 years. The population of The Gambia has increased each census, starting with 315 thousand in 1963 to 1.8 million in 2013. The GBOS predicted the reason for the increase from 2003 to 2013 was more coverage in the latter census compared to the former's. Registration of vital events is in the Gambia not complete; the Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Fertility Rate TFR and CBR: Structure of the population: Fertility data as of 2013: Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019. One birth every 6 minutes One death every 31 minutes One net migrant every 206 minutes Net gain of one person every 8 minutesThe following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook. 2,092,731 0-14 years: 36.97% 15-24 years: 20.31% 25-54 years: 34.9% 55-64 years: 4.26% 65 years and over: 3.55% 28.6 births/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 43rd 6.9 deaths/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 132nd 3.42 children born/woman Country comparison to the world: 44th total: 21.3 years.

Country comparison to the world: 184th male: 20.9 years female: 21.6 years 1.99% Country comparison to the world: 48th 20.9 years note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 9% -1.9 migrant/1,000 population Country comparison to the world: 158th total dependency ratio: 92.3 youth dependency ratio: 87.8 elderly dependency ratio: 4.5 potential support ratio: 22.3 urban population: 61.3% of total population rate of urbanization: 4.07% annual rate of change total population: 65.4 years male: 63 years female: 67.8 years Muslim 95.7%, Christian 4.2%, none 0.1%, no response 0.1% definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 55.5% male: 63.9% female: 47.6% total: 9 years male: 9 years female: 9 years total: 13.1% male: 9.1% female: 17.2% Languages of the Gambia Religion in the Gambia The Gambia Bureau of Statistics. "The Gambia 2013 Population and Housing Census Preliminary Results". The Gambia Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved February 24, 2014


The Quail Ridge Wireless Mesh Network project is an effort to provide a wireless communications infrastructure to the Quail Ridge Reserve, a wildlife reserve in California in the United States. The network is intended to benefit on-site ecological research and provide a wireless mesh network tested for development and analysis; the project is a collaboration between the University of California Natural Reserve System and the Networks Lab at the Department of Computer Science, UC Davis. The large-scale wireless mesh network would consist of various sensor networks gathering temperature and acoustic data at certain locations; this information would be stored at the field station or relayed further over Ethernet. The backbone nodes would serve as access points enabling wireless access at their locations; the Quail Ridge Reserve would be used for further research into wireless mesh networks.

Old Church of St Gwenllwyfo, Llanwenllwyfo

The Old Church of St Gwenllwyfo, Llanwenllwyfo is a medieval ruined church near Dulas, in Anglesey, north Wales built in the 15th century to replace another church from which only the 12th-century font survived. Dedicated to Gwenllwyfo, a 7th-century female saint about whom nothing else is known, it was used as a chapel of ease for the church in Amlwch, about 5 miles away. Restored in 1610 and again in the 18th and 19th centuries, it contained an oak screen and pulpit from 1610, it was replaced in the middle of the 19th century by a larger church about two-thirds of a mile away, to which some of the contents, including a memorial brass plaque from the early 17th century and the church bell, were removed. The disused church was noted to be in bad condition in 1937, the roof collapsed in 1950. Little of the structure now remains; the ruins of St Gwenllwyfo's Church stand in the north-east of Anglesey, Wales. The date of construction of the first church on the site is unknown. There was a church here in medieval times: one 19th-century writer suggested that the present building dates from the 15th century and that the font 12th century in date, was the only surviving part of an earlier church on the site.

Restoration work was carried out in the 18th century. The church was a chapel of ease attached to the parish of Amlwch, about 5 miles away; the parish tithes, were divided between the Bishop of Bangor and the incumbent of St Eilian's Church, Llaneilian. The area takes its name from the church: the Welsh word llan meant "enclosure" and "church", "‑wenllwfyo" is a modified form of the saint's name. In 1812, the priest responsible for the church was Edward Hughes, whose wife was the niece of the owner of Llys Dulas, the landed estate in the area, he employed an architect to carry out some further restoration work, although the details are unknown. The church was in need of further repair by the middle of the 19th century, the congregation needed a larger building. A new church was therefore built between 1854 and 1856 about two-thirds of a mile away, financed by the widow of William Hughes, 1st Baron Dinorben; the old church, allowed to fall into ruins, stands in a disused cemetery surrounded by trees.

The nave and chancel of the church were not structurally divided, measure 39 feet 6 inches by 15 feet 9 inches. The walls are 3 feet thick. In 1844, it was recorded as having a coved roof, doors in the north and south walls and windows in the east and west walls, it had a pulpit and an oak screen, 7 feet high, both dated 1610. The screen had inscriptions in Welsh and Latin, a note that "Richard Williams of Rhodogeidio who married Marcelly Lloyd at his own charge caused all this worke to be don to the honor of God and his church". A brass plaque, erected in 1609 by Williams in memory of his wife, was moved to the new church. Another screen was added at the west end to stop the wind blowing into the nave, two windows were added on opposite sides of the chancel. Two box pews were installed during the 18th century, a bell was added. At the time of a survey by the Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales and Monmouthshire in 1937, although the building was in bad condition with an insecure roof, it still retained an 18th-century oak communion table, a rectangular font dating from the 12th century, the 1610 screen, the pulpit, fragments of an oak sounding board and some 18th-century memorials.

There were stone benches along the north and south walls, some wooden benches from the 18th or early 19th century. The medieval roof trusses were still in place in 1937, but the roof collapsed in 1950; the walls have since been lowered to a height of 5 feet. The antiquarian Angharad Llwyd described the church in 1833 as "a small neat edifice, appropriately fitted up for the performance of divine service". Samuel Lewis, writing in the middle of the 19th century, said that the church was "a conspicuous and interesting object" in a parish that "partakes much of the general character of dreary sterility by which the mining districts in the immediate vicinity are distinguished". However, the clergyman and antiquarian Harry Longueville Jones, writing in 1859 about the church as it had been 15 years earlier, said that "the whole building was in bad repair". One writer described the church in the 1970s as "a roofless, forgotten shell". Photographs of the church

Price Center

Price Center is a student center located in the center of the University of California San Diego campus, just south of Geisel Library. As one of the largest student centers in the country, Price Center serves more than 30,000 visitors a day. Price Center offers a variety of services and spaces geared to the needs of students including fast food restaurants, the campus bookstore, a movie theater, offices for various student organizations. In the early 1980s, UC San Diego found that its existing Student Center in Muir College was unequipped to handle the more than 12,000 students that were enrolled at the university; as a result, UC San Diego suffered from reduced student involvement and a sense of apathy across campus. Additionally, the lack of on-campus social space contributed to the fact that nearly 60% of UCSD students at the time commuted to school. In November 1983, a survey of 2,000 UCSD students indicated a pressing need for a new student union; that same school year, students passed a referendum that raised their student fees from $12.50 per quarter to $37.50 per quarter, for the purpose of constructing a University Center that would house fast food restaurants, a movie theater, offices for student organizations.

The proposed University Center, sited southeast of the existing Central Library, was estimated to cost $9 million to construct, but the Kaplan McLaughlin Diaz design approved by the UC Regents would be an $18.6 million facility with an added pub and bookstore. Construction on the center was met with some opposition, as student members of the Committee for Responsible Spending argued that the fee increase was passed due to unethical actions by the Student Center Board. However, construction workers broke ground in the summer of 1986, with completion scheduled for late 1988. In 1987, retail mogul Sol Price donated $2 million to the construction of the center, an act, one of the largest donations in university history and resulted in it being named for him; the ribbon-cutting ceremony on 21 April 1989 was interrupted by protestors who called the $19.6 million structure the "High Price Center", but the game room and circular plaza were met with enthusiasm. While the old Student Center remained open, Price Center went on to become the main hub of campus.

By 2002, it was becoming clear that Price Center and the Student Center combined would be unable to support UC San Diego's projected enrollment, expected to surpass 30,000 students by 2010. A student-initiated task force recommended several renovations to the Student Center, an expansion of Price Center; the expansion was to be anchored by a 24-hour study lounge surrounded by late-night fast food restaurants, as well as a grocery store, post office, retail services. In the spring of 2003, students approved a fee increase of $39/quarter to fund the new facility. One of the stipulations of the fee increase was that it would not take place until the facility was constructed and opened; the student fee gathered $46 million for the expansion, with the remainder coming from various campus accounts. A 2005 report on overall campus satisfaction determined that the Price Center expansion would be best served by focusing on three areas: "building a sense of community on campus, improving the intellectual and social connection between faculty and students and creating a stronger identity for the school by increasing publicity of its accomplishments."

The architect for the expansion, Mehrdad Yazdani, was faced with the challenge of integrating the expansion into the existing facility, while redesigning the surrounding area to create an "urban center". The design for Price Center East featured a central four-story atrium which connected to the exterior of the university through a series of plazas and staircases; the adjacent Town Square and shuttle loop, were redesigned to create a downtown for UC San Diego students. The University celebrated the opening of the Price Center East on 18 May 2008; the grand staircase connecting Town Square and the second story opened shortly afterwards. Price Center features one Stuart Collection piece and two other major university art installations. Former UC San Diego faculty member Barbara Kruger's Another is a 74-foot long mural installed upon the completion of the Price Center East expansion in 2008, it is on the western wall of the central atrium. The mural features two clocks that are punctuated with terrazzo-like phrases that begin with the word "ANOTHER".

Two LED displays serve as news tickers, scrolling with current events from an AP stream. The mural integrates with the building through blocks on the atrium floor featuring quotes from well-known artists and scientists; the south entrances to the building, on the Triton Steps, are flanked by alumnus and sculptor Manuelita Brown's Triton, a 750-pound bronze sculpture that honors the university's mascot, King Triton. It was unveiled on 13 October 2008 by Chancellor Marye Ann Fox; the sculpture had been planned ten years earlier by the graduating classes of 1998 and 1999, as part of an effort to increase campus pride. On 11 February 2015, Chancellor Pradeep Khosla unveiled the Black Legacy Mural, a 17-by-40-foot mural depicting various African-American leaders smiling behind two African-American children, the grandchildren of artist Andrea Rushing; the mural, located behind Dlush on the first floor of Price Center East, is supplemented by a set of 23 tabletops which highlight the various individuals depicted.

On 3 December 2013, surveillance tapes showed two young women setting two fires on the first and second floors of Price Center. On 7 February 2014, UCSD student Holly Nguyen was arrested on suspicion of setting the fires, UCSD student Maya Land was arrested shortly thereafter; the two students, who received eight separate char

Caterpillar 797

The Caterpillar 797 is a series of off-highway, ultra class, two-axle, mechanical powertrain haul trucks developed and manufactured in the United States by Caterpillar Inc. for high-production mining and heavy-duty construction applications worldwide. In production since 1998, the 797 series represents Caterpillar’s largest, highest capacity haul trucks; the current, third-generation model, the 797F, offers one of the largest haul truck payload capacities in the world, up to 400 short tons and has the highest payload capacity among mechanical drive haul trucks. In 1997, Caterpillar decided to begin development of a 360 short tons payload capacity haul truck to meet the demand from large-scale mine operators wanting to reduce operating costs at mines using 80 to 90 short tons per pass shovels. Engineers at Caterpillar's Mining & Construction Equipment Division in Decatur, created a new design for the 797 using computer-aided design technology; this was the first time. Caterpillar first unveiled a completed 797 on September 29, 1998, at its assembly plant in Decatur, Illinois.

The first two 797s produced were transported to Caterpillar's Arizona proving grounds for testing. In the second quarter of 1999, the third and fourth 797s produced were the first to be placed in service with a customer at the Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah. Caterpillar put 18 additional 797s into service with mine operators worldwide as production development units. Caterpillar began marketing the 797 in North America in 2000, with full worldwide marketing following in 2001; the first generation serial number prefix is 5YW. Caterpillar introduced the 797B in spring of 2002, replacing the first-generation 797. Caterpillar increased the power output of the Cat 3524B engine to cope with the 797B's higher payload capacity of up to 380 short tons, a 20 short tons improvement over the 797; the first 797B units entered service with customers in October, 2002. Caterpillar introduced the latest 797 in the series, the 797F, at MINExpo International in September 2008; when Caterpillar began full production of the 797F in late 2009, the 797F replaced the 797B.

The 797F comes equipped with a new, more powerful and more efficient Cat C175-20 engine and an increased payload capacity of up to 400 short tons. The Caterpillar 797 series trucks employ mechanical drive powertrains in contrast to the diesel-electric powertrains of similar haul trucks offered by competitors. During initial development in 1997, a diesel-electric powertrain was considered for the 797, but this powertrain configuration was not developed because Caterpillar considered a mechanical drive powertrain more appropriate for market conditions at that time. A gross 3,400 hp Cat 3524B HD EUI 24-cylinder, displacement]], electronic unit injection, quad single-stage turbocharged, liquid aftercooled, four-stroke diesel engine powers the 797; the Cat 3524B HD engine is a tandem unit consisting of two 12-cylinder Cat 3512B HD engine blocks coupled to operate as a single engine with a combined displacement of 106 liters. A gross 3,550 hp, quad turbocharged Caterpillar 3524B engine powers the 797B.

The power rating of the 3524B is valid up to an elevation of 8,500 ft or 15,000 ft with a high altitude arrangement. A gross 4,000 hp Cat C175-20 ACERT single block, 20-cylinder, electronic common rail injection, quad turbocharged, air-to-air aftercooled, four-stroke diesel engine powers the 797F; the power rating of the C175-20 is valid up to an elevation of 7,000 ft or up to 16,000 ft with a high altitude arrangement. The 797 series haul trucks are equipped with a rear-axle-mounted, computer-controlled, seven-speed planetary transmission with a separate lock-up torque converter. Both transmission and torque converter use a common powertrain oil; each 797 wheel is attached to the axle using 54 - 36-mm nuts that are torqued to 2,300 lb⋅ft. A size 55/80R63 radial tire was developed by Michelin in conjunction with Caterpillar for the first generation 797; the Caterpillar 797B and 797F run 4.028 m tall, 5,300 kg Michelin 59/80R63 XDR. Most first generation 797s have been retrofitted to use the 59/80R63 tires as well.

Six tires are required per truck at a cost in 2009 of US$42,500 per tire. Major components of the 797 are manufactured and assembled at seven Caterpillar or supplier facilities located throughout North America shipped to the customer site for final assembly by Caterpillar technicians; the engine is manufactured by Caterpillar in Lafayette, is shipped to Caterpillar's assembly plant in Decatur, Illinois. The transmission and torque converter are manufactured by Caterpillar in East Peoria, is shipped to Caterpillar's assembly plant in Decatur, Illinois; the axle assemblies are manufactured by Caterpillar in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, are shipped to the customer site. The tires are manufactured by Michelin North America at the US7 Earthmover Manufacturing plant in Lexington, South Carolina, are shipped to the customer site; the driver's cab is manufactured by Bergstrom Climate Control Systems' Contract Assembly division in Joliet, Illinois. Each cab requires forty hours to complete; the cab is shipped to the customer site.

The dump body is composed of five components: the floor, the two sides, the front wall and the canopy. The dump body is manufactured at Caterpillar Mexico in Monterrey, Mexico, as well as at least to a limited degree by WesTech of Casper, Wyoming in the western United States and shipped in component form to

Solaris Urbino 12

Solaris Urbino 12 is a series of 12.0-metre low-floor buses from the Solaris Urbino series designed for public transport, produced since 1999 by the Polish company Solaris Bus & Coach in Bolechowo near Poznań in Poland. Since 2010 there is being produced a hybrid version, from 2013, there is a purely electric version, it has a length of 12.0 metres, replacing the Neoplan N4016. Solaris Urbino 12 series were the first of the new series of Solaris 12.0 metre buses. It is the most popular model series in the history of the brand. Urbino 12 debuted in mid-1999 during an International Trade Fair. Since the turn of 2001-2002 the series produced its second generation. Since 2005 the series had produced the third generation of the bus. During the Transexpo Trade Fair in 2008 in Kielce the new prototype for the Solaris Urbino series was branded as the New Edition Generation 3.5". The structure for the fourth generation uses the same one like that of the third generation of buses; the refurbished interior has more lighting located behind the green overhead panels.

The panel extends for the entire length of the bus roof in the central part of the bus. Another innovative solution was to hide the engine compartment with first passengers of the bus. Solaris Urbino 12 series buses are produced in diesel versions. Since 2005, there is a variety of LPG CNG; the most sold with diesel engines are from DAF Trucks. Less used sold were MAN engines, they have been used to 2004, again for a short period from 2006, but due to the policy of the company to only supply vehicles only tailored for CNG. Alternatively, the manufacturer began to use the Cummins ISBe4 250B type diesel engines with the standard Euro IV and ISBe5 250B in Euro V; the Urbino 12 LE buses are produced for low-entry suburban variety with CNG or biogas power. Graphic symbol of Solaris Urbino 12 model is green dachshund, placed on most buses, always on the front wall on the right side of the vehicle. With the introduction of the third-generation models the look of the graphic symbol has been modified. In the second half of 2009, a prototype Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid based on third generation of Solaris Urbino 12 was built.

The model made its debut at the Busworld Trade Fair in Kortrijk in October 2009. The series production began in 2010; the Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid uses a parallel hybrid system HDU made by the American company Eaton. It comprises inter alia with a 6-speed Eaton automatic gearbox and one electric motor with maximum power of 44 kW. In normal traffic movement the power is on about 28 kW, it operates with a Cummins ISB6.7EV 225B diesel engine, meeting the requirements of the EEV standard, with a maximum power of 165 kW and the volume of 6.7 dm. The Eaton gearbox transmits power to the rear axle. All batteries are lithium-ion made by the Japanese company Hitachi which have been placed under the platforms inside the vehicle. By this the appearance of the bus has changed and the look is different when compared with the traditional diesel engine powered buses; the cost of this system is about 70 thousand Euros. The graphic symbol of the Solaris Urbino 12 Hybrid buses is a green dachshund with two overlapping hearts symbolising the dual drive system.

Solaris Urbino 12 Ü buses are used for urban and interurban commuter public transportation services, the model made its debut at the IAA Nutzfahrzeuge Trade Fair in Hannover in September 2012. Instead of the classic box shaped look, the front and whole look has a bow shape; the used MAN D2066 LUH 48 engine has a capacity of 10.5 dm3 and a maximum power of 265 kW and which works with the automatic transmission Voith DIWA.5 or ZF EcoLife. The front axle is independently suspended ZF RL 75 EC, the drive axle is ZF AV 132; the number of seats increased to 44, located on the sides. Options include a Webasto Spheros air conditioning system. At the IAA Nutzfahrzeuge Fair Trade in Hannover in September 2012 the new Solaris Urbino 12 electric was shown which debuted as electric prototype from the Solaris Urbino 12 family. In the third quarter of 2013, the bus was manufactured and was delivered to the Braunschweiger Verkehrs-AG company, in Braunschweig, Germany; this was done as part of a program to research and implement new technology into public transportation services, the project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Transport.

The prototype bus was equipped with an innovative system of Bombardier PRIMOVE, allowing inductive charging without connecting cables. The drive system uses an electric drive system by Vossloh Kiepe GmbH made in Düsseldorf; the motor was centrally mounted by 4 poles with the asynchronous motor which has a maximum power output of 160 kW and allows the use of standard axles: ZF AV 132, the independently sprung axle ZF RL 75 EC. Energy recovered during braking is stored in the lithium-ion batteries with a capacity of 210 kWh; the vehicle is equipped with a plug-in connector that allows you to connect additional to an external energy source. All devices in the vehicle, which are powered by a diesel engine have been electrified; the air conditioning system has a built-Konvekta UL500EM CO2 heat pump, used for heating the vehicle.. The trademark symbol for the Urbino bus series is a green dachshund. Different versions of buses have symbols with different details. Dachshund hybrid models have two hearts symbolising a dual drive system, ecological models in EEV version have a dachshund holding a flower in its mouth.

Part of the dachshunds models sold to Kraków wear a rogatywka. Media related to Solaris Urbino 12 at Wikimedia Commons