Par is a village and fishing port with a harbour on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The village is situated in the civil parish of Tywardreath and Par, although West Par and the docks lie in the parish of St Blaise. Par is 3.5 miles east of St Austell. Par has a population of around 1,600, it became developed in the second quarter of the nineteenth century when the harbour was developed, to serve copper mines and other mineral sites in and surrounding the Luxulyan Valley. Par Harbour and the beach at Par Sands are south of the village, the latter includes a large static caravan holiday park. Between these two beaches the South West Coast Path takes an inland diversion through the village. Par lies in a triangle of streets. There is a variety of a post office, a public house and other businesses; the Anglican church of St Mary the Virgin at Biscovey was completed in 1849. It was built from the local reddish coloured Biscovey slates; the parish of Par was formed out of parts of St Blazey and Tywardreath parishes in 1846.
In the churchyard is an inscribed cross shaft removed from the highroad in 1896. This stone is a sepulchral monument to a son of Ullicus erected by Alroron; the church was the first to be designed by the notable architect G. E. Street; the design is an subtle adaptation of the Early English style. The chancel and south aisle are well proportioned and the steeple is placed at the west end of the south aisle; the church is a Grade II* listed building. The Church of the Good Shepherd at Par Green was designed by E. H. Sedding and built of granite with Polyphant stone dressings in 1896, it is in the Early English style. Before 1800 the village was a small group of houses below the cliff overlooking the mouth of the River Par. During the first years of the nineteenth century small scale workings of china stone, china clay and granite were developed. Joseph Austen, born 1782, was an important Fowey businessman, he acquired an interest on many mines and pits, he re-opened the dormant Lanescot copper mine on the hill overlooking Par, developed it further.
With adjacent workings it became the rich and productive Fowey Consols mine. Treffry sought to build a tramway connection to Fowey Harbour from his workings, but was unable to acquire the necessary land, instead he decided to develop a harbour at Par, he purchased the ferry and replaced it with a bridge in 1824, started improvement of the harbour in 1829. To bring the copper ore to Par, Treffry built a canal from Pontsmill to Par by canalising the river; the harbour development led to the expansion of Par, the community was detached from the parish of St Blaise in the mid 19th century. Treffry built a new tramway up the Luxulyan Valley to Molinnis, extended it down from Pontsmill to Par, by-passing the canal; however copper was exported to Swansea for smelting and coal for powering mine engines were imported from there. This was not achieved in his lifetime. In the fourth quarter of the nineteenth century, the importance of copper working had diminished, due to exhaustion and the availability of cheaper supplies of the mineral elsewhere in the world.
At the same time, china clay became more important, industrialisation of the extraction and processing work took place. This mineral became the dominant outward traffic at Par, clay dries were erected in the vicinity, together with further expansion of the harbour; the opening of the Cornwall Railway from Plymouth in 1859 encouraged further expansion of Par north-eastwards towards Tywardreath. The boundaries between the three settlements are now somewhat indistinct. In 1858 15,154 tons of china clay were shipped out of Par. By 1885 86,325 tons were being handled at Par, but by this time Fowey had a railway connection and handled 114,403 tons. In 1987 Par handled 700,000 tons, by 2002 the port served 284 vessels per year which were loaded with 318,455 metric tons of china clay, 107 vessels loaded with 136,970 metric tons of secondary aggregates for the building trade; the harbour developed a range of industrial facilities including a lead smelter with a 248-foot high chimney known as Par Stack.
This was used as a navigation aid by shipping until it was demolished in 1907. A 450-foot breakwater encloses 35 acres of water, tidal with only 16 feet depth of water and, unlike nearby Fowey, it cannot accommodate large ocean-going ships; the harbour is operated by the French mineral extraction company Imerys. Today china clay is piped to the harbour in slurry form. One berth at Par can load clay slurry into coasting vessels
Redruth is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The population of Redruth was 14,018 at the 2011 census. In the same year the population of the Camborne-Redruth urban area, which includes Carn Brea and several satellite villages, stood at 55,400 making it the largest conurbation in Cornwall. Redruth lies at the junction of the A393 and A3047 roads, on the route of the old London to Land's End trunk road, is 9 miles west of Truro, 12 miles east of St Ives, 18 miles north east of Penzance and 11 miles north west of Falmouth. Camborne and Redruth together form the largest urban area in Cornwall and before local government reorganisation were an urban district; the name Redruth derives from its older Cornish name, Rhyd-ruth. It means Red Ford; the first syllable'red' means ford. The second'ruth' means red. Rhyd is the older form of'Res', a Cornish equivalent to a ford, a common Celtic word, it is the - ruth. Traditionally in the Penwith Hundred, the town has developed away from the original settlement, near where the present Churchtown district of Redruth stands today.
This location is a steeply wooded valley, with Carn Brea on one side and the now-called Bullers Hill on the other. The presence of shallow lodes of tin and copper lying east to west made it an advantageous site for extracting metals, tin and copper; the first settlers stayed by a crossing in the river and started extracting metal ores, this process turned the colour of the river red. Redruth was a small market town overshadowed by its neighbours until a boom in the demand for copper ore during the 18th century. Copper ore had been discarded by the Cornish tin-mining industry but was now needed to make brass, an essential metal in the Industrial Revolution. Surrounded by copper ore deposits, Redruth became one of the largest and richest mining areas in Britain and the town's population grew markedly, although most miners' families remained poor. In the 1880s and 1890s the town end of Clinton Road gained a number of institutions, notably a School of Mines and Art School in 1882–83, St. Andrew's Church in 1883 and, the Free Library, built in 1895.
The Mining Exchange was built in 1880 as a place for the trading of mineral stock. By the turn of the 20th century, Victoria Park had been laid out to commemorate the Golden Jubilee and this part of town had taken on its present appearance – a far cry from the jumble of mining activity that had taken place there in the early 19th century. Redruth was making its transition from a market town dominated by mines and industry to a residential centre. By the end of the 19th century, the Cornish mining industry was in decline and Britain was importing most of its copper ore. To find employment, many miners emigrated to the newer mining industries in the Americas, Mexico and South Africa. Cornwall's last operational mine, South Crofty at Pool between Redruth and Camborne, closed in March 1998. See Camborne#Governance. Redruth School, a Technology College, is a secondary school and sixth form college, for ages 11–18; the town used to have a coeducational independent school, Highfields Private School, but this closed in 2012.
Primary schools within the town include Pennoweth School, Treleigh School, Treloweth Community Primary School, Trewirgie Infant School and Trewirgie Junior School. The Curnow Community Special School caters for students with special needs; the Parish Church of St Uny, some distance from the town centre, is of Norman foundation but was rebuilt in 1756. The patron saint is honoured at Lelant; the tower is two centuries earlier and the whole church is built of granite. A chapel of ease was built in the town in 1828 but it is no longer in use. Other places of worship include the Wesleyan Church of 1826, the Free Methodist Church of 1864 and the Quaker Meeting House of 1833; the former post office in Alma Place is now known as the Cornish Studies Centre: housed there is the collection of Tregellas Tapestries which depict the history of Cornwall in embroidery. The Mining Exchange building is now used as a housing advice centre; the house now called Murdoch House in the middle of Cross Street was erected in the 1660s as a chapel and it afterwards became a prison.
William Murdoch lived in it from 1782 to 1798. During this time, he worked on local tin and copper mines, erecting engines on behalf of Boulton and Watt, he fitted the house out with gas lighting from coal gas – this was the first house in the world with this type of lighting. In the 19th century, the house was used as a tea room, run by a Mrs Knuckey. In 1931 Mr A. Pearce Jenkin, a leading citizen of Redruth purchased the house and gave it as a gift to the Society of Friends. Murdoch House has since been restored and is now used by the Redruth Old Cornwall Society, as well as the Cornish-American Connection and the Redruth Story Group. Next door are St. Rumon's Gardens. A bronze sculpture of a Cornish miner by artist David Annand standing at 6 feet 7 inches was erected in April 2008; the sculpture was commissioned by the Redruth Public Realm Working Party's Minin
Penzance is a town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, in England, United Kingdom. It is the most westerly major town in Cornwall and is about 64 miles west-southwest of Plymouth and 255 miles west-southwest of London. Situated in the shelter of Mount's Bay, the town faces south-east onto the English Channel, is bordered to the west by the fishing port of Newlyn, to the north by the civil parish of Madron and to the east by the civil parish of Ludgvan; the civil parish includes the town of Newlyn and the villages of Mousehole, Paul and Heamoor. Granted various royal charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated on 9 May 1614, it has a population of 21,200. Penzance—Pennsans. There are no early documents mentioning an actual dedication to St Anthony which seems to depend on tradition and may be groundless; the only remaining object from this chapel is a carved figure, now eroded, known as "St Raffidy" which can be found in the churchyard of the parish church of St Mary's near the original site of the chapel.
Until the 1930s this history was reflected in the choice of symbol for the town, the severed "holy head" of St John the Baptist. It can still be seen on the civic regalia of the Mayor of Penzance and on several important landmarks in the town. About 400 prehistoric stone axes, known as Group 1 axes and made from greenstone, have been found all over Britain, which from petrological analysis appear to come from west Cornwall. Although the quarry has not been identified, it has been suggested that the Gear, a rock now submerged half a mile from the shore at Penzance, may be the site. A significant amount of trade is indicated; the earliest evidence of settlement in Penzance is from the Bronze Age. A number of bronze implements such as a palstave, a spear-head, a knife, pins, along with much pottery and large quantities of charcoal were discovered when building a new housing estate, at Tredarvah, to the west of Alverton; the defensive earthwork known as Lescudjack Castle is not excavated, but certainly belongs to the Iron Age.
A single rampart encloses three acres of hilltop, would have dominated the approach to the area from the east. There are no signs of the additional ramparts reported by William Hals in about 1730, the site is now surrounded by housing with allotments. Excavations in 2008, 1 kilometre to the west at Penwith College found an enclosure ditch and pottery indicating a settlement, an evolving field system with ditches and interconnecting pits suggesting water management. There are traces of a rampart and ditch to the west of Penzance at Mount Misery, an oval rampart and ditch at Lesingey above the St Just road, which together with Lescudjack, overlook the coast of Penzance and Newlyn; until there was little evidence for anything but an early and short Roman occupation of Cornwall, there have so far been only three finds in Penzance. In August 1899 two coins of Vespasian were found in an ancient trench in Penzance Cemetery; the coins were eight feet below ground together with some cow bones, are now in the Penlee House Museum.
Another coin, found in 1934 in the Alverton area, depicts the Roman sun god. It is described as a ″coin of the reign of Constantine the Great″, was donated to the museum. A 30 mm sestertius was found on a building site in or around Penzance about ten years and was presented to the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Larger quantities of Roman coins have been found nearby, at Marazion Marsh and Kerris in Paul parish, but there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the area, although nearby villages such as Chysauster were occupied at this time; the Hundred of Penwith had its ancient centre at Connerton, now buried beneath the sands of Gwithian Towans at Gwithian. A Hundred was a Saxon administrative unit, sub-divided into tithings; the Manor of Alverton, with an area of 64 Cornish acres, gave its name to the second largest tithing in Penwith. The manor included Penzance as well as parts of Paul, St Buryan and Sancreed. Although Penzance is not mentioned in the survey document the Domesday Book, it is that the area would have been included.
Domesday records that in 1066 the Manor of Alwarton was owned by Alward, dispossessed by Robert, Count of Mortain, a half-brother of William the Conqueror. The name Alward and tun, a personal name combined with a town or settlement suffix, indicate Saxon land ownership. In Cornwall the tun indicates a manorial centre such as Connerton; the change of ownership in 1066 was a change from one alien landlord to another, the name Alverton lives on as the western part of Penzance from St John’s Hall, to the housing estate on the west side of the River Laregan. The first mention of the name Pensans is in the Assize Roll of 1284, the first mention of the actual church that gave Penzance its name is in a manuscript written by William Borlase in 1750: ″The ancient chapel belonging to the town of Penzance may be seen in a fish cellar, near the key. In around 1800 the chapel was converted to a fish cellar. A carving in "Ludgvan granite" thought to be of St Anthony was removed in about 1830 and was used in the wall of a pig sty, further vandalised in 1850 when "a stranger... taking fancy to the stony countenance and rough hands
Porthleven is a town, civil parish and fishing port near Helston in Cornwall. It is the most southerly port on the island of Great Britain, was developed as a harbour of refuge, when this part of the Cornish coastline was recognised as a black spot for wrecks in the days of sail; the South West Coast Path, which follows the coast from Somerset to Dorset passes through the town. An electoral ward called Porthleven and Helston South exists; the population at the 2011 census was 3,059. Methleigh was the site of a fair and annual market from the year 1066. After the Norman Conquest, the Bishop of Exeter held the manor of Methleigh, but the Earl of Cornwall possessed the fair. At the time of the Domesday Survey there were 15 acres of arable land, 40 acres of pasture and 60 acres of underwood; the population consisted of 4 smallholders and 3 serfs. Until 1844 Porthleven was within the parish of Sithney; the name Porthleven is connected with St Elwen or Elwyn, whose chapel existed here before 1270. It was rebuilt about 1510 but destroyed in 1549.
There were chapels at Higher Penrose and Lanner Veor and a holy well at Venton-Vedna. William Cookworthy acquired leases on the Tregonning Hill quarries and shipped china clay to his porcelain factory in Plymouth. In 1826, 150 tons of china-stone and 30 tons of china clay were exported, in 1838, 500 tons of china-stone. Exports of china clay from Porthleven ceased in 1880. Granite was exported from the quarries at Coverack Bridges and Sithney. Porthleven's most recognisable building is the Bickford-Smith Institute next to the pier and harbour entrance. With a tower about 70 feet high, it looks like a church, but is used as a snooker club and houses the town council offices, it featured as the incident room in an episode of the TV detective series Wycliffe. A picture of the building against a large breaking wave sometimes appears in the background of BBC UK weather forecasts when windy conditions and rough seas are expected; the Institute has a plaque to Guy Gibson, leader of the Dambuster Raid, on the wall facing the harbour.
Gibson was regarded Porthleven as his hometown as well. He visited there while on leave during the war, his name is marked on the community's war memorial and a street is named after him. Overnight on 12–13 December 1978, Police Constables Joseph James Childs and Martin Ross Reid of Devon and Cornwall Police were killed when their patrol car was swept into the harbour during heavy storms. A stone memorial to them was erected on the south-facing harbour wall. For local-government purposes, Porthleven was included within the town boundaries of nearby Helston. After years of growth, it now has its own town council and its population recorded by the United Kingdom Census 2001 was 3,190. Due to the prevailing westerly winds, it was easy for a ship under sail to get trapped in the bay and be wrecked on the nearby coast; the Royal National Lifeboat Institution stationed a lifeboat at Porthleven in 1863. A boat house was built from where the boat was taken to the water on a carriage; the Agar Robartes was replaced by the Charles Henry Wright in November 1882.
A new boat house on the west side of the harbour entrance was opened in 1894 with a slipway to make launching easier. The station was closed in 1929 as the neighbouring stations at The Lizard and Penlee had been equipped with motor lifeboats that could cover the whole of Mount's Bay; the slipway was dismantled and the boat house was used as a store for a while but has since become the Shipwreck Centre museum. There are four Sites of Special Scientific Interest sites close to Porthleven and they are Geological Conservation Review sites. Three are designated for their geological interest, they are Porthleven Cliffs SSSI, Porthleven Cliffs East SSSI and Wheal Penrose SSSI The "Giant's Rock", within Porthleven Cliffs SSSI, is an erratic of unknown origin and unknown mode of transport to its present site near the entrance of Porthleven harbour; the Wheal Penrose SSSI is a disused lead mine 550 yards to the south with "good examples of typical lead zone mineralisation". The fourth Loe Pool SSSI is Cornwall's largest natural lake, formed by a barrier beach, known as Loe Bar, which dams the River Cober.
Porthleven lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Porthleven has exploited its location and exposure to powerful swells to become one of the best-known and regarded surfing spots in Britain and has been described as "Cornwall's best reef break". Waves exceeding 6.6 feet, break on the shallow reef, shaped by blasting the harbour. Kayaking is popular. RNLI lifeguards patrol the beach during the holiday season; the beach is separated from the harbour by a granite pier, which stands in front of the Porthleven Institute and clock tower. When the tide is out, it is possible to walk east along Porthleven beach for about three miles. There is a coastal path with views of the beach below. Porthleven Bowling Club is based at Methleigh Parc and is affiliated to Bowls Cornwall and Bowls England; the club has lawn bowling and short-mat bowls facilities. The club competes against other clubs and individuals within Cornwall and nationally, there are in-house competitions as well. Porthleven has a non-league football club.
See also: Battle of Stratton 1643Stratton is a small town situated near the coastal resort of Bude in north Cornwall, England, UK. It was the name of one of ten ancient administrative shires of Cornwall - see "Hundreds of Cornwall". A battle of the English civil war took place here on 16 May 1643. A local saying at Stratton is "Stratton was a market town when Bude was just a furzy down", meaning Stratton was long established when Bude was just gorse-covered downland; the earliest known references to Stratton are found in King Alfred’s Will of c. 880 and the Domesday survey of 1086. The earliest form of the name of Stratton is Strætneat, an Anglo-Saxon form derived from Old Cornish "strad" and "neth", meaning the flat-bottomed valley of the river Neth; this river is now known as the River Strat. At the time of the Domesday Survey the manor of Stratton had land for 30 ploughs. There were 20 smallholders and 20 slaves. There were 20 acres of woodland, 200 acres of pasture, 30 cattle and 300 sheep.
Before the conquest the manor had been held by Alfred the Marshal. The town has given its name to a traditional folk ballad "The Stratton Carol". One of the most prominent buildings in Stratton is the 12th century Norman church dedicated to Saint Andrew which holds a central and elevated position within the town, it is listed Grade I. The church contains a brass to Sir John Arundell of Trerice, 1561; as well as the main church, there were other chapels around the village. This is supported by the existence of the large, old tithe barn; the area around Cot Hill was an important sanctuary for pilgrims travelling the pilgrimage route to Hartland during Medieval times. However, many of the chapels are derelict or have now been converted, suggesting the population decline has been so great as to leave only enough people to use the church and one remaining chapel; the town once had a jail, a police station and a courthouse, but the police station has now been moved to Bude, the jail demolished and the courthouse converted into two dwellings.
The door of the jail, marked "CLINK", is still visible in the church porch. The following quotation indicates Stratton's importance as a centre of justice "As Stratton Town and the surrounding villages grew, the need to administer civil and criminal law from an appropriate location was necessary." The name Stratton was given to the unit of government for taxation during Saxon times, known as a ‘Hundred’. Stratton was the head of its hundred due to its importance in comparison to that of the local towns and villages, including Kilkhampton, Boyton, Whitstone, Stratton itself, Bridgerule, Week St Mary, North Tamerton and Morwenstow. Other than the loss of Bridgerule, the Stratton Hundred remained undisturbed until the demise of the Stratton Rural District in the 1970s; the Hundred is an indicator of Stratton’s importance not only for these reasons, but because in the whole of Cornwall, there were only nine Hundreds and all of them had their own courts, this suggests that not only did Stratton have a courthouse, it was the only one in the Stratton Hundred.
Trade and industry affected Stratton’s popularity. During medieval times it dealt in leather, evidence of this is the road named after the trade. There is evidence of farming in the milking parlours and stalls that are made from cob, a traditional building material, the Old Malt House shows where ale was produced in the church owned brewery. During medieval times herbs and spices were considered important, for medicinal purposes as well as others, Stratton was famous for having an abundance of wild garlic. Trade events such as markets and fairs were a regular occurrence in Stratton and people would come from all around to attend. Lots of the evidence for events and trades in Stratton is subtle, for example street names like Market Street and Poundfield Lane. Stratton had up to 14 pubs. Many have now been knocked down or converted, however some, for example the Tree Inn, are still running, despite fewer customers than they would have expected before Bude became the main town. Although many of the shops that once lined the streets have now been converted into homes, the large front windows still hint at the lives led by the inhabitants when Stratton was the most important town in the area.
Trade directories allow us to compare the two towns, for example, in 1844, when Stratton had six shoemakers, Bude had only one, although Slater’s Trade Directory 1852-1853 shows the period in which Bude was beginning to catch up, although Stratton was still thriving. One of the main factors which led to the demise of Stratton’s influence was New Road which directed traffic away from the centre of Stratton in the early 20th century; the bypass was built in 1950 when Stratton was well and defeated. Following the 1960s rail closures Stratton and Bude became the two towns most remote from the rail network in England. Despite the downfall of Stratton, it still managed to keep the hospita
Fowey is a small town, civil parish and cargo port at the mouth of the River Fowey in south Cornwall, United Kingdom. The town has been in existence since well before the Norman invasion, with the local church first established some time in the 7th century. Privateers made use of the sheltered harbourage; the Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway brought China clay here for export. The Domesday Book survey at the end of the 11th century records manors at Penventinue and Trenant, a priory was soon established nearby at Tywardreath. C. 1300 the prior granted a charter to people living in Fowey itself. This medieval town ran from a north gate near Boddinick Passage to a south gate at what is now Lostwithiel Street; the natural harbour allowed trade to develop with Europe and local ship owners hired their vessels to the king to support various wars, although the town developed a reputation for piracy, as did many others at this time. A group of privateers known as the'Fowey Gallants' were given licence to seize French vessels during the Hundred Years' War.
In the 14th century the harbour was defended by 160 archers. Despite these defences the town was attacked by French forces in 1457. Place House, by the church, was defended against the French but subsequently strengthened; this building still exists, but much remodelled. A small castle was built on St Catherine’s Point, the western side of the harbour entrance, around 1540; the defences proved their worth when a Dutch attack was beaten off in 1667. The people of Fowey sided with the Royalists during the English Civil War, but in 1644 the Earl of Essex brought a Parliamentarian army to Lostwithiel and occupied the peninsula around Fowey. In August, a Royalist army surrounded Essex’s troops and King Charles I himself viewed Fowey from Hall Walk above Polruan, where he came close to being killed by a musket shot. On 31 August, the Parliamentarian cavalry forced their way through the Royalist lines and retreated towards Saltash, leaving the foot soldiers to be evacuated by sea from Fowey. Essex and some officers did indeed escape, but the majority of the force surrendered a few days near Golant and were marched to Poole, but most died before reaching there.
The fortunes of the harbour became much reduced, with trade going to elsewhere instead. Fishing became more important, but local merchants were appointed as privateers and did some smuggling on the side. Tin and iron mines, along with quarries and china clay pits became important industries in the area, which led to improvements at rival harbours. West Polmear beach was dug out to become Charlestown harbour circa 1800, as was Pentewan in 1826. Joseph Austen shipped copper from Caffa Mill Pill above Fowey for a while before starting work on the new Par harbour in 1829. Fowey had to wait another forty years before it saw equivalent development, but its natural deep-water anchorage and a rail link soon gave it an advantage over the shallow artificial harbours nearer to the mines and china clay works. Meanwhile, a beacon tower was erected on the Gribben Head by Trinity House to improve navigation into Fowey and around Par bay; the Fowey Harbour Commissioners were established by an Act of Parliament in 1869, to develop and improve the harbour.
On 1 June in that year, the 7 ft broad gauge Lostwithiel and Fowey Railway was opened to new jetties situated above Carne Point, in 1873, the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge Cornwall Minerals Railway opened a line from Newquay and Par to further jetties between Caffa Mill Pill and Carne Point. Both of these railways carried just goods, but on 20 June 1876, a passenger station was opened on the CMR on land reclaimed from Caffa Mill Pill; the Lostwithiel line closed at the end of 1879 but was reopened by the CMR as a standard gauge line in 1895, the short gap between the two lines at Carne Point was eliminated. Passenger trains from Par were withdrawn after 1934 and from Lostwithiel in 1965; the Par line was subsequently converted to a dedicated roadway for lorries bringing china clay from Par after which all trains had to run via Lostwithiel. The Royal National Lifeboat Institution established Fowey Lifeboat Station near the Town Quay in 1922 to replace an earlier station at Polkerris; this was replaced by a new facility in Passage Street.
Two lifeboats are stationed at Fowey: Maurice and Joyce Hardy, a Trent Class all weather boat, kept afloat opposite the lifeboat station, Olive Two, an IB1 inshore lifeboat kept inside the station and launched by davit. Fowey was the main port for loading ammunition for the US 29th Division that landed on Omaha Beach on D Day during the Second World War. There was a munitions siding at Woodgate Pill just north of Fowey built for the Great War conflict; the seal of the borough of Fowey was On a shield a ship of three masts on the sea her topsail furled with the legend "Sigillum oppidi de Fowy Anno Dom. 1702". Fowey elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons until the Reform Act 1832 stripped it of its representation as a rotten borough, it having lost its borough corporation a few years before, it was restored as a municipal borough in 1913, was merged with the nearby and much larger St Austell in 1968 to form the borough of St Austell with Fowey. This was itself in 1974 replaced with the Restormel Borough, repl
Penryn is a civil parish and town in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated on the Penryn River about 1 mile north-west of Falmouth; the population was 7,166 in the 2001 census and a receded 6,812 in the 2011 census, a drop of more than 300 people across the ten year time gap. There are two electoral wards covering Penryn:'Penryn East and Mylor' and'Penryn West'; the total population of both wards in the 2011 census was 9,790Though now the town is overshadowed by the larger nearby town of Falmouth, Penryn was once an important harbour in its own right, lading granite and tin to be shipped to other parts of the country and world during the medieval period. Penryn boasts a wealth of history; the ancient town first appears in the Domesday Book under the name of "Trelivel", was since founded and named Penryn in 1216 by the Bishop of Exeter. The borough was enfranchised and its Charter of Incorporation was made in 1236; the contents of this Charter were embodied in a confirmation by Bishop Walter Bronescombe in the year 1259.
In 1265, a religious college, called Glasney College, was built in Penryn for the Bishop of Exeter to develop the church's influence in the far west of the diocese. In 1374, the chapel of St Thomas was opened. Standing at the head of the Penryn River, Penryn occupies a sheltered position and was a port of some significance in the 15th century. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII and the disestablishing of the Roman Catholic church, Glasney College was dissolved and demolished in 1548 during the brief reign of Edward VI, the first Protestant Duke of Cornwall and afterwards King of England; the dissolution of Glasney College helped trigger the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549. The loss of Glasney and the defeat of the 1549 rebellion proved to be a turning point in the history of the town from which Penryn has never recovered. From 1554, Penryn held a parliamentary constituency, which became Penryn and Falmouth in 1832; the constituency was abolished in 1950, with Penryn becoming part of the Falmouth and Camborne constituency.
It received a royal charter as a borough in 1621 in a bid by the crown to cure the town of piracy. At least three mayors of Penryn were convicted of piracy between 1550 and 1650; the arms of the borough of Penryn were a Saracen's head Or in a bordure of eight bezants. The merchant traveller and writer Peter Mundy was son of a Penryn pilchard trader and travelled extensively throughout his life in Asia and Europe before returning to Penryn to write his Itinerarium Mundi. By the mid 17th century the port was thriving with the trade in Cornish fish and copper. However, Penryn lost its custom house and market rights to the new town of Falmouth as a direct result of supporting the Parliamentary side in the English Civil War; the Killigrews of Arwenack were more skilful turncoats, as their new town grew so the older port of Penryn declined from the 17th century right up to today. In the early 19th century, granite works were established by the river and large quantities of the stone were shipped from its quays for construction projects both within the UK and abroad.
The A39 road, which begins in Bath and is about 200 miles long, once passed through Penryn towards the end of its route in nearby Falmouth, but in 1994 was diverted around the town when the Penryn Bypass was opened, incorporating a stretch of new road along with upgrading to an existing road. The town is the setting of the play The Penryn Tragedy, which tells of a young man unwittingly murdered by his parents after disguising himself as a rich stranger. Today, Penryn has retained a large amount of its heritage. A large proportion of its buildings date from Tudor and Georgian times; the local museum is housed in the Town Hall. The Town Hall building is 18th-century and 19th-century in date. Penryn has a active Rotary Club. Penryn is twinned with Audierne in France. Penryn railway station was opened by the Cornwall Railway on 24 August 1863, it is towards the north west end of the town and is served by regular trains from Truro to Falmouth on the Maritime Line. In 2004, the Penryn Campus was completed, creating the hub of the Combined Universities in Cornwall project.
It includes the Institute of Cornish Studies and the University of Exeter's world-renowned Camborne School of Mines, which has moved from Camborne, where it has been for over a century, among other departments of the University of Exeter. The Campus houses departments of Falmouth University, based in the centre of Falmouth. In 2007, phase two was completed, which includes increased student accommodation and new teaching areas. There are two schools in Penryn: Penryn Primary Academy Penryn College Penryn RFC, founded in 1872 is a rugby union club which plays in the Tribute Western Counties West league, they are the oldest rugby club in Cornwall. Penryn Athletic is a non-League football club; the club is a member of the South West Peninsula League Division One West, a step 7 league in the national league system. Known as "The Borough". English Shinty Association is based in Penryn; the policing of the area is the responsibility of Devon and Cornwall Police who have a dedicated team to cover